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  • December 19, 2012
  • 05:15 PM

More evidence that antibiotics are over-prescribed - How should that change?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

Today Lancet Infectious Diseases posted an early release of an article that shows that the antibiotic amoxicillin still does not work on viruses.

Many doctors still routinely prescribe antibiotics for viral infections.

Bias, perhaps the biggest confounder in medical research, is controlled for very well.

What does the study show?... Read more »

  • December 19, 2012
  • 09:00 AM

The Resin For The Season

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

The three kings made a gift of frankincense to the baby Jesus, but it is unlikely they were aware of the great medicinal properties of this resin – or maybe they were. Recent evidence indicates that frankincense contains a psychoactive agent that increases feelings of well-being, this may be the key to the resin’s use in sacred rites and rituals. Now we are finding that other components of the resin are powerful anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents – at the same time that it is becoming........ Read more »

  • December 18, 2012
  • 02:41 PM

Blastocystis Highlights 2012

by Christen Rune Stensvold in Blastocystis Parasite Blog

2012 is coming to an end and it is also time for taking stock of the year Blastocystis-wise. ... Read more »

Tsaousis AD, Ollagnier de Choudens S, Gentekaki E, Long S, Gaston D, Stechmann A, Vinella D, Py B, Fontecave M, Barras F.... (2012) Evolution of Fe/S cluster biogenesis in the anaerobic parasite Blastocystis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(26), 10426-31. PMID: 22699510  

van Hellemond JJ, Molhoek N, Koelewijn R, Wismans PJ, & van Genderen PJ. (2012) Is paromomycin the drug of choice for eradication of Blastocystis in adults?. Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy. PMID: 23053509  

Machicado JD, Marcos LA, Tello R, Canales M, Terashima A, & Gotuzzo E. (2012) Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 106(6), 333-9. PMID: 22515992  

Cañete R, Díaz MM, Avalos García R, Laúd Martinez PM, & Manuel Ponce F. (2012) Intestinal parasites in children from a day care centre in matanzas city, cuba. PloS one, 7(12). PMID: 23236493  

Engsbro AL, & Stensvold CR. (2012) Blastocystis: to treat or not to treat .. But how?. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 55(10), 1431-2. PMID: 22893582  

Stensvold CR. (2012) Thinking Blastocystis out of the box. Trends in parasitology, 28(8), 305. PMID: 22704911  

Forsell J, Granlund M, Stensvold CR, Clark CG, & Evengård B. (2012) Subtype analysis of Blastocystis isolates in Swedish patients. European journal of clinical microbiology , 31(7), 1689-96. PMID: 22350386  

Stensvold CR, Alfellani M, & Clark CG. (2012) Levels of genetic diversity vary dramatically between Blastocystis subtypes. Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 12(2), 263-73. PMID: 22116021  

Nagel R, Cuttell L, Stensvold CR, Mills PC, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, & Traub RJ. (2012) Blastocystis subtypes in symptomatic and asymptomatic family members and pets and response to therapy. Internal medicine journal, 42(11), 1187-95. PMID: 22032439  

  • December 14, 2012
  • 12:45 AM

How do we measure the QT segment when there are prominent U waves?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

This ECG has large T waves, U waves, and P waves, but where does one end and the other begin?

When measuring the QT segment, where do we measure the end of the QT segment and why?... Read more »

Omar, H. (2012) Amiodarone-induced T-U fusion. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 30(9), 20810-208100. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2011.10.024  

  • December 12, 2012
  • 10:26 AM

“Smart Stethoscope” to monitor kidney stone therapy

by Usman Paracha in SayPeople

Scientists have developed “smart stethoscope” that could help to monitor the progress and effectiveness of the kidney stone therapy.

This research has been done by researchers from the University of Southampton and their collaborators, and has been published online in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society A.

One of the favored procedures for the removal of kidney stones is lithotripsy. It is the medical fragmentation of a stone in the urinary system or gallbladder with t........ Read more »

Leighton, T., Turangan, C., Jamaluddin, A., Ball, G., & White, P. (2012) Prediction of far-field acoustic emissions from cavitation clouds during shock wave lithotripsy for development of a clinical device. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 469(2150), 20120538-20120538. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2012.0538  

  • December 7, 2012
  • 05:28 AM

Fasting could help epileptic patients in their treatment; Research

by Usman Paracha in SayPeople

Researchers have found that fasting could help the patients of epilepsy in the treatment.

This research has been published online in the journal of Epilepsy Research.

Researchers did a little study and worked on children with epileptic disorder and found that high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet, if combined with periodic fasting, could lead to better therapy in the children with persistent and drug-resistant seizures.

"Our findings suggest that fasting does not merely intensi........ Read more »

  • December 7, 2012
  • 12:39 AM

Research suggestions for H5N1 influenza virus infection

by Usman Paracha in SayPeople

H5N1 influenza virus infection is a problem for which there is no experience of real-life treatment.

This infection results in varying number of mortality rates in the different countries and the factors associated with the host, virus and/or medical intervention resulting in this difference is still not known. Moreover, Indonesia, which has the greatest number of H5N1 human cases and mortalities in the world, has no clear seasonal pattern for this infection. Genetic variations of this virus ........ Read more »

  • December 3, 2012
  • 10:34 PM

Bacteria in intestine needs iron to stay there; Research

by Usman Paracha in SayPeople

Researchers have found that iron is important for infections causing bacteria.

This research has been published online in the journal PLoS ONE.

Researchers in this study have shown the mechanism through which the bacteria accumulate in the body of the animals resulting in the first stages of microbial disease.

"This paper establishes that iron uptake in the host is a crucial parameter in bacterial infection of animals," Phillip Klebba, professor and head of the department of b........ Read more »

Pi, H., Jones, S., Mercer, L., Meador, J., Caughron, J., Jordan, L., Newton, S., Conway, T., & Klebba, P. (2012) Role of Catecholate Siderophores in Gram-Negative Bacterial Colonization of the Mouse Gut. PLoS ONE, 7(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050020  

  • December 3, 2012
  • 12:20 PM

Cellular component that is important in mobility of cancer cells; Research

by Usman Paracha in SayPeople

Scientists have found a cellular component that is involved in mobility of cancer to other body parts and inhibition of which could increase the tumor formation.

This research has been published online in the journal Cancer Cell.

Scientists in this study worked on various animal models including chicken, zebrafish and mouse, and patient samples and have found a cellular component; Prrx1 that stops the cancer cells from staying in organs.

Usually metastasis – spread of cancer from ........ Read more »

Ocaña, O., Córcoles, R., Fabra, �., Moreno-Bueno, G., Acloque, H., Vega, S., Barrallo-Gimeno, A., Cano, A., & Nieto, M. (2012) Metastatic Colonization Requires the Repression of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Inducer Prrx1. Cancer Cell. DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2012.10.012  

  • November 29, 2012
  • 09:30 PM

Is Digoxin a Killer?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

Digoxin (Lanoxin) is an antiarrhythmic drug, which means that it is also a proarrhythmic drug. Any drug that affects the heart’s conduction system can produced changes that are bad, good, or a combination of the two. Digoxin has been associated with a higher death rate, but is that because it is prescribed to sicker patients?... Read more »

Whitbeck, M., Charnigo, R., Khairy, P., Ziada, K., Bailey, A., Zegarra, M., Shah, J., Morales, G., Macaulay, T., Sorrell, V.... (2012) Increased mortality among patients taking digoxin-analysis from the AFFIRM study. European Heart Journal. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs348  

  • November 20, 2012
  • 09:00 AM

A Meal More Powerful Than The NFL

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Tryptophan gets a bad rap at Thanksgiving. This essential amino acid is indeed a part of the well-being and sleep promoting cascades, but it is so much more. Recent evidence shows that tryptophan and its metabolism have significant effects on mood. For example, polymorphisms in tryptophan hydroxylase are associated with suicidal ideation during treatment of depression, a lack of dietary tryptophan is associated with relapse in bulimics, while increased tryptophan can prevent seizures in epilepti........ Read more »

  • November 17, 2012
  • 06:59 AM

Amelioration of Colitis by Parasites - or "An Elliott & Weinstock Special"

by Christen Rune Stensvold in Blastocystis Parasite Blog

Common parasites such as Blastocystis and Dientamoeba fragilis are often incriminated of causing chronic or intermittent diarrhoea or other intestinal symptoms despite the absence of compelling evidence. What most of us probably fail to realise is that parasites may actually prevent and ameliorate intestinal illness, including inflammatory bowel disease, other types of colitis, and other types of autoimmune diseases.... Read more »

Jostins L, Ripke S, Weersma RK, Duerr RH, McGovern DP, Hui KY, Lee JC, Schumm LP, Sharma Y, Anderson CA.... (2012) Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature, 491(7422), 119-24. PMID: 23128233  

Elliott, D., & Weinstock, J. (2012) Where are we on worms?. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 28(6), 551-556. DOI: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e3283572f73  

Weinstock, J. (2012) Autoimmunity: The worm returns. Nature, 491(7423), 183-185. DOI: 10.1038/491183a  

Elliott DE, Summers RW, & Weinstock JV. (2007) Helminths as governors of immune-mediated inflammation. International journal for parasitology, 37(5), 457-64. PMID: 17313951  

  • November 14, 2012
  • 09:00 PM

Is a clot-busting drug safe for 6 hours after stroke symptom onset – or only for an hour and a half? – Part II

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

It has been a couple of months since I wrote Part I and I have not been that motivated to write this part, but Dr. Jerome R Hoffman and Dr. Richelle J Cooper have been busy with the topic. Their paper appears in the current Emergency Medicine Australasia.

"Just before the release of the results of the third inter-national stroke trial (IST-3),1 the largest trial of thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), the journal Stroke published a remarkable pre-emptive strike – a comm........ Read more »

  • November 14, 2012
  • 09:00 AM

Tricky Little Buggers

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Evolution brings wisdom with age – and bacteria are ancient. Bacteria have evolved defenses ranging from evasion or inhibition of immune systems to protecting crucial functions from environmental injury. But recent work has focused on bacteriocin toxins and the ability of bacteria to attack or inhibit other bacteria. New studies have identified spring-loaded spikes that can be assembled and disassembled for puncturing other bacteria and delivering bacteriocins, while other work is focused ........ Read more »

Basler, M., Pilhofer, M., Henderson, G., Jensen, G., & Mekalanos, J. (2012) Type VI secretion requires a dynamic contractile phage tail-like structure. Nature, 483(7388), 182-186. DOI: 10.1038/nature10846  

Saeidi, N., Wong, C., Lo, T., Nguyen, H., Ling, H., Leong, S., Poh, C., & Chang, M. (2011) Engineering microbes to sense and eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. Molecular Systems Biology. DOI: 10.1038/msb.2011.55  

  • November 4, 2012
  • 09:38 PM

Ketamine for depression via neurogenesis?

by TheCellularScale in The Cellular Scale

A lot of fuss has been made recently about the street drug "Special K" (ketamine). It's basically an anesthetic used in labs and veterinary offices to tranquilize mice, rats, cats, and (famously) horses, but recently its been lauded as a newer faster anti-depressant. Ketamine: from the dealer or from the doctor? (image source)The possibility that it might have near immediate anti-depressant effects on humans has been around for a little while, but the concept is picking up steam as new r........ Read more »

Duman RS, & Li N. (2012) A neurotrophic hypothesis of depression: role of synaptogenesis in the actions of NMDA receptor antagonists. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 367(1601), 2475-84. PMID: 22826346  

Li N, Lee B, Liu RJ, Banasr M, Dwyer JM, Iwata M, Li XY, Aghajanian G, & Duman RS. (2010) mTOR-dependent synapse formation underlies the rapid antidepressant effects of NMDA antagonists. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5994), 959-64. PMID: 20724638  

  • November 1, 2012
  • 12:25 PM

Red Bull and Driving Performance

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In previous posts, I have examined some recent research using driving simulation technology.  These posts examined the effect of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and sleep apnea on driving performance.In the next two posts, I will take a look at a couple of studies focusing on the effect of pharmacological and training interventions on driving performance.  Driving simulators are very useful in examining the response to specific interventions on driving performance.Mets and her........ Read more »

Howland J, Rohsenow DJ, Arnedt JT, Bliss CA, Hunt SK, Calise TV, Heeren T, Winter M, Littlefield C, & Gottlieb DJ. (2011) The acute effects of caffeinated versus non-caffeinated alcoholic beverage on driving performance and attention/reaction time. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 106(2), 335-41. PMID: 21134017  

  • October 30, 2012
  • 12:39 PM

Driving Simulation and Sleep Apnea

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In a previous post, I examined a research study simulator of the effect of mild to moderateAlzheimer's disease on driving performance.  This study found that even mild probable Alzheimer'sdisease subjects demonstrated significant impairment in a variety of driving performance domains.In this post, I will summarize three research studies related to driving performance in the sleepdisorder sleep apnea.  The first study focused on changes in driving performance following theinitiatio........ Read more »

Vakulin A, Baulk SD, Catcheside PG, Antic NA, van den Heuvel CJ, Dorrian J, & McEvoy RD. (2011) Driving simulator performance remains impaired in patients with severe OSA after CPAP treatment. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 246-53. PMID: 21677893  

Tippin J, Sparks J, & Rizzo M. (2009) Visual vigilance in drivers with obstructive sleep apnea. Journal of psychosomatic research, 67(2), 143-51. PMID: 19616141  

  • October 23, 2012
  • 12:41 PM

Alcohol, Cannabis and Accident Risk

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

TThe magnitude of risk for motor vehicle accident (MVA) with alcohol consumption is well known.  However, the risk for MVA with other drugs is less clear.  Additionally, the risk for the combination of alcohol with other drugs has received limited study.  This is despite the fact that alcohol-impaired drivers commonly have additional psychotropic and illicit drugs in their system. Kuypers and colleagues from the Netherlands and Belgium have recently published an informative s........ Read more »

  • October 19, 2012
  • 03:58 PM

Does Marijuana Withdrawal Matter?

by Dirk Hanson in Addiction Inbox

What happens to some smokers when they cut out the cannabis.

People who say they are addicted to marijuana tend to exhibit a characteristic withdrawal profile. But is cannabis withdrawal, if it actually exists, significant enough to merit clinical attention? Does it lead to relapse, or continued use despite adverse circumstances? Should it be added to the list of addictive disorders in the rewrite of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) currently in progress?

Ma........ Read more »

Allsop, D., Copeland, J., Norberg, M., Fu, S., Molnar, A., Lewis, J., & Budney, A. (2012) Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal. PLoS ONE, 7(9). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044864  

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