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  • July 23, 2014
  • 01:14 PM
  • 694 views

Vaccine halves dengue cases

by Yao-Hua Law in TORCH

[Another version of this article was first published on SciDev.Net. Click here for link.]   A vaccine that can half the number of dengue cases will soon be available. A recent trial conducted in Southeast Asia shows that this dengue vaccine achieves a vaccine efficacy of 56.5%: the vaccine reduces an individual’s chance of getting […]... Read more »

  • July 20, 2014
  • 12:21 PM
  • 992 views

Slowing Heart Disease

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

Stopping just one minor enzyme leads to an entire cascade of pathways that can slow heart disease. [Infographic]... Read more »

Blazevic T, Schwaiberger AV, Schreiner CE, Schachner D, Schaible AM, Grojer CS, Atanasov AG, Werz O, Dirsch VM, & Heiss EH. (2013) 12/15-lipoxygenase contributes to platelet-derived growth factor-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. The Journal of biological chemistry, 288(49), 35592-603. PMID: 24165129  

  • July 16, 2014
  • 09:05 AM
  • 1,227 views

East To West And Back Again

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Sunflowers were named by Linnaeus for their round shape and bright color that reminded him of the sun, not because they follow the sun. But they do seem to turn to face the sun each day. A new review has looked at the molecular mechanisms that control the movement of the apex of the plant. But questions remain – how does the plant turn back to the east at night? Why is it that the flower turns but the leaves do not? Why does the movement stop when the flower matures?... Read more »

  • July 12, 2014
  • 08:02 PM
  • 1,051 views

Legal highs – not for human consumption

by DJMac in Recovery Review

Legal highs in Lothian The UK has the largest market for new psychoactive substances (NSP or “legal highs”) in Europe. Scotland is no stranger to them and, as a seminar in Edinburgh heard last week, the Lothian area is seeing a surge in demand, some worrying trends in injecting and significant new presentations due to problems [...]
The post Legal highs – not for human consumption appeared first on Recovery Review.
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  • July 10, 2014
  • 08:17 AM
  • 890 views

Can a Failed Schizophrenia Drug Prevent PTSD?

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

In the 2000s, enthusiasm was high that a novel class of drugs would reach the market as blockbuster treatments for psychiatric disorders. These drugs act on receptors for a group of neuropeptides known as tachykinins (or neurokinins). These peptides — substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NkA), and neurokinin B (NkB) — function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the central nervous system, but are quite different from the usual monoamines targeted by current psychotropic medications prescr........ Read more »

  • July 9, 2014
  • 09:15 AM
  • 1,052 views

What’s So Repelling About Repellents?

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

It’s amazing that even though citronella and DEET reduce mosquito bites, we have very little idea of how they work. New research is showing that DEET interacts with olfactory receptors so that chemical attractants are still sensed, but their interpretations are confused. You are still there, but you pretty disappear as far as the mosquito is concerned. Other research shows that one of the co-receptors for olfactory receptors is responsible not only for DEET activity, but also for mosquito ........ Read more »

  • July 2, 2014
  • 04:54 PM
  • 1,088 views

Plant = Pill?

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

E. Longfolia: an aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, and anti-malarial miracle plant. [Infographic]... Read more »

Tran TV, Malainer C, Schwaiger S, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, Dirsch VM, & Stuppner H. (2014) NF-κB inhibitors from Eurycoma longifolia. Journal of natural products, 77(3), 483-8. PMID: 24467387  

  • July 2, 2014
  • 09:25 AM
  • 1,329 views

How Do Mosquitoes Find You?

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Spend much time outside in the summer and you will have to deal with mosquitoes. The mechanisms that females use to find a blood meal are becoming better understood. New research shows how the proboscis probes for a blood vessel, perhaps using the TRPA1 heat sensing ion channel as a signal for nearby blood.

Once they feed, females lay eggs. New research indicates that they actually prefer water that contains the dead larvae of similar mosquitoes, dead from predators. The presence of predator........ Read more »

  • June 30, 2014
  • 12:55 AM
  • 1,208 views

Safety of Intranasal Fentanyl in the Out-of-Hospital Setting - A Prospective Observational Study

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

I have been very critical of plans to have first responders treat people they suspect of having a heroin (or other) opioid overdose with naloxone.

Would first responders be safer with fentanyl?

It is not really the same question, but it does highlight the differences and why I think fentanyl is safer. The patient will be seen by someone more likely to recognize when the treatment is inappropriate. This study looked at IN (IntraNasal) fentanyl given by basic EMTs prior to transport to the E........ Read more »

  • June 25, 2014
  • 09:15 AM
  • 1,313 views

They Can See The Blood Running Through You

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Vampire bats sense heat via pit organs in their nose-leaves, but they find their victims by sight, smell and echolocation. New research shows that an alternatively spliced version of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is responsible for the heat sensing, but what do they use it for? Their teeth are so short that they must find blood vessels close to the surface – shallow vessels give off more heat than do deep vessels or skin where there is no large vessel.

Vampire bats occasionally feed on ........ Read more »

Patel R, Ispoglou S, & Apostolakis S. (2014) Desmoteplase as a potential treatment for cerebral ischaemia. Expert opinion on investigational drugs, 23(6), 865-73. PMID: 24766516  

Gracheva EO, Cordero-Morales JF, González-Carcacía JA, Ingolia NT, Manno C, Aranguren CI, Weissman JS, & Julius D. (2011) Ganglion-specific splicing of TRPV1 underlies infrared sensation in vampire bats. Nature, 476(7358), 88-91. PMID: 21814281  

  • June 23, 2014
  • 02:30 PM
  • 1,515 views

The Iceman Cometh

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Are you so fat you can’t see your toes? Have you forgotten what toes even look like? Have you been mistaken for the infamous “Kool-aid man”? Want to shed the […]... Read more »

Lee, P., Smith, S., Linderman, J., Courville, A., Brychta, R., Dieckmann, W., Werner, C., Chen, K., & Celi, F. (2014) Temperature-acclimated brown adipose tissue modulates insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes. DOI: 10.2337/db14-0513  

Liu, M., Bai, J., He, S., Villarreal, R., Hu, D., Zhang, C., Yang, X., Liang, H., Slaga, T., Yu, Y.... (2014) Grb10 Promotes Lipolysis and Thermogenesis by Phosphorylation-Dependent Feedback Inhibition of mTORC1. Cell Metabolism, 19(6), 967-980. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.03.018  

  • June 23, 2014
  • 11:52 AM
  • 655 views

Varenicline for Smoking Cessation

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Varenicline is a drug designed to assist smokers in cessation. It is marketed in the U.S. as Chantix.Varenicline is one of the first drugs to target the nicotine receptor. It is classified as a partial agonist, meaning it stimulates the nicotine receptor but to a weaker effect than nicotine itself.The mechanism of action of varenicline differs from that of another smoking cessation drug bupropion marked under trade name Zyban in the U.S.One concern with varenicline is the risk for psychiatric ad........ Read more »

  • June 23, 2014
  • 11:30 AM
  • 811 views

The Iceman Cometh

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Are you so fat you can't see your toes? Have you forgotten what toes even look like? Have you been mistaken for the infamous "Kool-aid man"? Want to shed the pounds easier than taking off your shirt? Well too bad, that is science fiction and the stuff of horrid marketing ploys and this my friends is a science website. Losing weight is hard, I've written several articles on it in fact. Nothing is going to be more effective at weight loss than a sensible diet, a calorie deficit........ Read more »

Lee, P., Smith, S., Linderman, J., Courville, A., Brychta, R., Dieckmann, W., Werner, C., Chen, K., & Celi, F. (2014) Temperature-acclimated brown adipose tissue modulates insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes. DOI: 10.2337/db14-0513  

Liu, M., Bai, J., He, S., Villarreal, R., Hu, D., Zhang, C., Yang, X., Liang, H., Slaga, T., Yu, Y.... (2014) Grb10 Promotes Lipolysis and Thermogenesis by Phosphorylation-Dependent Feedback Inhibition of mTORC1. Cell Metabolism, 19(6), 967-980. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.03.018  

  • June 6, 2014
  • 03:00 PM
  • 911 views

Weight Loss Science Fact: Odd but True

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Okay boys and girls, time to grab those love handles and hold on tight, because it’s another round of weight loss science fact. With a little luck [and a little […]... Read more »

Liu, M., Bai, J., He, S., Villarreal, R., Hu, D., Zhang, C., Yang, X., Liang, H., Slaga, T., Yu, Y.... (2014) Grb10 Promotes Lipolysis and Thermogenesis by Phosphorylation-Dependent Feedback Inhibition of mTORC1. Cell Metabolism, 19(6), 967-980. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.03.018  

  • June 4, 2014
  • 09:15 AM
  • 900 views

Sometimes, Cold Hurts

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Capsaicin receptors (TRPV1) help detect heat and cool the body. Cool receptors (TRPM8) detect cold temperatures and help warm the body. But what about TRPA1 receptors? New research shows that while their function in intense cold sensing may be species specific, they do function in pain production, for heat, cold, and chemicals. So if they are so good at producing pain, why would a spider have a TRPA1 blocker in its venom?... Read more »

de Oliveira, C., Garami, A., Lehto, S., Pakai, E., Tekus, V., Pohoczky, K., Youngblood, B., Wang, W., Kort, M., Kym, P.... (2014) Transient Receptor Potential Channel Ankyrin-1 Is Not a Cold Sensor for Autonomic Thermoregulation in Rodents. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(13), 4445-4452. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5387-13.2014  

Benemei S, Fusi C, Trevisan G, & Geppetti P. (2014) The TRPA1 channel in migraine mechanism and treatment. British journal of pharmacology, 171(10), 2552-67. PMID: 24206166  

Gui J, Liu B, Cao G, Lipchik AM, Perez M, Dekan Z, Mobli M, Daly NL, Alewood PF, Parker LL.... (2014) A tarantula-venom peptide antagonizes the TRPA1 nociceptor ion channel by binding to the S1-S4 gating domain. Current biology : CB, 24(5), 473-83. PMID: 24530065  

  • May 28, 2014
  • 09:00 AM
  • 1,236 views

Cold Receptors Come In From The Cold

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

TRPM8 is a cool sensing ion channel. It acts in thermoregulation and nasal resistance, but new research is showing some impressive functions outside of temperature sensing. Sperm maturation is inhibited by TRPM8 signaling until the egg is reached and CRISP4 levels rise to the point of TRPM8 inhibition. Then TRPV1 can initiate the acrosome reaction.

In addition, morphine action and opiate withdrawal have related to TRPM8. Morphine in the presence of a TRPM8 inhibitor is much less analgesic. O........ Read more »

Gibbs GM, Orta G, Reddy T, Koppers AJ, Martínez-López P, de la Vega-Beltràn JL, Lo JC, Veldhuis N, Jamsai D, McIntyre P.... (2011) Cysteine-rich secretory protein 4 is an inhibitor of transient receptor potential M8 with a role in establishing sperm function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(17), 7034-9. PMID: 21482758  

Shapovalov G, Gkika D, Devilliers M, Kondratskyi A, Gordienko D, Busserolles J, Bokhobza A, Eschalier A, Skryma R, & Prevarskaya N. (2013) Opiates modulate thermosensation by internalizing cold receptor TRPM8. Cell reports, 4(3), 504-15. PMID: 23911290  

  • May 26, 2014
  • 04:00 AM
  • 863 views

Legal high problems – time to wake up

by DJMac in Recovery Review

Legal high problems Legal highs, or novel psychoactive substances (NPS), have been causing unusual presentations at A&E (Emergency Room) departments in European cities. Because these are relatively new drugs, doctors and other healthcare professionals are not always familiar with them. They are not easy to test for either, requiring specialist forensic laboratories in the main. [...]
The post Legal high problems – time to wake up appeared first on Recovery Review.
... Read more »

  • May 25, 2014
  • 07:00 PM
  • 1,245 views

Does Faster Epinephrine Administration Produce Better Outcomes from PEA-Asystole?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

If we are going to give epinephrine to patients with rhythms that are not shockable (PEA [Pulseless Electrical Activity] or Asystole), it appears that patients receiving epinephrine earlier have better outcomes than patients who receive epinephrine later in the hospital in the less acute care settings.

Does this mean that patients who receive epinephrine have better outcomes than patients who do not receive epinephrine?

We remain willfully ignorant of the answer to that question.
... Read more »

Bigham BL, Koprowicz K, Aufderheide TP, Davis DP, Donn S, Powell J, Suffoletto B, Nafziger S, Stouffer J, Idris A.... (2010) Delayed prehospital implementation of the 2005 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care. Prehospital emergency care : official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the National Association of State EMS Directors, 14(3), 355-60. PMID: 20388032  

  • May 21, 2014
  • 09:20 AM
  • 856 views

The Cold Cure All

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Having a cold is no fun. But exercise is excellent for decreasing nasal resistance so you aren’t so stuffed up. Vicks VapoRub has been a staple for children’s colds since the 1890’s, but it wasn’t until 2008 that research showed that the menthol effect on TRPM8 does not have any effect at all on nasal resistance and the brain just interprets TRPM8 cool sensing as a signal that your nose is open and passing air freely.

However, Vicks is effective as an anti-tussive age........ Read more »

Lindemann J, Tsakiropoulou E, Scheithauer MO, Konstantinidis I, & Wiesmiller KM. (2008) Impact of menthol inhalation on nasal mucosal temperature and nasal patency. American journal of rhinology, 22(4), 402-5. PMID: 18702906  

Buday T, Brozmanova M, Biringerova Z, Gavliakova S, Poliacek I, Calkovsky V, Shetthalli MV, & Plevkova J. (2012) Modulation of cough response by sensory inputs from the nose - role of trigeminal TRPA1 versus TRPM8 channels. Cough (London, England), 8(1), 11. PMID: 23199233  

Plevkova J, Kollarik M, Poliacek I, Brozmanova M, Surdenikova L, Tatar M, Mori N, & Canning BJ. (2013) The role of trigeminal nasal TRPM8-expressing afferent neurons in the antitussive effects of menthol. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 115(2), 268-74. PMID: 23640596  

  • May 13, 2014
  • 04:59 PM
  • 1,379 views

Gabapentin abuse

by DJMac in Recovery Review

Gabapentin can be addictive. Search for gabapentin abuse or pregabalin abuse on Google Scholar and you’ll turn up 18,000 entries in less than a second. Pubmed is a little more specific finding 249 papers related to the subject. Vaults of Erowid has over 100 gabapentin and pregabalin ‘experiences’ detailed by users. I wrote a while back [...]
The post Gabapentin abuse appeared first on Recovery Review.
... Read more »

Smith, B., Higgins, C., Baldacchino, A., Kidd, B., & Bannister, J. (2012) Substance misuse of gabapentin. British Journal of General Practice, 62(601), 406-407. DOI: 10.3399/bjgp12X653516  

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