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  • August 1, 2014
  • 12:35 AM
  • 1,220 views

Fall With Dementia and No Change from Baseline Mental Status

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

This happens many times every day. A patient falls and may have hit her head, but there is no change from her normal mental status. To complicate matter, she takes an anticoagulant.

There are no clear signs of serious trauma. so should we automatically go to the trauma center?

What can help us decide?... Read more »

  • July 30, 2014
  • 12:24 PM
  • 1,065 views

Violent Death Rates Increased After Traumatic Brain Injury

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Anecdotal reports have linked traumatic brain injury with later violent death including death by suicide.Few large epidemiological studies have been published on this association.However, a recent Swedish population study published in JAMA Psychiatry provides valuable insight into this issue.Seena Fazel and colleagues from the University of Oxford, University College London and the Karolinksa Institute examined a large database of over 200,000 patients with TBI.Cases of TBI were identified from ........ Read more »

  • July 30, 2014
  • 01:05 AM
  • 624 views

The Devil Is In The Details…If You Can Get The Details Out

by Kyle Harris in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Over 75% of surveyed collegiate athletes, who believed they sustained a concussion in the past year, reported not seeking proper medical attention for that concussion. The most common reason athletes reported not seeking proper medical attention was not believing the concussion was severe enough to warrant stopping the activity to seek out a medical professional.... Read more »

  • July 29, 2014
  • 08:01 PM
  • 1,462 views

Gabapentin and pregabalin misuse

by DJMac in Recovery Review

  Gabapentin and pregabalin misuse are problems that are not going to go away. My post on gabapentin is one of the most-read on this site. While these are useful medicines, workers in drug treatment and support see patients regularly on gabapentin or pregabalin who have misused the drugs or who are misusing them. Guidance is [...]
The post Gabapentin and pregabalin misuse appeared first on Recovery Review.
... Read more »

  • July 29, 2014
  • 12:17 PM
  • 909 views

Treating Sleep Problems Following Traumatic Brain Injury

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Sleep problems are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI).In a previous post, I reviewed a study of the risk factors for sleep disorders following TBI.The most severe TBI is a risk factor for hypersomnia. Anxiety and depression following TBI increase risk for insomnia complaints.Few large studies of treatment for sleep problems after TBI exist. However, a recent manuscript outlined the potential benefit of treatment of sleep disorders in a series of 12 subjects.Catherine Wiseman-Hake........ Read more »

  • July 23, 2014
  • 01:05 AM
  • 1,006 views

Despite the Hype: Many Former NFL Athletes May Have Normal Neurological Function and Structure

by Jane McDevitt in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Neuropsychological impairments were found in some retired NFL players; however, the majority of retired NFL players had no clinical signs of chronic brain damage. Some retired players had lesions found on brain imaging tests and these were associated with the number of previous concussions.... Read more »

  • July 16, 2014
  • 01:05 AM
  • 635 views

Feel Like Phoning-In Your Concussion Symptoms? Not so Fast

by Kyle Harris in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Athletes who have sustained a concussion exhibit a wide range of symptom severity scores when surveyed through text-messaging at various times during the day.... Read more »

  • July 15, 2014
  • 09:00 AM
  • 1,169 views

The Pressure of the World Cup Penalty Kick

by THE 'SCOPE in The 'Scope

Tim Howard was brilliant in goal for the United States at the 2014 World Cup. Flying all over the place, catching, punching, kicking – he looked like he was protecting his family home from post-apocalyptic cannibals. It was very impressive, but the US went out against Belgium 2-1 in extra time, despite Howard’s 17 saves, the most in a single World Cup game in 50 years. Tim Howard had a great game for the US, heck, a great tournament. So great in fact, that Wikipedia temporarily&nbs........ Read more »

BENJAMIN NOËL and JOHN VAN DER KAMP. (2012) Gaze behaviour during the soccer penalty kick: An investigation of the effects of strategy and anxiety. Int. J. Sport Psychol., 1-20. info:/

  • July 15, 2014
  • 12:08 AM
  • 1,382 views

Post-traumatic amnesia: why Kramer can’t remember his play in the World Cup Final

by Shelly Fan in Neurorexia

Image: screamer.deadspin.com It was 17 minutes into his second World Cup appearance when German midfielder Christoph Kramer slammed brutally into his Argentine opponent. Kramer’s head swerved...... Read more »

  • July 14, 2014
  • 11:44 AM
  • 726 views

Cognitive Reserve Boosts Traumatic Brain Injury Recovery

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Cognitive reserve (high educational attainment, high IQ) is known to reduce or delay the risk for Alzheimer's disease.However, the effect of cognitive reserve on recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI) is less well studied.Two recent research studies support the beneficial effects of cognitive reserve on TBI.Schneider and colleagues examined a series of 769 adult TBI subjects using the TBI Model Systems Database.This cohort was followed during rehabilitation for a period of at least one year......... Read more »

Schneider EB, Sur S, Raymont V, Duckworth J, Kowalski RG, Efron DT, Hui X, Selvarajah S, Hambridge HL, & Stevens RD. (2014) Functional recovery after moderate/severe traumatic brain injury: a role for cognitive reserve?. Neurology, 82(18), 1636-42. PMID: 24759845  

  • July 9, 2014
  • 01:06 PM
  • 1,165 views

Brain Hippocampus Atrophy in Traumatic Brain Injury

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Understanding the specific brain regions vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important for assessment and intervention research.Two areas of active research include studies of brain white matter using diffusion tensor imaging and assessment of regional brain atrophy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Two recent MRI studies have suggested the brain hippocampus may be a region of vulnerability to TBI.A Canadian study by Robin Green and colleagues used brain MRI to examine a cohort of........ Read more »

Green RE, Colella B, Maller JJ, Bayley M, Glazer J, & Mikulis DJ. (2014) Scale and pattern of atrophy in the chronic stages of moderate-severe TBI. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 67. PMID: 24744712  

Singh R, Meier TB, Kuplicki R, Savitz J, Mukai I, Cavanagh L, Allen T, Teague TK, Nerio C, Polanski D.... (2014) Relationship of collegiate football experience and concussion with hippocampal volume and cognitive outcomes. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 311(18), 1883-8. PMID: 24825643  

  • July 9, 2014
  • 01:05 AM
  • 949 views

If You’re Not Using the SCAT-2 For On-Field Concussion Diagnosis Maybe You Should Be

by Jane McDevitt in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

The SCAT-2 tool composite score is useful in sports-related concussion assessment in a college setting due to its high sensitivity and specificity especially if you can compare a post injury score with a baseline measure.... Read more »

  • July 7, 2014
  • 11:50 AM
  • 877 views

The Geography of Traumatic Brain Injury Death in U.S.

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In the last post, I examined some recent research in the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI).Two studies showed the top two causes of TBI to be motor vehicle crashes and falls.In this post, I will review some recent data on the geographic variability of TBI in the United States.The Centers for Disease Control provides an online tool called WISQARS that allows users to search for a variety of statistics related to unintentional injury by state in the U.S.They have recently added a iPad a........ Read more »

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013) CDC grand rounds: reducing severe traumatic brain injury in the United States. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 62(27), 549-52. PMID: 23842444  

  • July 3, 2014
  • 12:50 PM
  • 668 views

Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes significantly to mortality and long-term disability.In the U.S. there are an estimated 52,000 deaths yearly due to TBI with over 1,000,000 emergency room (ER) visits.Understanding the epidemiology of TBI can provides clues to designing prevention programs.Four relevant recent research studies provide insight about the epidemiology of TBI.TBI in hospitalized patients in Scotland Tara Shivaji and colleagues in Scotland examined the prevalence and patte........ Read more »

  • June 25, 2014
  • 09:15 AM
  • 1,312 views

They Can See The Blood Running Through You

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Vampire bats sense heat via pit organs in their nose-leaves, but they find their victims by sight, smell and echolocation. New research shows that an alternatively spliced version of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is responsible for the heat sensing, but what do they use it for? Their teeth are so short that they must find blood vessels close to the surface – shallow vessels give off more heat than do deep vessels or skin where there is no large vessel.

Vampire bats occasionally feed on ........ Read more »

Patel R, Ispoglou S, & Apostolakis S. (2014) Desmoteplase as a potential treatment for cerebral ischaemia. Expert opinion on investigational drugs, 23(6), 865-73. PMID: 24766516  

Gracheva EO, Cordero-Morales JF, González-Carcacía JA, Ingolia NT, Manno C, Aranguren CI, Weissman JS, & Julius D. (2011) Ganglion-specific splicing of TRPV1 underlies infrared sensation in vampire bats. Nature, 476(7358), 88-91. PMID: 21814281  

  • June 21, 2014
  • 08:45 AM
  • 1,551 views

West Nile Virus and Polio-like Syndromes: An Emerging Threat

by Pranab Chatterjee in Scepticemia

While the whole nation has been gripped by a media-induced frenzy about the fatal effects of the so-called “litchi virus” (do not get me started on this! This issue deserves a whole post of its own!), another virus-related news has quietly slipped beneath the radars of the cumulative hysteria. This article in the Times of India […]... Read more »

  • June 16, 2014
  • 10:48 PM
  • 1,182 views

There Was No Couch: On Mental Illness and Creativity

by Jalees Rehman in Fragments of Truth

A study of the prevalence of mental illness published in the Archives of General Psychiatry in 2005 estimated that roughly half of all Americans will have been diagnosed with a mental illness by time they reach the age of 75. This estimate was based on the DSM-IV criteria for mental illness, but the newer DSM-V manual will be released in 2013 and is likely to further expand the diagnosis of mental illness. The DSM-IV criteria had made allowance for bereavement to avoid diagnosing people who were........ Read more »

Kyaga, S., Landén, M., Boman, M., Hultman, C., Långström, N., & Lichtenstein, P. (2013) Mental illness, suicide and creativity: 40-Year prospective total population study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(1), 83-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.09.010  

  • June 11, 2014
  • 09:15 AM
  • 881 views

What Cold Really Looks Like

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

It is undetermined to what degree TRPA1 cold sensors actually sense cold or act in thermoregulation. On the other hand, we know that this ion channel is crucial for other aspects of physiology. Recent studies indicate that TRPA1 is crucial for the phototransductive initiation of melanin production in melanocytes. This has led to a new field of experimental biology called optogenetics, using expressed phototransduction proteins to switch on and off genes with light.... Read more »

  • June 9, 2014
  • 12:04 PM
  • 1,208 views

Smoking Linked to Brain White Matter Dysfunction

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence produce harmful effects on the brain.Some of these effects are related to direct effects on vascular health. Vascular changes seen with smoking are known to contribute to increased risk for stroke and dementia.Advances in brain imaging techniques allow for more direct study on smoking's effect on specific brain structures.Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a relatively recent imaging tool allowing for study of brain white matter function.Brain white matter ........ Read more »

Umene-Nakano W, Yoshimura R, Kakeda S, Watanabe K, Hayashi K, Nishimura J, Takahashi H, Moriya J, Ide S, Ueda I.... (2014) Abnormal white matter integrity in the corpus callosum among smokers: tract-based spatial statistics. PloS one, 9(2). PMID: 24516568  

  • June 4, 2014
  • 09:15 AM
  • 900 views

Sometimes, Cold Hurts

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Capsaicin receptors (TRPV1) help detect heat and cool the body. Cool receptors (TRPM8) detect cold temperatures and help warm the body. But what about TRPA1 receptors? New research shows that while their function in intense cold sensing may be species specific, they do function in pain production, for heat, cold, and chemicals. So if they are so good at producing pain, why would a spider have a TRPA1 blocker in its venom?... Read more »

de Oliveira, C., Garami, A., Lehto, S., Pakai, E., Tekus, V., Pohoczky, K., Youngblood, B., Wang, W., Kort, M., Kym, P.... (2014) Transient Receptor Potential Channel Ankyrin-1 Is Not a Cold Sensor for Autonomic Thermoregulation in Rodents. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(13), 4445-4452. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5387-13.2014  

Benemei S, Fusi C, Trevisan G, & Geppetti P. (2014) The TRPA1 channel in migraine mechanism and treatment. British journal of pharmacology, 171(10), 2552-67. PMID: 24206166  

Gui J, Liu B, Cao G, Lipchik AM, Perez M, Dekan Z, Mobli M, Daly NL, Alewood PF, Parker LL.... (2014) A tarantula-venom peptide antagonizes the TRPA1 nociceptor ion channel by binding to the S1-S4 gating domain. Current biology : CB, 24(5), 473-83. PMID: 24530065  

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