Scientists have identified that social memories are stored in the vetral CA1 region of the brain (in mice). After meeting a mouse and forgetting it, the memories can be reactivated optogenetically, indicating that they exist, but cannot be retrieved after time passes... Read more »
Neuroamanda explains a recent study that showed how top-down signals during NREM sleep affect memory consolidation in mice.... Read more »
Miyamoto, D., Hirai, D., Fung, C., Inutsuka, A., Odagawa, M., Suzuki, T., Boehringer, R., Adaikkan, C., Matsubara, C., Matsuki, N.... (2016) Top-down cortical input during NREM sleep consolidates perceptual memory. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0902
2014Jessica is depressed again. After six straight weeks of overtime, her boss blandly praised her teamwork at the product launch party. And the following week she was passed over for a promotion in favor of Jason, her junior co-worker. "It's always that way, I'll never get ahead..." She arrives at her therapist's office late, looking stressed, disheveled, and dejected. The same old feelings of worthlessness and despair prompted her to resume her medication and CBT routine."You deserve to be rec........ Read more »
Liu, X., Ramirez, S., Redondo, R., & Tonegawa, S. (2014) Identification and Manipulation of Memory Engram Cells. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 59-65. DOI: 10.1101/sqb.2014.79.024901
Ramirez, S., Liu, X., MacDonald, C., Moffa, A., Zhou, J., Redondo, R., & Tonegawa, S. (2015) Activating positive memory engrams suppresses depression-like behaviour. Nature, 522(7556), 335-339. DOI: 10.1038/nature14514
by neurocritic in The Neurocritic
Optogenetic manipulation in a naïve female mouse induces maternal behavior in response to pup distress calls (Marlin et al. 2015). Video 6: Pup retrieval by Oxt-IRES-Cre virgin female after optical stimulation of left primary auditory cortex (Marlin et al. 2015). One of the really amazing things is that neural activity in response to the distress cries […]... Read more »
Marlin, B., Mitre, M., D’amour, J., Chao, M., & Froemke, R. (2015) Oxytocin enables maternal behaviour by balancing cortical inhibition. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature14402
Optogenetic tools are light-sensitive genetically encoded proteins that, upon light activation, affect a molecular change in the cells. In the previous post I described an optogenetic system to induce transcription. However, the most common use is of channelrhodopsin (ChR) molecules, that alter … Continue reading →... Read more »
Klapoetke NC, Murata Y, Kim SS, Pulver SR, Birdsey-Benson A, Cho YK, Morimoto TK, Chuong AS, Carpenter EJ, Tian Z.... (2014) Independent optical excitation of distinct neural populations. Nature methods, 11(3), 338-46. PMID: 24509633
Inagaki HK, Jung Y, Hoopfer ED, Wong AM, Mishra N, Lin JY, Tsien RY, & Anderson DJ. (2014) Optogenetic control of Drosophila using a red-shifted channelrhodopsin reveals experience-dependent influences on courtship. Nature methods, 11(3), 325-32. PMID: 24363022
While I am no Boyden-level expert in channelrhodopsin, I have photostimulated neurons in the olfactory bulb, and now am trying to use the delightfully named PINP technique to record from specific layers of cortex. Given this rudimentary experience, I am increasingly frustrated by the sloppiness of optogenetic research in good journals. Today I would like to highlight four articles that used ... Read more »
Atallah BV, Bruns W, Carandini M, & Scanziani M. (2012) Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons linearly transform cortical responses to visual stimuli. Neuron, 73(1), 159-70. PMID: 22243754
Kravitz AV, Tye LD, & Kreitzer AC. (2012) Distinct roles for direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons in reinforcement. Nature neuroscience, 15(6), 816-8. PMID: 22544310
Tan KR, Yvon C, Turiault M, Mirzabekov JJ, Doehner J, Labouèbe G, Deisseroth K, Tye KM, & Lüscher C. (2012) GABA neurons of the VTA drive conditioned place aversion. Neuron, 73(6), 1173-83. PMID: 22445344
With my olfaction research ending at Zeno speed, I've started pilot experiments for everyone's favourite sensory modality, taste! The idea is to record from each layer of taste (insular) cortex, and compare the "taste receptive fields" of neurons from each layer. To identify the layer I record from, I'm using channelrhodopsin-aided cell identification: I record extracellulary from random neurons ... Read more »
Lima SQ, Hromádka T, Znamenskiy P, & Zador AM. (2009) PINP: a new method of tagging neuronal populations for identification during in vivo electrophysiological recording. PloS one, 4(7). PMID: 19584920
How do you build a virtual environment for a worm? The Nematode C. Elegans with glowing neurons (source)Using a little optogenetic trickery, you can directly activate specific worm neurons with light. If you know your worm neurons, you can stimulate ones that make it think it has suddenly touched something with its nose or that the environment is suddenly very salty. Before we dive into worm VR, let's back up and discuss this specific worm.The Magnificent C......... Read more »
Faumont S, Rondeau G, Thiele TR, Lawton KJ, McCormick KE, Sottile M, Griesbeck O, Heckscher ES, Roberts WM, Doe CQ.... (2011) An image-free opto-mechanical system for creating virtual environments and imaging neuronal activity in freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans. PloS one, 6(9). PMID: 21969859
The Deissseroth lab has released an updated version of their optical neuronal silencing gene Natronomonas halorhodopsin. In Molecular and Cellular Approaches for Diversifying and Extending Optogenetics, Gradinaru et al review current optogenetic methodology, and introduce eNpHR3.0-2A-ChR2, a genetic vector whose expression allows both action potential silencing and firing via illumination. This vector uses post-translational cleavage (via cis-acting hydrolase elements) [...]... Read more »
Gradinaru, V., Zhang, F., Ramakrishnan, C., Mattis, J., Prakash, R., Diester, I., Goshen, I., Thompson, K., & Deisseroth, K. (2010) Molecular and Cellular Approaches for Diversifying and Extending Optogenetics. Cell. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.037
Tang, W., Ehrlich, I., Wolff, S., Michalski, A., Wolfl, S., Hasan, M., Luthi, A., & Sprengel, R. (2009) Faithful Expression of Multiple Proteins via 2A-Peptide Self-Processing: A Versatile and Reliable Method for Manipulating Brain Circuits. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(27), 8621-8629. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0359-09.2009
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