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  • April 17, 2013
  • 05:30 PM

Is Nitroglycerin Bad for Severe Sepsis?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

Yesterday at "The Paramedic's Edge," this was the topic of discussion of a possible use of NTG (NiTroGlycerin – GTN GlycerylTriNitrate in Commonwealth countries).

NTG is a vasodilator and sepsis is a vasodialtion problem. There are other problems with sepsis, but vasodilation may be the primary problem.... Read more »

SPRONK, P., INCE, C., GARDIEN, M., MATHURA, K., & ZANDSTRA, D. (2003) Nitroglycerin for septic shock. The Lancet, 361(9360), 880-880. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12692-X  

Spronk, P., Ince, C., Gardien, M., Mathura, K., Straaten, H., & Zandstra, D. (2002) Nitroglycerin in septic shock after intravascular volume resuscitation. The Lancet, 360(9343), 1395-1396. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11393-6  

  • April 15, 2013
  • 01:00 PM

The Taste of Beer May Stir Alcohol Cravings

by Shawn Radcliffe in Shawn Radcliffe | Health and Science Writer

Beer can be an acquired taste, but the taste of beer can still affect your brain's reward center and may increase alcohol cravings.... Read more »

  • April 12, 2013
  • 02:28 AM

A new cure for insomnia?

by Shelly Fan in Neurorexia

Many a nights I’ve tossed and turned, willing my brain to STFU and let me sleep. I’m not alone in this battle. 10-15% of adults suffer from insomnia, and up to a third take prescription sleeping pills to bring on the snooze – for a heavy cognitive price. Current sleeping drugs, such as Ambien and [...]... Read more »

  • April 11, 2013
  • 11:50 AM

Human organ-on-chips: An alternative approach to drug and toxin testing?

by Professor Donald Ingber in NC3Rs Blog

In this first post, our 2012 NC3Rs 3Rs Prize winner, Professor Donald Ingber at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, USA, describes how his prize-winning lung-on-a-chip microdevice could change the face of how we test drugs and model human disease in the future.... Read more »

Huh, D., Leslie, D., Matthews, B., Fraser, J., Jurek, S., Hamilton, G., Thorneloe, K., McAlexander, M., & Ingber, D. (2012) A Human Disease Model of Drug Toxicity-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Lung-on-a-Chip Microdevice. Science Translational Medicine, 4(159), 159-159. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3004249  

  • April 2, 2013
  • 08:52 PM

Antidepressant epigenetic action of a common fitness supplement

by Shelly Fan in Neurorexia

A short note on the history of antidepressant research: From MAOIs/SSRIs to ketamine and BDNF Traditional antidepressants, like Prozac, don’t work too well. Back in the 50s, researchers thought that depression was caused by a depletion of a group of neurotransmitters in the brain known chemically as the monoamines (i.e. serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine).  Hence, the [...]... Read more »

Nasca C, Xenos D, Barone Y, Caruso A, Scaccianoce S, Matrisciano F, Battaglia G, Mathé AA, Pittaluga A, Lionetto L.... (2013) L-acetylcarnitine causes rapid antidepressant effects through the epigenetic induction of mGlu2 receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(12), 4804-9. PMID: 23382250  

  • April 2, 2013
  • 12:28 PM

Film preparations for oral drug delivery

by Maren Preis in Pharmaceutical Solid State Research Cluster (PSSRC)

Oral films have gained interest in the last couple of years. Films for oral application offer an interesting new approach for drug administration. Active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) can be implemented in thin-sheeted polymer film matrices. These dosage forms are intended to be placed in mouth to dissolve in the saliva without the need of additional liquid and without swallowing of a solid dosage form.... Read more »

Hoffmann EM, Breitenbach A, & Breitkreutz J. (2011) Advances in orodispersible films for drug delivery. Expert opinion on drug delivery, 8(3), 299-316. PMID: 21284577  

Janßen E.M., Schliephacke R,, Breitenbach A,, & Breitkreutz J. (2013) Drug-printing by flexographic printing technology—A new manufacturing process for orodispersible films. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 441(1-2), 818-825. info:/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.12.023

Garsuch V, & Breitkreutz J. (2009) Novel analytical methods for the characterization of oral wafers. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 73(1), 195-201. PMID: 19482082  

Woertz K, Tissen C, Kleinebudde P, & Breitkreutz J. (2011) Taste sensing systems (electronic tongues) for pharmaceutical applications. International journal of pharmaceutics, 417(1-2), 256-71. PMID: 21094230  

  • March 22, 2013
  • 11:00 AM

Equipoise and Ethics and IRBs, Oh My!

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

In the comments to what I wrote yesterday about seizures and a study comparing lorazepam (Ativan), diazepam (Valium), and placebo,[1] Brooks Walsh had the following comment –

"Although I’ve read the study before, I am only wondering now how the IRB for Alldredge 2001 thought there was 'equipoise' between placebo and benzos."... Read more »

Alldredge BK, Gelb AM, Isaacs SM, Corry MD, Allen F, Ulrich S, Gottwald MD, O’Neil N, Neuhaus JM, Segal MR, Lowenstein DH. (2001) A Comparison of Lorazepam, Diazepam, and Placebo for the Treatment of Out-of-Hospital Status Epilepticus. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(25), 1860-1860. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200112203452521  

Callaway, C. (2012) Questioning the Use of Epinephrine to Treat Cardiac Arrest. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(11), 1198. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.313  

Hagihara A, Hasegawa M, Abe T, Nagata T, Wakata Y, Miyazaki S. (2012) Prehospital Epinephrine Use and Survival Among Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(11), 1161. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.294  

  • March 13, 2013
  • 09:00 AM

One Man’s Poison Is Another Man’s Cure

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

In the early 16th century Paracelsus stated that it is the dose that makes the poison. He had to be thinking about botulinum toxin. This most potent of all toxins known to man has been used as a cosmetic agent for several years, but is now moving into the realm of the necessary pharmacopia, not merely the vanity market.

Use as a muscle relaxant in spasmodic dysphonic and even plantar fasciitis is common now, but a new study links botulinum toxin to chronic pain treatment. It seems that opiod........ Read more »

  • February 20, 2013
  • 11:05 PM

Polypharmacology – a novel and rising concept in treatment of the diseases

by Usman Paracha in SayPeople

Polypharmacology is the rising innovative concept that focuses on the multi-target drugs. This field is separated from the classical “one drug, one target” philosophy.

This concept has been gaining a growing attention since the 1990s.

Definition of Polypharmacology:

Polypharmacology is the treatment of diseases by modulating more than one target.

According to Andrew L. Hopkins from Department of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, University of Dundee, UK, Polyph........ Read more »

Durrant, J., Amaro, R., Xie, L., Urbaniak, M., Ferguson, M., Haapalainen, A., Chen, Z., Di Guilmi, A., Wunder, F., Bourne, P.... (2010) A Multidimensional Strategy to Detect Polypharmacological Targets in the Absence of Structural and Sequence Homology. PLoS Computational Biology, 6(1). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000648  

  • February 14, 2013
  • 08:20 PM

Antiviral drugs to fight the flu: yes or no?

by EE Giorgi in CHIMERAS

Disclaimer: I'm not a medical doctor. I cannot recommend taking or not taking a certain drug. However, I am a human being, I've got kids who do get sick from time to time, and I work on viruses. So when I heard that people were battling the unusually nasty flu this year with antiviral drugs, well, I had to do a bit of research. Antiviral drugs have become increasingly popular after the highly pathogenic avian flu strain emerged. The idea is that in order to be prepared for a possible pandemic, w........ Read more »

Tom Jefferson, Mark A Jones, Peter Doshi, Chris B Del Mar, Carl J Heneghan, Rokuro Hama, Matthew J Thompson. (2012) Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children. The Cochrane Library. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008965.pub3  

  • February 11, 2013
  • 01:02 PM

A GPS for Personalized Medicine

by Matt Wood in ScienceLife

The 1200 Patients Project creates a database of how patients with particular genetic profiles react to specific drugs, and then puts that information online to help doctors make better decisions for their patients.... Read more »

O'Donnell PH, Bush A, Spitz J, Danahey K, Saner D, Das S, Cox NJ, & Ratain MJ. (2012) The 1200 patients project: creating a new medical model system for clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, 92(4), 446-9. PMID: 22929923  

  • February 6, 2013
  • 12:49 PM

Interferon-induced Depression: Genetics

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Photo of a pair of green wing tealInterferon remains a key first line treatment for treatment of hepatitis C.  However, interferon has significant neuropsychiatric effects including risk for depression and even suicide in rare individuals.Some individuals with hepatitis C are unable to complete a course of interferon because of induced depression.  This makes understanding this phenomenon important to develop prevention and treatment strategies.Understanding how interferon induces depr........ Read more »

  • February 5, 2013
  • 01:25 PM

Donepezil Improves Dementia With Lewy Bodies

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia less common than Alzheimer's disease.  However, Lewy bodies (brain neuron deposits of the proteins alpha-synuclean and ubiquitin) are found in up to 10 to 15% of individuals dying of dementia.DLB is known to deplete brain acetylcholine and dopamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain.  This leads to a clinical syndrome characterized by both cognitive decline and motor symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease.DLB may be difficult to ........ Read more »

Mori E, Ikeda M, Kosaka K, & Donepezil-DLB Study Investigators. (2012) Donepezil for dementia with Lewy bodies: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Annals of neurology, 72(1), 41-52. PMID: 22829268  

  • February 1, 2013
  • 12:44 PM

Oxytocin and Human Attachment

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In a previous post, I summarized a recent review on the neuroscience of human attachment. This review highlighted research related to the human bonding and social interactions.  Attachment ability shows significant variability in humans with insecure attachment styles contributing to risk for some mental disorders.     The neuroanatomical framework for social processing is being investigated with brain imaging techniques.Hormonal factors including the role of oxytoc........ Read more »

  • January 31, 2013
  • 11:30 AM

Need a Pen? Drug Companies Start Early When it Comes to Marketing to Med Students

by Matt Wood in ScienceLife

Drug companies spend billions of dollars on advertising to consumers online, in print and TV. Their ads are such an everyday part of the media landscape that Saturday Night Live can run a skit mocking the hilarious and scary list of disclaimers about side effects and everyone is in on the joke. And that’s just [...]... Read more »

Hodges LE, Arora VM, Humphrey HJ, & Reddy ST. (2012) Premedical Students' Exposure to the Pharmaceutical Industry's Marketing Practices. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. PMID: 23269292  

  • January 18, 2013
  • 09:31 AM

Sanford-Burnham cancer drug targets hard-to-reach leukemia stem cells

by admin in Beaker

Researchers find that certain types of drug-resistant leukemia stem cells are vulnerable to sabutoclax, a novel cancer stem cell-targeting drug based on Sanford-Burnham research.... Read more »

  • January 6, 2013
  • 10:31 PM

Have We Killed Half of our Soldiers with Cigarettes?

by Dirk Hanson in Addiction Inbox

Two long-term studies yield grim stats, and women are no exception.

We know that smoking kills. But until the results of 50 years’ worth of observations on British male smokers was published by Richard Doll and coworkers in the British Journal of Medicine in 2004, we didn’t know how many.  Cigarettes will kill at least half of those who smoke them past the age of 30—possibly more. In older, specific populations, possibly as many as 2/3.

It took a prospective study of more ........ Read more »

  • December 27, 2012
  • 10:00 PM

If the patient is asleep, does that mean that the pain is gone?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

Is it appropriate to stop giving pain medicine just because the patient is asleep?

My little burned patient was probably not expressing relief from pain with her periods of unresponsiveness – especially since she had not received anything for her severe pain. Each time that she woke up screaming, that was also a clue. the medical command doctor’s orders were to give no pain medicine.[1]

Is propofol effective at putting patients to sleep without relieving their pain?

Sleep do........ Read more »

Paqueron X, Lumbroso A, Mergoni P, Aubrun F, Langeron O, Coriat P, & Riou B. (2002) Is morphine-induced sedation synonymous with analgesia during intravenous morphine titration?. British journal of anaesthesia, 89(5), 697-701. PMID: 12393765  

  • December 26, 2012
  • 09:25 AM

One Myrrh-aculous Christmas Gift

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

The three wise men made a gift of myrrh, knowing it was an important incense, embalming agent, and anti-microbial. What they didn’t know is that 2000 years later we would find that constituents of myrrh would be important in cancer and other diseases. Recent research has shown how the myrrh steroid, guggulsterone, can reverse multiple drug resistance in several types of cancer by competing with P-glycoportein and inducing apoptosis. At the same time, additional studies show that guggulster........ Read more »

  • December 24, 2012
  • 01:24 AM

Taste receptors of Gut could help us to treat obesity and related disorders

by Usman Paracha in SayPeople

Researchers are of the opinion that obesity treatment can be enhanced by targeting the taste receptors in the gut.

This research has been published online in the journal Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism.

This might be interesting to know that our gut has the same feelings (receptors or sensors) for taste as our tongue that work through the same signaling mechanisms. Those receptors or sensors are helpful in controlling the overindulgence in the food intake and blood sugar levels. They ........ Read more »

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