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All posts; Tags Include "Ethics"

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  • March 15, 2009
  • 03:27 PM
  • 2,048 views

JAMA editor DeAngelis is actually Joe Pesci, circa Goodfellas

by Danny McCaslin in The Phrenologist's Notebook

Okay, my hiatus is over. Class is finished, and I’ve got three weeks to kill with work, blogging, and playing Lego Batman because I’m just that kind of geek.

Of course, the first blog I check when I come back is Mind Hacks, because it is one of the best psychology blogs out there, and I [...]... Read more »

Lacasse, J., & Leo, J. (2008) Escitalopram, Problem-Solving Therapy, and Poststroke Depression. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(15), 1757-1758. DOI: 10.1001/jama.300.15.1757-c  

Robinson, R., Jorge, R., Moser, D., Acion, L., Solodkin, A., Small, S., Fonzetti, P., Hegel, M., & Arndt, S. (2008) Escitalopram and Problem-Solving Therapy for Prevention of Poststroke Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 299(20), 2391-2400. DOI: 10.1001/jama.299.20.2391  

Robinson, R., Jorge, R., & Arndt, S. (2008) Escitalopram, Problem-Solving Therapy, and Poststroke Depression--Reply. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(15), 1758-1759. DOI: 10.1001/jama.300.15.1758-b  

  • February 7, 2009
  • 10:12 PM
  • 2,784 views

Scientific Misconduct and the Autism-MMR Vaccine Link

by Mike Dunford in The Questionable Authority

A series of articles just published in The Sunday Times is reporting that it appears likely that Andrew Wakefield falsified much of the data that was used in the 1998 Lancet article that first identified the MMR vaccine as a potential cause of autism. If the charges leveled by the paper are remotely accurate, Wakefield is guilty of homicide - if not legally, then certainly morally. If previous accusations made by the paper are accurate, the homicide may have been committed for financial gain.

........ Read more »

A WAKEFIELD, S MURCH, A ANTHONY, J LINNELL, D CASSON, M MALIK, M BERELOWITZ, A DHILLON, M THOMSON, & P HARVEY. (1998) Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. The Lancet, 351(9103), 637-641. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(97)11096-0  

  • February 2, 2009
  • 01:00 AM
  • 1,471 views

Revisiting the costs of autism

by Michelle Dawson in The Autism Crisis

Michael Ganz of Harvard has published two papers about the costs of autism, a book chapter in 2006 and a peer-reviewed paper in 2007. Media attention followed, including a 2007 Globe and Mail story under the headline "Autism a lifelong burden, study shows." Dr Ganz's work was embraced by leading autism advocates in Canada, as evidence that unlimited ABA-based autism interventions must be funded by governments, or else staggering costs to society will ensue. Here is leading autism advocate Harold........ Read more »

  • January 26, 2009
  • 10:06 AM
  • 1,645 views

The origins of ABA-based autism interventions

by Michelle Dawson in The Autism Crisis

When it comes to behaviour analytic approaches to autism, the paper that started it all, and set the tone for what was to come, was Fuller (1949), the first published report of operant conditioning in a human being. Fuller opens his paper by noting that classical conditioning had been tested in "normal and subnormal" humans. For example, it had been found that "subnormal" children formed conditioned responses to shock faster than "normal" children. But so far, operant conditioning had only been ........ Read more »

  • January 22, 2009
  • 11:43 PM
  • 1,741 views

Knock! Knock!Hi, It's the Office of Inspector General

by Pallimed Bloggers in Pallimed: a Hospice & Palliative Medicine Blog

Imagine a nurse in the ICU raises concerns about possible euthanasia by staff in the ICU. You might think it may first go to the ethics committee, the hospital board, and likely the legal department. Then imagine if the Feds (Office of Inspector General) get involved and conduct a complete investigation into the allegations of hastened death. Really. Just imagine it happening to you.Makes answering, "Hey honey, how was your day?" seem impossible.Now imagine someone in your department says, "........ Read more »

  • January 15, 2009
  • 07:05 PM
  • 1,445 views

Autism in California: The MIND's new epidemiology

by Michelle Dawson in The Autism Crisis

The MIND's recently published autism epidemiology (Hertz-Picciotto & Delwiche, 2009) has been widely publicized (press release is here, typical media story is here), with the upshot that large increases in reported rates of autism are real rather than apparent and should be studied as such. Bloggers have taken on several aspects of the MIND's new autism epidemiology (here, here, here, here, with more and a summary here) as well as discrepancies between the paper itself and how it has been promot........ Read more »

Irva Hertz-Picciotto, & Lora Delwiche. (2009) The Rise in Autism and the Role of Age at Diagnosis. Epidemiology, 20(1), 84-90. DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181902d15  

  • November 17, 2008
  • 03:00 PM
  • 1,537 views

On fraud detection

by iayork in Mystery Rays from Outer Space

“The issue of data integrity should not be left to chance and probability. This is scholarly publishing, not blackjack.”

–M. Rossner (2008). A false sense of security. The Journal of Cell Biology, 183 (4), 573-574 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200810172... Read more »

M. Rossner. (2008) A false sense of security. The Journal of Cell Biology, 183(4), 573-574. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200810172  

  • November 6, 2008
  • 02:09 AM
  • 2,547 views

The New Placebo: Prescribing Positive Expectations with Real Drugs

by Walter Jessen in Highlight HEALTH

A recent study finds that many U.S. doctors regularly prescribe placebo treatments in the form of real drugs for medical care [1]. Most physicians surveyed view this practice as ethically permissible. The study also finds that many physicians are not fully transparent regarding the use of placebo treatments, and most commonly describe the placebo treatment [...]... Read more »

  • October 29, 2008
  • 01:00 AM
  • 2,241 views

To be cited or not to be cited

by Pablo Artal in Optics confidential

Citations etiquette is a very important part of scientific research. Some comments on the topic and a practical example of one of my early papers where I first describe how to simulate retinal images of any object in real eyes for different conditions. The approach was widely used later but the paper poorly cited...... Read more »

P. Artal. (1990) Calculations of two-dimensional foveal retinal images in real eyes. J.Opt.Soc.Am.A., 1374-1381.

  • October 19, 2008
  • 04:07 PM
  • 2,487 views

Towards an empirical morality

by Jeremy Yoder in Denim and Tweed

Andrew Sullivan links to a thought-provoking 1998 essay by E.O. Wilson, in which the champion of sociobiology delves into the question of whether morality arises from divine revelation or natural selection. Wilson takes an interesting position, attempting to turn the question around by ninety degrees:But the split is not, as popularly supposed, between religious believers and secularists. It is... Read more »

J.D. Greene, R.B. Sommerville, L.E. Nystrom, J.M. Darley, & J.D. Cohen. (2001) An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment. Science, 293(5537), 2105-8. DOI: 10.1126/science.1062872  

  • August 22, 2008
  • 12:46 AM
  • 2,139 views

How Representative are Volunteers?

by Neural Outlaw in Neural Interface

As if by magic, another item at the BPS Research Digest which is also relevant to my recent forays discusses the question of whether participants in psychology studies are "representative" of the total sample under review. It seems like the majority of those who take part in psychology studies are generally more "stable and outgoing", which begs questions about whether said studies are reliable in their testing of depression measures, for example.To give some background, the popular five-factor ........ Read more »

Jan-Erik Lönnqvist, Sampo Paunonen, Markku Verkasalo, Sointu Leikas, Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson, & Jouko Lönnqvist. (2007) Personality characteristics of research volunteers. European Journal of Personality, 21(8), 1017-1030. DOI: 10.1002/per.655  

  • August 21, 2008
  • 12:11 AM
  • 2,620 views

How Clinical is Non-Clinical?

by Neural Outlaw in Neural Interface

So far in my budding career I've been involved in three psychology studies, all of which required the recruitment of non-clinical participants. Even before that, my psych undergraduate final-year project on schizophrenia was carried out by surveying non-clinical participants. For the benefit of lay readers, non-clinical participants refers to "normal" people who are recruited to take part in the study and are different to results gleaned from sufferers of psychosis, anxiety or oth........ Read more »

Idia B. Thurston, Jessica Curley, Sherecce Fields, Dimitra Kamboukos, Ariz Rojas, & Vicky Phares. (2008) How nonclinical are community samples?. Journal of Community Psychology, 36(4), 411-420. DOI: 10.1002/jcop.20223  

  • November 30, -1
  • 12:00 AM
  • 2,361 views

Many Vegetarians Consume Animal-Derived Products in Medicines

by United Academics in United Academics

What should vegetarians do when medicines contain animal products? The answer seems an easy one: to refuse them or to act according to their conscience. But what if the consumers are not appropriately informed about the medicine components, or the doctors not even know that it contains animal products?... Read more »

  • November 30, -1
  • 12:00 AM
  • 1,448 views

More evidence that antibiotics are over-prescribed - How should that change?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

Today Lancet Infectious Diseases posted an early release of an article that shows that the antibiotic amoxicillin still does not work on viruses.

Many doctors still routinely prescribe antibiotics for viral infections.

Bias, perhaps the biggest confounder in medical research, is controlled for very well.

What does the study show?... Read more »

  • November 30, -1
  • 12:00 AM
  • 2,401 views

Understanding PREDIMED and the Mediterranean diet: heart-healthy or hype?

by Kismet in Biogerontology and Health

I am going to discuss the failings of the PREDIMED study, real and imagined. I will do this in a Question & Answer style. Several questions are inspired by theheart.org and NEJM comments and even statements by the low fat "gurus", Essselstyn, Ornish, McDougall or Pritikin. It is no surprise they are up in arms after the study has been published. It threatens their livelihood.... Read more »

Estruch, R., Ros, E., Salas-Salvadó, J., Covas, M., Corella, D., Arós, F., Gómez-Gracia, E., Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V., Fiol, M., Lapetra, J.... (2013) Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(14), 1279-1290. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1200303  

  • November 30, -1
  • 12:00 AM
  • 803 views

The Fatal Flaw in Trial of Continuous or Interrupted Chest Compressions during CPR

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

This is not a study that has a valid control group to determine if there is any benefit from ventilation. There is no group that does not receive ventilations, so it is like a study of one type of blood-letting vs. another type of blood-letting with the researchers taking for granted that blood-letting does improve outcomes. That is not a problem if blood-letting actually improves outcomes.

Should we take it for granted that blood-letting improves outcomes and that the only hypothesis worth s........ Read more »

Nichol, G., Leroux, B., Wang, H., Callaway, C., Sopko, G., Weisfeldt, M., Stiell, I., Morrison, L., Aufderheide, T., Cheskes, S.... (2015) Trial of Continuous or Interrupted Chest Compressions during CPR. New England Journal of Medicine, 2147483647. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1509139  

Alldredge BK,, Gelb AM,, Isaacs SM,, Corry MD,, Allen F,, Ulrich S,, Gottwald MD,, O’Neil N,, Neuhaus JM,, Segal MR,.... (2001) A Comparison of Lorazepam, Diazepam, and Placebo for the Treatment of Out-of-Hospital Status Epilepticus. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(25), 1860-1860. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200112203452521  

  • November 30, -1
  • 12:00 AM
  • 1,492 views

The Fatal Flaw in Trial of Continuous or Interrupted Chest Compressions during CPR

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

This is not a study that has a valid control group to determine if there is any benefit from ventilation. There is no group that does not receive ventilations, so it is like a study of one type of blood-letting vs. another type of blood-letting with the researchers taking for granted that blood-letting does improve outcomes. That is not a problem if blood-letting actually improves outcomes.

Should we take it for granted that blood-letting improves outcomes and that the only hypothesis worth s........ Read more »

Nichol, G., Leroux, B., Wang, H., Callaway, C., Sopko, G., Weisfeldt, M., Stiell, I., Morrison, L., Aufderheide, T., Cheskes, S.... (2015) Trial of Continuous or Interrupted Chest Compressions during CPR. New England Journal of Medicine, 2147483647. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1509139  

Alldredge BK,, Gelb AM,, Isaacs SM,, Corry MD,, Allen F,, Ulrich S,, Gottwald MD,, O’Neil N,, Neuhaus JM,, Segal MR,.... (2001) A Comparison of Lorazepam, Diazepam, and Placebo for the Treatment of Out-of-Hospital Status Epilepticus. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(25), 1860-1860. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200112203452521  

  • November 30, -1
  • 12:00 AM
  • 1,316 views

The PROCAMIO Trial – IV Procainamide vs IV Amiodarone for the Acute Treatment of Stable Wide Complex Tachycardia

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

This is a very interesting trial that may surprise the many outspoken amiodarone advocates, but it should not surprise anyone who pays attention to research.

ALPS showed that we should stop giving amiodarone for unwitnessed shockable cardiac arrest. The lead researcher is still trying to spin amiodarone for witnessed shockable cardiac arrest, even though the results do not show improvement in the one outcome that matters – leaving the hospital with a brain that still works.[1],[2],[3]... Read more »

Kudenchuk PJ, Brown SP, Daya M, Rea T, Nichol G, Morrison LJ, Leroux B, Vaillancourt C, Wittwer L, Callaway CW.... (2016) Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. The New England journal of medicine, 374(18), 1711-22. PMID: 27043165  

Marill KA, deSouza IS, Nishijima DK, Senecal EL, Setnik GS, Stair TO, Ruskin JN, & Ellinor PT. (2010) Amiodarone or procainamide for the termination of sustained stable ventricular tachycardia: an historical multicenter comparison. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 17(3), 297-306. PMID: 20370763  

Marill KA, deSouza IS, Nishijima DK, Stair TO, Setnik GS, & Ruskin JN. (2006) Amiodarone is poorly effective for the acute termination of ventricular tachycardia. Annals of emergency medicine, 47(3), 217-24. PMID: 16492484  

Kułakowski P, Karczmarewicz S, Karpiński G, Soszyńska M, & Ceremuzyński L. (2000) Effects of intravenous amiodarone on ventricular refractoriness, intraventricular conduction, and ventricular tachycardia induction. Europace : European pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac electrophysiology : journal of the working groups on cardiac pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac cellular electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology, 2(3), 207-15. PMID: 11227590  

Bonny A, De Sisti A, Márquez MF, Megbemado R, Hidden-Lucet F, & Fontaine G. (2012) Low doses of intravenous epinephrine for refractory sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. World journal of cardiology, 4(10), 296-301. PMID: 23110246  

Kowey PR. (1988) The calamity of cardioversion of conscious patients. The American journal of cardiology, 61(13), 1106-7. PMID: 3364364  

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