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  • June 15, 2016
  • 09:05 AM
  • 788 views

Tricky Little Buggers

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Evolution brings wisdom with age – and bacteria are ancient. Bacteria have evolved defenses ranging from evasion or inhibition of immune systems to protecting crucial functions from environmental injury. New studies have identified spring-loaded spikes that can be assembled and disassembled for puncturing other bacteria and delivering toxins, while other work is focused on using those same toxins to kill antibiotic resistant organisms, with E. coli have been engineered to produce toxins ag........ Read more »

Basler, M., Pilhofer, M., Henderson, G., Jensen, G., & Mekalanos, J. (2012) Type VI secretion requires a dynamic contractile phage tail-like structure. Nature, 483(7388), 182-186. DOI: 10.1038/nature10846  

Saeidi, N., Wong, C., Lo, T., Nguyen, H., Ling, H., Leong, S., Poh, C., & Chang, M. (2011) Engineering microbes to sense and eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. Molecular Systems Biology. DOI: 10.1038/msb.2011.55  

  • June 6, 2016
  • 11:34 AM
  • 821 views

Burning seaweed to make glass and avoid a lumpy neck

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

Seaweed is one of those tricky biological groups, as membership isn't just about being a close relative. It typically includes plant-like organisms found among several types of algae - green, brown, and red - and depending on who you're talking to also includes masses of cyanobacteria (which are distant relatives of algae). Functionally, all seaweeds enjoy growing in salty water and use the sun to manufacture sugary meals for themselves. Their need for sun means they are found in sunlit coastal ........ Read more »

  • June 1, 2016
  • 09:10 AM
  • 714 views

The Dirt On Staying Healthy

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Triclosan is the active ingredient in many anti-bacterial products, but does it make our environment too clean? The hygiene hypothesis states that early childhood exposure to certain antigens can help to balance and control the immune system, and therefore result in lower levels of food and seasonal allergies. One particularly important antigen seems to be arabinogalactan, a fiber/sugar molecule found on farms – maybe that’s why farmers’ kids have lower levels of food and other........ Read more »

Gennady Cherednichenkoa, Rui Zhanga, Roger A. Bannisterb,Valeriy Timofeyevc, Ning Lic, Erika B. Fritscha, Wei Fenga, Genaro C. Barrientosa, Nils H. Schebbd, Bruce D. Hammockd, Kurt G. Beame, Nipavan Chiamvimonvatc, and Isaac N. Pessaha. (2012) Triclosan impairs excitation–contraction coupling and Ca2 dynamics in striated muscle. PNAS. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1211314109  

  • May 23, 2016
  • 11:39 AM
  • 714 views

Emotional Processing: A Key to Depression Treatment?

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In my last post I reported on the use of machine learning to aid in predicting response to depression treatment.Another interesting depression prediction tool is being investigated in a trial in England funded by the Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust.This trial uses a visual facial recognition tool. The hypothesis is that early antidepressant action can be identified by changes in facial emotional recognition.This trial stems from work by Catherine Harmer Ph.D. from the University of Oxford. He........ Read more »

  • May 20, 2016
  • 11:50 AM
  • 693 views

Predicting Depression Treatment Response: Machine Learning

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Treatment of depression remains primarily an uninformed clinical process. Several effective drug and psychotherapy interventions are available. However, there is no reliable way to determine which treatment is likely to be the most effective for an individual patient.A recent study that used machine learning techniques to address this problem has been published.A research team from Yale University used clinical data from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) tr........ Read more »

Chekroud AM, Zotti RJ, Shehzad Z, Gueorguieva R, Johnson MK, Trivedi MH, Cannon TD, Krystal JH, & Corlett PR. (2016) Cross-trial prediction of treatment outcome in depression: a machine learning approach. The lancet. Psychiatry, 3(3), 243-50. PMID: 26803397  

  • May 19, 2016
  • 09:31 AM
  • 799 views

Antimicrobial antenna bacteria of bee-hunting wasps

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

For many people, including myself, a mention of the word wasp brings to mind a particular yellow and black annoyance found hovering around garbage cans in the summertime. However, as is usually the case with the natural world, wasps are far more interesting than our common experiences with them let on. To start, there are thousands upon thousands of species, not just the yellow jackets we try to avoid being stung by as we eat at a picnic table out in the park. Wasps are close cousins of bees and........ Read more »

Seipke RF, Kaltenpoth M, & Hutchings MI. (2012) Streptomyces as symbionts: An emerging and widespread theme?. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 36(4), 862-876. PMID: 22091965  

  • May 18, 2016
  • 08:28 AM
  • 768 views

Why antibiotics in ointments differ from those in pills

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

There are many ways to get a drug into a person. Two common approaches are to swallow a small soluble solid or inject a liquid into a vein, causing it to be transported throughout the body to wherever it is needed.Topical medications are those applied to a body surface, be it skin, eyeballs, or the insides of your lungs. This is usually done to deliver the drug to the particular place requiring repair (e.g. eye drops for an eye infection) while minimizing the amount of drug ending up in other pa........ Read more »

  • May 5, 2016
  • 03:26 PM
  • 675 views

Ketamine Metabolite Linked to Rapid Antidepressant Effect

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Model of crytalized ketamine moleculeStandard antidepressant therapies typically take two weeks or more to begin to act.Ketamine is an anesthetic drug recently demonstrated to have a rapid antidepressant effect.The mechanism for this effect is unknown. A recent mouse study of ketamine and metabolites of ketamine show some potentially groundbreaking insight for the treatment of depression.This study found these significant findings:Ketamine like most organic compounds is made of boty an R an........ Read more »

Zanos, P., Moaddel, R., Morris, P., Georgiou, P., Fischell, J., Elmer, G., Alkondon, M., Yuan, P., Pribut, H., Singh, N.... (2016) NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature17998  

  • April 14, 2016
  • 08:50 AM
  • 941 views

Tales from the pharmaceutical minor leagues

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

When a drug company first gets its hands on a potential new drug, it will usually assign it a code name. Later on, as the drug works its way through trials designed to make sure it does something useful (e.g. reduce blood pressure) without causing serious harm (e.g. liver failure), it's given a catchier moniker like fluoxetine or atorvastatin. If the trials are a success, and the government is happy with how they were carried out, the drug can be brought to market. Most drugs don't make it. A go........ Read more »

  • April 12, 2016
  • 06:00 PM
  • 834 views

Dr. Kudenchuk is Misrepresenting ALPS as 'Significant'

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

This study was very well done, but it was not designed to provide valid information about the effects of amiodarone or lidocaine on witnessed arrests or on EMS Witnessed arrests. Maybe the authors were overconfident.

In resuscitation research, we have abundant evidence that overconfidence is much more common than improvements in outcomes.... Read more »

Kudenchuk, P., Brown, S., Daya, M., Rea, T., Nichol, G., Morrison, L., Leroux, B., Vaillancourt, C., Wittwer, L., Callaway, C.... (2016) Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. New England Journal of Medicine. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1514204  

Glover BM, Brown SP, Morrison L, Davis D, Kudenchuk PJ, Van Ottingham L, Vaillancourt C, Cheskes S, Atkins DL, Dorian P.... (2012) Wide variability in drug use in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A report from the resuscitation outcomes consortium. Resuscitation. PMID: 22858552  

  • April 4, 2016
  • 07:15 PM
  • 772 views

Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

I wrote about the start of the ALPS (Amiodarone, Lidocaine, Placebo Study) in 2012[1] and the results are now in.
... Read more »

Kudenchuk, P., Brown, S., Daya, M., Rea, T., Nichol, G., Morrison, L., Leroux, B., Vaillancourt, C., Wittwer, L., Callaway, C.... (2016) Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. New England Journal of Medicine. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1514204  

  • March 11, 2016
  • 10:11 AM
  • 690 views

Anesthesia, cancer, and the wrong pipe: A quick tour of cycloalkanes

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

The simplest organic molecules out there are alkanes, which consist of one or more carbon atoms coated with hydrogen atoms. If you loop an alkane chain you get a cycloalkane. For today's post I'll be looking at a couple of cycloalkanes and their relevance to human health and biology at large.Cyclopropane is an unstable carbon atom triangle. It's a gas at room temperature, and its lack of stability makes it explosive when mixed with oxygen. Back in the day, medical folks became interested in usin........ Read more »

  • March 8, 2016
  • 05:15 PM
  • 907 views

What do you do when a patient wakes up during CPR?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

The return of consciousness without the return of a pulse is still rare, but may be more common with our increased focus on high quality chest compressions. There is still no evidence that interrupting chest compressions, for anything other than defibrillation, improves outcomes.

Is this due to the consistency of the machine? Maybe. Maybe not. We do not have enough evidence to draw that conclusion.

Is this growing population really growing? Maybe. Maybe not. We do not have enough evidence ........ Read more »

  • March 7, 2016
  • 11:05 AM
  • 937 views

Making booze feel bad

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

Alcohol-sensitizing drugs are used to ruin the experience of consuming alcohol. This can be helpful for people seeking treatment for alcohol dependence, but otherwise sounds absolutely terrible. After consuming an adult beverage, alcohol is absorbed into your bloodstream and carried to your liver. There, it is set upon by two enzymes. The first, alcohol dehydrogenase, converts alcohol into acetaldehyde. The second enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, converts the acetaldehyde into acetic acid (the st........ Read more »

  • February 25, 2016
  • 02:53 PM
  • 1,036 views

How coconuts bring harm and healing

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

Curries, macaroons, piña coladas...where would we be without the captivating culinary contributions of the coconut?... Read more »

Campbell-Falck D, Thomas T, Falck TM, Tutuo N, & Clem K. (2000) The intravenous use of coconut water. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 108-111. PMID: 10674546  

Mulford JS, Oberli H, & Tovosia S. (2001) Coconut palm-related injuries in the Pacific Islands. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 71(1), 32-34. PMID: 11167595  

  • February 18, 2016
  • 11:52 AM
  • 990 views

The secret pharmacological life of the humble avocado

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

Guacamole, while delicious, is actually fairly destructive. This is thanks in part to a compound called persin, which is present in the fruit and leaves of the avocado tree (Persea americana). Persin is an acetogenin (a type of polyketide) made via the same biochemical pathways the avocado plant uses to make its delicious fatty acids. In fact, it closely resembles linoleic acid, an essential omega-6 fatty acid.Avocado fruits in their natural setting (Source)For some reason, persin is usuall........ Read more »

  • February 12, 2016
  • 09:48 AM
  • 894 views

Heartbreaking drugs: A Valentine's Day special

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

Let's talk about hearts and how they get broken. Literally, with drugs. When we swallow a pill, it's often to help address a problem we're experiencing with a particular body part. An aching head or a sore throat, for example. The pill breaks down in our guts and we absorb the drug into our bloodstream. It travels around our body and eventually ends up at the hurting locale where it works to fix the problem. Unfortunately, sometimes the drug will end up somewhere else and act there to cause an u........ Read more »

  • February 6, 2016
  • 08:42 AM
  • 842 views

Domestic Dog

by Jason Organ in Eatlemania!

The Eatles are cleaning the skull of a domestic dog. Come read about osteoporosis research in the Organ Lab at Indiana University School of Medicine... Read more »

Allen MR, Territo PR, Lin C, Persohn S, Jiang L, Riley AA, McCarthy BP, Newman CL, Burr DB, & Hutchins GD. (2015) In Vivo UTE-MRI Reveals Positive Effects of Raloxifene on Skeletal-Bound Water in Skeletally Mature Beagle Dogs. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 30(8), 1441-4. PMID: 25644867  

Allen MR, McNerny EM, Organ JM, & Wallace JM. (2015) True Gold or Pyrite: A Review of Reference Point Indentation for Assessing Bone Mechanical Properties In Vivo. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 30(9), 1539-50. PMID: 26235703  

  • January 24, 2016
  • 11:01 AM
  • 578 views

Increased Short Term Risk of Adverse Cardiac Effects With Antibiotic Clarithromycin

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

More on Heart Disease on MedicalResearch.com MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Ian C K Wong Fellow of Royal Pharmaceutical Society Fellow of Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (Honorary) Fellow of the Higher Education Academy Chair in Pharmacy Practice Head … Continue reading →
The post Increased Short Term Risk of Adverse Cardiac Effects With Antibiotic Clarithromycin appeared first on MedicalResearch.com.
... Read more »

Prof. Ian CK Wong. (2016) Increased Short Term Risk of Adverse Cardiac Effects With Antibiotic Clarithromycin. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • January 13, 2016
  • 10:05 AM
  • 1,203 views

Exercise Puts Me To Sleep – You Too

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

A New Year’s resolution to exercise could also help you sleep. But how? It wears you out and reduces stress, but there is much more. Exercise manipulates the temperature of the body by messing with your brain and modulates immune cytokine levels. It’s true… your immune system controls sleep cycles!... Read more »

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