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  • May 10, 2014
  • 09:12 AM

Parasite-Microbiota-Host Interactions

by Christen Rune Stensvold in Blastocystis Parasite Blog

In order to identify the role of Blastocystis in human health and disease, it's important to explore and recognise the potential spectrum of parasite-microbiota-host interactions.... Read more »

  • May 7, 2014
  • 09:05 AM

Everybody Wants To Be Cool

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Capsaicin activates TRPV1 ion channels. Why do we care? Because that’s makes our mouth burn when we eat spicy food. But TRPV1 also senses noxious heat. On the other end of the scale, there are also ion channels for sensing cool and cold temperatures. But the TRPM8 cool receptor is also activated by menthol. This is much of the reason for menthol being added to cigarettes.

New research shows that menthol in cigarettes adds to the cytotoxicity of tobacco smoke, while menthol alone causes ........ Read more »

Noriyasu A, Konishi T, Mochizuki S, Sakurai K, Tanaike Y, Matsuyama K, Uezu K, & Kawano T. (2013) Menthol-enhanced cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke demonstrated in two bioassay models. Tobacco induced diseases, 11(1), 18. PMID: 24001273  

Brody AL, Mukhin AG, La Charite J, Ta K, Farahi J, Sugar CA, Mamoun MS, Vellios E, Archie M, Kozman M.... (2013) Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP), 16(5), 957-66. PMID: 23171716  

Ashoor A, Nordman JC, Veltri D, Yang KH, Al Kury L, Shuba Y, Mahgoub M, Howarth FC, Sadek B, Shehu A.... (2013) Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PloS one, 8(7). PMID: 23935840  

  • April 30, 2014
  • 02:14 PM

OYM 32: Pass it to the offspring on your left

by On Your Mind in On Your Mind

  This week in the On Your Mind Neuroscience Podcast: The Team is making progress: Adel’s got a lead on a potential job shadow and Liam is adapting to the changing dynamics of having two supervisors.  Meanwhile, Kat’s been focused on recovering from a cold that’s taken her out of commission.  In between bouts of more
The post OYM 32: Pass it to the offspring on your left appeared first on On Your Mind Podcast.
... Read more »

Szutorisz H, Dinieri JA, Sweet E, Egervari G, Michaelides M, Carter JM, Ren Y, Miller ML, Blitzer RD, & Hurd YL. (2014) Parental THC Exposure Leads to Compulsive Heroin-Seeking and Altered Striatal Synaptic Plasticity in the Subsequent Generation. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(6), 1315-23. PMID: 24385132  

  • April 30, 2014
  • 09:15 AM

Capsaicin Receptors – Matters Of Life And Death

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

The functions of the chili pepper (capsaicin) receptor TRPV1 have been expanded in the recent years. Mechanisms of hearing involve TRPV1, but the functional range is narrow, as new research is showing that excess noise and ototoxic drugs are TRPV1 agonists and lead to abberant expression and function – hearing damage and tinnitus.

In the realm of cancer, capsaicin is showing two faces as well. TRPV1 agonists can induce apoptosis, reactive oxygen species-mediated damage, and cell cycle ........ Read more »

  • April 23, 2014
  • 09:25 AM

Chili Peppers Run Hot And Cold

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Hot peppers are hot because their capsaicin binds to the TRPV1 heat sensing ion channel. Agonists of TRPV1 can lead to a hypothermia, while antagonists result in a hyperthermia. Normally these would be poor outcomes, but there are particular instances that new researchs are showing to be beneficial. Brown adipose tissue is promoted by TRPV1 agonists, and studies are showing that capsaicin can hinder formation of white adipose tissue. Likewise, agonists of TRPV1 can induce a protective hypothermi........ Read more »

Yoneshiro T, Aita S, Matsushita M, Kayahara T, Kameya T, Kawai Y, Iwanaga T, & Saito M. (2013) Recruited brown adipose tissue as an antiobesity agent in humans. The Journal of clinical investigation, 123(8), 3404-8. PMID: 23867622  

Feng Z, Hai-Ning Y, Xiao-Man C, Zun-Chen W, Sheng-Rong S, & Das UN. (2014) Effect of yellow capsicum extract on proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 30(3), 319-25. PMID: 24296036  

Muzzi M, Felici R, Cavone L, Gerace E, Minassi A, Appendino G, Moroni F, & Chiarugi A. (2012) Ischemic neuroprotection by TRPV1 receptor-induced hypothermia. Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 32(6), 978-82. PMID: 22434066  

  • April 16, 2014
  • 09:05 AM

Using Pain To Stop Pain

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Chronic pain can involve TRPV1 pathways, yet traditional TRPV1 antagonists cannot be used due to incidence of hyperthermia. New research has identified new routes of administration, new agonists and new allosteric functions that will make TRPV1 a viable target for chronic, acute, and cancer-mediated pains. Alternative mechanisms, such as counter irritants and acupuncture are also gaining in evidence for mechaisms that involve TRPV1 signaling pathways... Read more »

Andreev YA, Kozlov SA, Korolkova YV, Dyachenko IA, Bondarenko DA, Skobtsov DI, Murashev AN, Kotova PD, Rogachevskaja OA, Kabanova NV.... (2013) Polypeptide modulators of TRPV1 produce analgesia without hyperthermia. Marine drugs, 11(12), 5100-15. PMID: 24351908  

Lee MG, Huh BK, Choi SS, Lee DK, Lim BG, & Lee M. (2012) The effect of epidural resiniferatoxin in the neuropathic pain rat model. Pain physician, 15(4), 287-96. PMID: 22828682  

Kelly S, Chapman RJ, Woodhams S, Sagar DR, Turner J, Burston JJ, Bullock C, Paton K, Huang J, Wong A.... (2013) Increased function of pronociceptive TRPV1 at the level of the joint in a rat model of osteoarthritis pain. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. PMID: 24152419  

  • April 9, 2014
  • 09:10 AM

Capsaicin – Adding To Or Taking Your Pain

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Activation of TRPV1 ion channels can lead to potentiation of noxious stimuli while activation of multiple nociceptors can result in sensitization of TRPV1. Both situations can lead to hyperalgesia or allodynia. New research is highlighting the role of TRPV1 in burning mouth syndrome, both in its hyperalgesic and allodynic symptoms, as well as in its treatment. ... Read more »

Borsani E, Majorana A, Cocchi MA, Conti G, Bonadeo S, Padovani A, Lauria G, Bardellini E, Rezzani R, & Rodella LF. (2013) Epithelial expression of vanilloid and cannabinoid receptors: a potential role in burning mouth syndrome pathogenesis. Histology and histopathology. PMID: 24190005  

Silvestre FJ, Silvestre-Rangil J, Tamarit-Santafé C, & Bautista D. (2012) Application of a capsaicin rinse in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal, 17(1). PMID: 21743415  

Alpizar YA, Boonen B, Gees M, Sanchez A, Nilius B, Voets T, & Talavera K. (2014) Allyl isothiocyanate sensitizes TRPV1 to heat stimulation. Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology, 466(3), 507-15. PMID: 23955021  

  • April 2, 2014
  • 09:10 AM

It’s Not Just Chili Peppers That Are Hot

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

The same receptor that senses capsaicin and regulates body temperature is also involved in osmoregulation. New studies indicate that a variant of TRPV1 in the magnocellular neurosecretory cells work in osmoregulation but do not bind capsaicin or sense heat. Another study has elucidated that TRPV1 acts only in hypertonicty; it senses cell shrinkage. Swelling due to hypotonicity is sensed by TRPV4. Together, these form a crucial part of the osmoregulatory system.... Read more »

Holland C, van Drunen C, Denyer J, Smart K, Segboer C, Terreehorst I, Newlands A, Beerahee M, Fokkens W, & Tsitoura DC. (2013) Inhibition of capsaicin-driven nasal hyper-reactivity by SB-705498, a TRPV1 antagonist. British journal of clinical pharmacology. PMID: 23909699  

Chung G, Im ST, Kim YH, Jung SJ, Rhyu MR, & Oh SB. (2014) Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 by eugenol. Neuroscience, 153-60. PMID: 24384226  

Alpizar YA, Boonen B, Gees M, Sanchez A, Nilius B, Voets T, & Talavera K. (2014) Allyl isothiocyanate sensitizes TRPV1 to heat stimulation. Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology, 466(3), 507-15. PMID: 23955021  

  • March 27, 2014
  • 11:15 AM

In Defense of No Improvement by Medic Madness - Part III

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

Sean continues to explain how the machine that does not improve outcomes allows him to provide other 'treatments' that do not improve outcomes.

I continue to point out the problems with his excuses.

.... Read more »

Larabee TM, Liu KY, Campbell JA, & Little CM. (2012) Vasopressors in cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation, 83(8), 932-9. PMID: 22425731  

Hagihara A, Hasegawa M, Abe T, Nagata T, Wakata Y, & Miyazaki S. (2012) Prehospital epinephrine use and survival among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 307(11), 1161-8. PMID: 22436956  

Hayashi Y, Iwami T, Kitamura T, Nishiuchi T, Kajino K, Sakai T, Nishiyama C, Nitta M, Hiraide A, & Kai T. (2012) Impact of early intravenous epinephrine administration on outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society, 76(7), 1639-45. PMID: 22481099  

Allegra J, Lavery R, Cody R, Birnbaum G, Brennan J, Hartman A, Horowitz M, Nashed A, & Yablonski M. (2001) Magnesium sulfate in the treatment of refractory ventricular fibrillation in the prehospital setting. Resuscitation, 49(3), 245-9. PMID: 11719117  

Kudenchuk PJ, Cobb LA, Copass MK, Cummins RO, Doherty AM, Fahrenbruch CE, Hallstrom AP, Murray WA, Olsufka M, & Walsh T. (1999) Amiodarone for resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. The New England journal of medicine, 341(12), 871-8. PMID: 10486418  

  • March 18, 2014
  • 12:46 PM

Short Sleep Duration in Children with Autism

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Parents of children with autism and autism spectrum disorder commonly report sleep problems in their child.However, there have been few prospective systematic studies of sleep in this disorder.Joanna Humphreys from Canada and colleagues from England recently published an important manuscript addressing this topic.They used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. This data set includes prospective data collected from a cohort of over 14,000 children born between April 1991 ........ Read more »

Humphreys JS, Gringras P, Blair PS, Scott N, Henderson J, Fleming PJ, & Emond AM. (2014) Sleep patterns in children with autistic spectrum disorders: a prospective cohort study. Archives of disease in childhood, 99(2), 114-8. PMID: 24061777  

  • March 5, 2014
  • 04:15 PM

Drug resistance evolves in inbred parasites

by sedeer in Inspiring Science

It all starts with a mosquito bite. When a hungry mosquito pierces someone’s skin to gorge herself, she also pumps …Continue reading →... Read more »

Miotto O, Almagro-Garcia J, Manske M, Macinnis B, Campino S, Rockett KA, Amaratunga C, Lim P, Suon S, Sreng S.... (2013) Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia. Nature genetics, 45(6), 648-55. PMID: 23624527  

  • February 26, 2014
  • 09:10 AM

Strange Insects Taste

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

New research is describing the ways that arthropods use gustatory receptors. Drosophila use a muscular reflex to extend or retract the proboscis, based on the sweet or bitter taste they experience. In silica studies are showing that female behaviors are driving gene duplication and evolution of taste receptor genes, while specific taste receptors are responsible for male female interactions in fruit fly courtship rituals.
... Read more »

Briscoe AD, Macias-Muñoz A, Kozak KM, Walters JR, Yuan F, Jamie GA, Martin SH, Dasmahapatra KK, Ferguson LC, Mallet J.... (2013) Female behaviour drives expression and evolution of gustatory receptors in butterflies. PLoS genetics, 9(7). PMID: 23950722  

  • February 21, 2014
  • 05:43 AM

Slow publishing innovation

by egonw in Chem-bla-ics

Elsevier is not the only publisher with a large innovation inertia. In fact, I think many large organizations do, particularly if there are too many interdependencies, causing too long lines. Greg Laundrum made me aware that one American Chemical Society journal is now going to encourage (not require) machine readable forms of chemical structures to be included in their flagship. The reasoning by Gilson et al. is balanced. It is also 15 years too late. This question was relevant at the end of th........ Read more »

Gilson MK, Georg G, & Wang S. (2014) Digital Chemistry in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Journal of medicinal chemistry. PMID: 24521446  

  • January 28, 2014
  • 07:38 AM

Geneticaly developed toxin destroy HIV carrying lymphocytes

by B V Waghmare in HIV virus and antiretroviral drugs and antiAIDS vaccine research and developmets

Drug that destroy HIV carrying lymphocytes; can impart complete treatment so that patient will not have to take antiretroviral drugs through out life as after certain period after attaining nill HIV count discontinuation of antiretroviral drug therapy there will be no hidden HIV virus in human body cells lymphocytes that relapse HIV infection and reproduce HIV count. ... Read more »

B V Waghmare. (2014) Drug that destroy HIV carrying lymphocytes; will result in complete treatment that will not require to taking antiretroviral drugs through out life. . info:/

  • January 8, 2014
  • 09:15 AM

Exercise Puts Me To Sleep – You Too

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

A New Year’s resolution to exercise could also help you sleep. But how? Sheer exhaustion is one way and reducing stress is another, but there is much more. Research is showing that exercise can induce sleep in the anterior hypothalamus and preoptic nucleus by either manipulation the temperature of the body or by modulating cytokine levels. Studies indicate that decreased temperature after exercise stimulate the brain to inhibit wakefulness signals modulated by orexin/hypocretin. Additional........ Read more »

  • December 18, 2013
  • 09:15 AM

Snow Saves Lives

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Tis the season for snow in the northern hemisphere – on the ground and in the mind of the biologist. Recent studies are showing the unique ways that organisms depend on and use snow in order to survive. An antifreeze protein from snow fleas may lengthen the time that organs can be stored for transplant. More amazing, reindeer use the UV rays that bounce of the snow to see predators – they are the only mammals that can see in the UV range.... Read more »

Hogg C, Neveu M, Stokkan KA, Folkow L, Cottrill P, Douglas R, Hunt DM, & Jeffery G. (2011) Arctic reindeer extend their visual range into the ultraviolet. The Journal of experimental biology, 214(Pt 12), 2014-9. PMID: 21613517  

Kondo H, Hanada Y, Sugimoto H, Hoshino T, Garnham CP, Davies PL, & Tsuda S. (2012) Ice-binding site of snow mold fungus antifreeze protein deviates from structural regularity and high conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(24), 9360-5. PMID: 22645341  

  • December 16, 2013
  • 11:14 AM

Genetic Factors Contribute to Being Skinny

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

An increasing body of research supports a genetic contribution to obesity.However, relatively few genetic studies of the opposite or lean phenotype have been done.The lean phenotype is important to study because being very underweight is linked to mortality risk and several clinical disorders including anorexia nervosa.Typically, I review neuroscience research manuscripts from other scientists in Brain Posts.Today I want to summarize some of my own research published recently in the journal PLOS........ Read more »

Yates WR, Johnson C, McKee P, Cannon-Albright LA. (2013) Genetic Analysis of Low BMI Phenotype in the Utah Population Database. PLOS One. info:/10.1371/journal.pone.0080287

  • November 20, 2013
  • 07:00 PM

Is Earlier Better for Therapeutic Hypothermia? Part I

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

When is the right time to begin TH (Therapeutic Hypothermia) to produce the best outcomes?

In the ICU (Intensive Care Unit)?

In the ED (Emergency Department)?

In the ambulance?

While the patient is still pulseless?

This question was asked in 2010.... Read more »

  • October 29, 2013
  • 08:02 PM

Bridging Study in Clinical Trials: Definition, History, and Importance

by Imtiaz Ibne Alam in Medical-Reference - A Pioneer in Medical Blogging

In today’s economic environment, globalization of pharmaceutical products has turned into the key to success for drug manufacturers. Investors in new drug development are therefore required to do more at less cost and faster rate now. However, sponsors are facing a new challenge due to ethnic factors, as the pharmacodynamic or clinical data in the original population could vary with the population in the new region. ... Read more »

Liu JP, & Chow SC. (2002) Bridging studies in clinical development. Journal of biopharmaceutical statistics, 12(3), 359-67. PMID: 12448577  

  • October 22, 2013
  • 09:20 AM

New Drug Reduces Negative Memory

by Jason Carr in Wired Cosmos

Through analysis of the human genome, Basle scientists have identified molecules and compounds that are related to human memory. In a subsequent pharmacological study with one of the identified compounds, the scientists found a drug-induced reduction of aversive memory. This could have implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, which is characterized by intrusive … Read More →... Read more »

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