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All posts; Tags Include "Pharmacology"

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  • October 16, 2013
  • 09:30 PM
  • 1,729 views

Dying to know about Dientamoeba?

by Christen Rune Stensvold in Blastocystis Parasite Blog

Similar to Blastocystis, Dientamoeba fragilis is a very common parasite in countries where other intestinal parasites are of low endemic occurrence. We are exploring the clinical significance of these parasites.... Read more »

Engsbro AL, Stensvold CR, Nielsen HV, & Bytzer P. (2012) Treatment of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 87(6), 1046-52. PMID: 23091195  

Ogren J, Dienus O, Löfgren S, Iveroth P, & Matussek A. (2013) Dientamoeba fragilis DNA detection in Enterobius vermicularis eggs. Pathogens and disease. PMID: 23893951  

Stark DJ, Beebe N, Marriott D, Ellis JT, & Harkness J. (2006) Dientamoebiasis: clinical importance and recent advances. Trends in parasitology, 22(2), 92-6. PMID: 16380293  

Stark D, Barratt J, Roberts T, Marriott D, Harkness J, & Ellis J. (2010) A review of the clinical presentation of dientamoebiasis. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 82(4), 614-9. PMID: 20348509  

Stensvold CR, Clark CG, & Röser D. (2013) Limited intra-genetic diversity in Dientamoeba fragilis housekeeping genes. Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 284-6. PMID: 23681023  

Stensvold CR, Lewis HC, Hammerum AM, Porsbo LJ, Nielsen SS, Olsen KE, Arendrup MC, Nielsen HV, & Mølbak K. (2009) Blastocystis: unravelling potential risk factors and clinical significance of a common but neglected parasite. Epidemiology and infection, 137(11), 1655-63. PMID: 19393117  

  • October 9, 2013
  • 01:37 PM
  • 1,025 views

Stress, Antidepressants and Cardiovascular Function

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

There is increased interest in the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders and cardiovascular function.Presence of depression appears to be an independent risk factor for the future development of cardiovascular disease.Patients with depression and myocardial infarction demonstrate increased risk for future cardiac events including cardiac death.The exact mechanism for the interaction of depression and cardiovascular function is unclear.  Depression appears to be associated with a f........ Read more »

  • October 3, 2013
  • 05:34 PM
  • 2,111 views

Exhibitionism in Medical Education: The Brindley Lecture – Heralding A Sexual Revolution

by Pranab Chatterjee in Scepticemia

The first boom in treatment for male erectile dysfunction came in the 1920s and 1930 when the Russian-origin French surgeon Serge Abramovitch Voronoff started to prescribe surgical implantation of monkey testicles in the human scrotum to augment sexual prowess. This gained quite a bit of fan following for a couple of decades and brough Voronoff […]... Read more »

  • September 25, 2013
  • 12:09 PM
  • 929 views

Autism, Risperidone and the Genetics of Weight Gain

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Weight gain is an key adverse event associated with many drug classes in psychopharmacology.Understanding this adverse event is important in patient selection and management.Genetics may play a key role in the risk for the type and severity of adverse events.  EL Nurmi and colleagues recently published an exploratory study of the role of genetics in weight gain associated with autism in children and adolescents participating in a clinical trial. The key elements of the design of this s........ Read more »

  • September 4, 2013
  • 11:00 PM
  • 1,091 views

Unreasonable Fear of Hypotension and High-Dose NTG - Part II

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

Continuing from Part I to look at the results of the study of high-dose SL (SubLingual) NTG (NiTroGlycerin – GTN GlycerylTriNitrate in Commonwealth countries) by EMS for CHF (Congestive Heart Failure) that Peter Canning wrote about.[1]

For CHF, more NTG does not produce more of a drop in blood pressure.

If you disagree, provide evidence.... Read more »

Clemency BM, Thompson JJ, Tundo GN, & Lindstrom HA. (2013) Prehospital High-dose Sublingual Nitroglycerin Rarely Causes Hypotension. Prehospital and disaster medicine, 1-4. PMID: 23962769  

  • September 4, 2013
  • 09:20 AM
  • 1,222 views

Three Lefts Make A Right

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Homochirality demands that L-amino acids are used in biologic systems. However, new research in many areas is showing how D-amino acids contribute to life. D-amino acids are incorporated into lipoproteins of many bacteria, and can control the production and dissolution of biofilms as bacterial populations age and use up resources. Other research is highlighting the importance of D-amino acids in neural networks in humans. When dysregulated, D-serine and D-aspartic acid contribute to diseases suc........ Read more »

Lam H, Oh DC, Cava F, Takacs CN, Clardy J, de Pedro MA, Waldor MK. (2009) D-amino Acids Govern Stationary Phase Cell Wall Re-Modeling in Bacteria. Science, 18(325), 1552-1555. DOI: 10.1126/science.1178123  

Kolodkin-Gal I, Romero D, Cao S, Clardy J, Kolter R, Losick R. (2010) D-Amino Acids Trigger Biofilm Disassembly. Science, 328(5978), 627-629. DOI: 10.1126/science.1188628  

Sasabe J, Miyoshi Y, Suzuki M, Mita M, Konno R, Matsuoka M, Hamase K, Aiso S. (2012) D-amino acid oxidase controls motoneuron degeneration through D-serine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. , 109(2), 627-32. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1114639109  

Simanski M, Gläser R, Köten B, Meyer-Hoffert U, Wanner S, Weidenmaier C, Peschel A, & Harder J. (2013) Staphylococcus aureus subverts cutaneous defense by d-alanylation of teichoic acids. Experimental dermatology, 22(4), 294-6. PMID: 23528217  

Errico F, Napolitano F, Squillace M, Vitucci D, Blasi G, de Bartolomeis A, Bertolino A, D'Aniello A, & Usiello A. (2013) Decreased levels of d-aspartate and NMDA in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of patients with schizophrenia. Journal of psychiatric research. PMID: 23835041  

  • August 29, 2013
  • 06:20 PM
  • 1,336 views

Unreasonable Fear of Hypotension and High-Dose NTG - Part I

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

Peter Canning writes about a study of high-dose sublingual nitroglycerin by EMS for congestive heart failure.[1]

I have some problems with the study.

The doses are not high doses.... Read more »

Clemency BM, Thompson JJ, Tundo GN, & Lindstrom HA. (2013) Prehospital High-dose Sublingual Nitroglycerin Rarely Causes Hypotension. Prehospital and disaster medicine, 1-4. PMID: 23962769  

Bertini G, Giglioli C, Biggeri A, Margheri M, Simonetti I, Sica ML, Russo L, & Gensini G. (1997) Intravenous nitrates in the prehospital management of acute pulmonary edema. Annals of emergency medicine, 30(4), 493-9. PMID: 9326864  

  • August 28, 2013
  • 12:57 PM
  • 1,407 views

Effects of Testosterone Deprivation on Brain Structure

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The evils of testosterone deficiency are trumpeted from the television, radio and internet on a daily basis. Some of this is driven by the pharmaceutical industry and the explosion of products available for testosterone replacement.I think quite a bit of this is overblown, but I did find a recent study on the effects of androgen deficiency on brain structure and function.Testosterone is the major androgen in men and this hormone contributes to risk of prostate cancer progression.  Men with ........ Read more »

  • August 21, 2013
  • 09:20 AM
  • 1,177 views

Life Is Elemental

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

More than half the genes in you can be found in a banana. Mammalian biochemistry and that of a fungus is remarkable similar. This is true because we come from a common ancestor, and that ancestor was made of biomolecules that have been conserved. Biomolecules themselves are common to all life because they are based on the same elements; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.

But these are just the most common elements of life. Life on Earth requires at least two dozen ot........ Read more »

Tobe R, Naranjo-Suarez S, Everley RA, Carlson BA, Turanov AA, Tsuji PA, Yoo MH, Gygi SP, Gladyshev VN, & Hatfield DL. (2013) High error rates in selenocysteine insertion in mammalian cells treated with the antibiotic doxycycline, chloramphenicol, or geneticin. The Journal of biological chemistry, 288(21), 14709-15. PMID: 23589299  

Mateos-Naranjo E, Andrades-Moreno L, & Davy AJ. (2013) Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora. Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB / Societe francaise de physiologie vegetale, 115-21. PMID: 23257076  

  • August 19, 2013
  • 02:14 PM
  • 2,078 views

Antibiotic Resistance – The Lethal Threat for Next Generation

by Imtiaz Ibne Alam in Medical-Reference - A Pioneer in Medical Blogging

The understanding of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will first require you to understand how antibiotics work. Usually, antibiotics kill or inhibit bacteria by inactivating or neutralizing an essential cell protein in bacteria. When bacteria become resistant to antibiotics, this essential protein is either removed or altered. Eventually, this changing in the essential protein of bacteria discourages antibiotics from attaching to the target site. ... Read more »

Pérez-Llarena FJ, & Bou G. (2009) Beta-lactamase inhibitors: the story so far. Current medicinal chemistry, 16(28), 3740-65. PMID: 19747143  

  • August 2, 2013
  • 06:38 AM
  • 1,019 views

Breakthroughs in Bipolar Treatment

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

"We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity" (Geddes & Miklowitz, 2013).That quote was from a recent review article in The Lancet, which did not hint at any impending pharmacological breakthroughs in the treatment of bipolar disorder. In other words, the future of bipolar treatment doesn't look much different from the present (at least in the immediate term). Bipolar disorder, an illness defined by the existence of manic or hypomanic highs, alternati........ Read more »

  • August 2, 2013
  • 01:05 AM
  • 987 views

Pediatrician Concussion Management Strategies and Medication Use

by Stephen Stache in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Take Home Message: A vast majority of pediatricians who care for patients with concussions follow available treatment guidelines, use medications as part of their treatment plan, use neuropsychological testing, and desire additional training in the management of sports-related concussion.... Read more »

  • July 31, 2013
  • 10:45 PM
  • 1,227 views

Dilaudid – Start With 2 mg or Start With 1 mg?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

What is the proper interval before we should give another dose of opioid to patients who still have significant pain?

This study suggests that 3 to 5 minutes would be ideal, but that the ED (Emergency Department) is not a setting where that is practical. ... Read more »

  • July 24, 2013
  • 09:20 AM
  • 1,190 views

Mildew Broke The Mold

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Mold and mildew – the two always seem to go together. Unfortunately, things aren’t so simplistic. Many mildews are molds --- which are fungi. But some common molds are really bacteria, not fungi at all! Pink mold is caused by the bacterium Serratia marcescens, a burgeoning offender in nosocomial infection outbreaks. New research is showing that S. marcescens is an increasing cause of necrotizing fasciitis, and causes many community and hospital acquired respiratory and urinary infect........ Read more »

Elahian, F., Moghimi, B., Dinmohammadi, F., Ghamghami, M., Hamidi, M., & Mirzaei, S. (2013) The Anticancer Agent Prodigiosin Is Not a Multidrug Resistance Protein Substrate. DNA and Cell Biology, 32(3), 90-97. DOI: 10.1089/dna.2012.1902  

  • July 23, 2013
  • 12:35 PM
  • 1,159 views

Alcohol, Drugs and Risk of Death By Drowning

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

It is common knowledge that it is dangerous to drink alcohol before operating a motor vehicle.  However, this elevated risk for injury and death with alcohol extends across a variety of situations.Kristin Ahlm and colleagues recently conducted an analysis of the pattern of alcohol and drug use in drowning deaths in Sweden.  This analysis was published in the journal BMC Public Health.In their study, they examined a series of drowning deaths that included autopsy.  Over the period ........ Read more »

  • July 22, 2013
  • 05:38 PM
  • 525 views

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and some open questions for research

by Usman Paracha in SayPeople

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family and has been found to be related to synaptic regulation in humans. It can be used for the development of disease-modifying drugs for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

This article is gives some ideas for research for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

Some open questions by researchers related to BDNF are as follows:

First, the vast majority of studies published so far ........ Read more »

BDNF-based synaptic repair as a disease-modifying strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. (2013) Bai Lu, Guhan Nagappan, Xiaoming Guan, Pradeep J. Nathan . Nature Reviews Neuroscience. DOI: 10.1038/nrn3505  

  • July 22, 2013
  • 05:29 PM
  • 481 views

Neurodegenerative diseases and some ideas for research

by Usman Paracha in SayPeople

In case of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), you may start your work from the study of synapses - gaps between the nerve ends - as synaptic dysfunctions are considered as most important disorders in these diseases.

Although a great deal of work has been done on neurodegenerative diseases but they still lack fully potential “disease-modifying therapies”. Disease-modifying therapy (cures the disease as opposed to the cure of only symptoms in symptoma........ Read more »

BDNF-based synaptic repair as a disease-modifying strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. (2013) Bai Lu, Guhan Nagappan, Xiaoming Guan, Pradeep J. Nathan . Nature Reviews Neuroscience. DOI: 10.1038/nrn3505  

  • July 16, 2013
  • 07:25 PM
  • 1,076 views

It’s official – the animal study literature is biased… but whose fault is it?

by Roli Roberts in PLOS Biologue

 
Testing a new drug on human subjects is expensive, risky and ethically complex, so the vast majority of potential treatments are first tried out on non-human animals. Unfortunately similar issues also constrain the size of animal studies, meaning that …... Read more »

Konstantinos K. Tsilidis, Orestis A. Panagiotou, Emily S. Sena, Eleni Aretouli, Evangelos Evangelou, David W. Howells, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Malcolm R. Macleod, John P. A. Ioannidis. (2013) Evaluation of Excess Significance Bias in Animal Studies of Neurological Diseases. PLoS Biology, 11(7). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001609  

  • July 10, 2013
  • 09:30 PM
  • 1,211 views

This Month In Blastocystis Research (JUL)

by Christen Rune Stensvold in Blastocystis Parasite Blog

This Month In Blastocystis Research (JUL 2013) focuses on a symposium on Blastocystis that has been published in the open access journal Tropical Parasitology.... Read more »

  • July 8, 2013
  • 02:45 AM
  • 13,850 views

Do Paralytics Improve Outcomes Following Resuscitation?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

This study will get some people excited because of an impressive p value for an odds ratio of improved cardiac arrest outcomes - 7.23 (1.56–33.38) p = 0.01.

NMBs (NeuroMuscular Blockers/Blockade) are paralytic drugs that are used to prevent movement by the patient. Does this study truly show that immediate use of NMBs improves neurologically intact survival from cardiac arrest?... Read more »

Salciccioli JD, Cocchi MN, Rittenberger JC, Peberdy MA, Ornato JP, Abella BS, Gaieski DF, Clore J, Gautam S, Giberson T.... (2013) Continuous neuromuscular blockade is associated with decreased mortality in post-cardiac arrest patients. Resuscitation. PMID: 23796602  

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