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  • July 9, 2014
  • 12:06 PM
  • 1,146 views

Brain Hippocampus Atrophy in Traumatic Brain Injury

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Understanding the specific brain regions vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important for assessment and intervention research.Two areas of active research include studies of brain white matter using diffusion tensor imaging and assessment of regional brain atrophy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Two recent MRI studies have suggested the brain hippocampus may be a region of vulnerability to TBI.A Canadian study by Robin Green and colleagues used brain MRI to examine a cohort of........ Read more »

Green RE, Colella B, Maller JJ, Bayley M, Glazer J, & Mikulis DJ. (2014) Scale and pattern of atrophy in the chronic stages of moderate-severe TBI. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 67. PMID: 24744712  

Singh R, Meier TB, Kuplicki R, Savitz J, Mukai I, Cavanagh L, Allen T, Teague TK, Nerio C, Polanski D.... (2014) Relationship of collegiate football experience and concussion with hippocampal volume and cognitive outcomes. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 311(18), 1883-8. PMID: 24825643  

  • July 8, 2014
  • 11:15 AM
  • 958 views

Millions Lack Level I Trauma Care Access in the U.S.

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Trauma results in 180,000 deaths per year in the U.S. and disproportionately affects children and young adults. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently published a review highlighting unintentional injury and violence as the leading cause of death in the U.S. for those in the one to 30 year old age group. Additionally, trauma produces significant disability through residual effects such as like that often seen following traumatic brain injury.Trauma centers are hospital-affiliat........ Read more »

Haegerich, T., Dahlberg, L., Simon, T., Baldwin, G., Sleet, D., Greenspan, A., & Degutis, L. (2014) Prevention of injury and violence in the USA. The Lancet, 384(9937), 64-74. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60074-X  

Garwe T, Cowan LD, Neas B, Cathey T, Danford BC, & Greenawalt P. (2010) Survival benefit of transfer to tertiary trauma centers for major trauma patients initially presenting to nontertiary trauma centers. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 17(11), 1223-32. PMID: 21175521  

Bukur M, Felder SI, Singer MB, Ley EJ, Malinoski DJ, Margulies DR, & Salim A. (2013) Trauma center level impacts survival for cirrhotic trauma patients. The journal of trauma and acute care surgery, 74(4), 1133-7. PMID: 23511156  

MacKenzie, E., Weir, S., Rivara, F., Jurkovich, G., Nathens, A., Wang, W., Scharfstein, D., & Salkever, D. (2010) The Value of Trauma Center Care. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 69(1), 1-10. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e03a21  

  • July 7, 2014
  • 11:05 AM
  • 1,251 views

Florida Clampdown on Pain Pills Lowers Drug-Related Mortality

by Pranab Chatterjee in Scepticemia

Ever since I started working with the homeless youth of Delhi, I have noticed their drug and substance dependence issues and how, despite knowing the ill-effects, they have not been able to get out from under the chemical spell. Thus, when I came across a short report in the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports that Florida…... Read more »

Johnson H, Paulozzi L, Porucznik C, Mack K, Herter B, & Hal Johnson Consulting and Division of Disease Control and Health Promotion, Florida Department of Health. (2014) Decline in drug overdose deaths after state policy changes - Florida, 2010-2012. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 63(26), 569-74. PMID: 24990490  

  • July 7, 2014
  • 10:50 AM
  • 862 views

The Geography of Traumatic Brain Injury Death in U.S.

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In the last post, I examined some recent research in the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI).Two studies showed the top two causes of TBI to be motor vehicle crashes and falls.In this post, I will review some recent data on the geographic variability of TBI in the United States.The Centers for Disease Control provides an online tool called WISQARS that allows users to search for a variety of statistics related to unintentional injury by state in the U.S.They have recently added a iPad a........ Read more »

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013) CDC grand rounds: reducing severe traumatic brain injury in the United States. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 62(27), 549-52. PMID: 23842444  

  • July 7, 2014
  • 10:33 AM
  • 1,560 views

MERS CoV: Can it spread from camels to man?

by Pranab Chatterjee in Scepticemia

The Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) is a novel single stranded RNA virus that has been doing the rounds in the Middle East, bits of Europe and North America. Given our experiences the last time we had a new respiratory virus (remember the pandemic?), things have moved rather fast this time once the…... Read more »

Azhar, E., El-Kafrawy, S., Farraj, S., Hassan, A., Al-Saeed, M., Hashem, A., & Madani, T. (2014) Evidence for Camel-to-Human Transmission of MERS Coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(26), 2499-2505. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1401505  

  • July 3, 2014
  • 11:50 AM
  • 655 views

Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes significantly to mortality and long-term disability.In the U.S. there are an estimated 52,000 deaths yearly due to TBI with over 1,000,000 emergency room (ER) visits.Understanding the epidemiology of TBI can provides clues to designing prevention programs.Four relevant recent research studies provide insight about the epidemiology of TBI.TBI in hospitalized patients in Scotland Tara Shivaji and colleagues in Scotland examined the prevalence and patte........ Read more »

  • June 29, 2014
  • 11:55 PM
  • 1,151 views

Safety of Intranasal Fentanyl in the Out-of-Hospital Setting - A Prospective Observational Study

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

I have been very critical of plans to have first responders treat people they suspect of having a heroin (or other) opioid overdose with naloxone.

Would first responders be safer with fentanyl?

It is not really the same question, but it does highlight the differences and why I think fentanyl is safer. The patient will be seen by someone more likely to recognize when the treatment is inappropriate. This study looked at IN (IntraNasal) fentanyl given by basic EMTs prior to transport to the E........ Read more »

  • June 29, 2014
  • 11:18 AM
  • 930 views

Evidence based medicine – holding things back?

by DJMac in Recovery Review

A drugs worker told me a few years back that he would never refer a patient to a recovery service on the basis that he would not be following the evidence base. I did ask him at the time ‘but what if that’s not what the client wants?’ It seemed the evidence base came first. [...]
The post Evidence based medicine – holding things back? appeared first on Recovery Review.
... Read more »

Greenhalgh T, Howick J, Maskrey N, & Evidence Based Medicine Renaissance Group. (2014) Evidence based medicine: a movement in crisis?. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). PMID: 24927763  

  • June 24, 2014
  • 12:22 PM
  • 611 views

E-cigarettes and Smoking Cessation

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Electronic or e-cigarettes are a tobacco cigarette alternative that is growing in popularity.Proponents of e-cigarettes note the product contains no carbon monoxide, tar or other tobacco residue. The inhaled vapor in e-cigarettes is primarily nicotine.Additionally, some proponents of e-cigarettes declare the product is associated with reduction or cessation of tobacco-based cigarette use.Unfortunately, this is an area where public health trends come before scientific research data is collected. ........ Read more »

Bullen, C., Howe, C., Laugesen, M., McRobbie, H., Parag, V., Williman, J., & Walker, N. (2013) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 382(9905), 1629-1637. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61842-5  

  • June 23, 2014
  • 10:52 AM
  • 643 views

Varenicline for Smoking Cessation

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Varenicline is a drug designed to assist smokers in cessation. It is marketed in the U.S. as Chantix.Varenicline is one of the first drugs to target the nicotine receptor. It is classified as a partial agonist, meaning it stimulates the nicotine receptor but to a weaker effect than nicotine itself.The mechanism of action of varenicline differs from that of another smoking cessation drug bupropion marked under trade name Zyban in the U.S.One concern with varenicline is the risk for psychiatric ad........ Read more »

  • June 21, 2014
  • 07:45 AM
  • 1,538 views

West Nile Virus and Polio-like Syndromes: An Emerging Threat

by Pranab Chatterjee in Scepticemia

While the whole nation has been gripped by a media-induced frenzy about the fatal effects of the so-called “litchi virus” (do not get me started on this! This issue deserves a whole post of its own!), another virus-related news has quietly slipped beneath the radars of the cumulative hysteria. This article in the Times of India […]... Read more »

  • June 20, 2014
  • 12:07 PM
  • 692 views

Maternal Smoking and Child Conduct Disorder Risk

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Conduct disorder is a serious behavioral disorder of childhood characterized by aggression, destruction of property, lying, theft and violation of rules.A significant number of children with conduct disorder go on to adult antisocial personality disorder.Conduct disorder is known to have genetic as well as environmental risk factors.Darya Gaysina from the United Kingdom and colleagues recently published a review of maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems.This review exam........ Read more »

  • June 19, 2014
  • 11:20 AM
  • 750 views

Smoking and Abnormal Brain Pleasure Response

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Smoking cessation in those with nicotine dependence is one of the most difficult challenges for patients and their clinicians.Research targeting the neurobiology of smoking cessation provides hope for designing more effective treatments for nicotine dependence.Takeshi Isomura along with colleagues in the U.S. and Japan recently summarized recent findings in the brain pleasure response in nicotine dependence.The brain ventral striatum region is known to be key in nearly all sensations of pleasure........ Read more »

Peters J, Bromberg U, Schneider S, Brassen S, Menz M, Banaschewski T, Conrod PJ, Flor H, Gallinat J, Garavan H.... (2011) Lower ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation in adolescent smokers. The American journal of psychiatry, 168(5), 540-9. PMID: 21362742  

  • June 18, 2014
  • 11:22 PM
  • 955 views

Cancer Vaccine

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

Finally, a possible vaccine for cancer. [Infographic]... Read more »

Yukai He,, Yuan Hong,, Yibing Peng,, Lisa Butterfield,, Sheng Guo,, David Bartlett,, David Munn1,, Jose Guevara-Patino,, Junfeng Pang,, & Nahid Mivechi,. (2014) Engineering AFP and GPC3 to create highly immunogenic gene vaccines to prevent carcinogen-induced murine autochthonous hepatocellular carcinoma. The Journal of Immunology, 192(1). info:/

  • June 10, 2014
  • 10:54 AM
  • 1,001 views

Smoking During Pregnancy and Fetal Growth

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Smoking cigarettes during pregnancy is linked to a variety of adverse effects including increased perinatal mortality, gestational bleeding and placenta abruptio and placenta previa.Newborns of smoking mothers weigh less than newborns of nonsmoking mothers.The specific distribution of target organ growth impairment with maternal smoking is less well studied.Devasuda Anblagan and colleagues in the United Kingdom and Canada recently published a study of fetal organ growth in smoking mothers.Using ........ Read more »

Anblagan D, Jones NW, Costigan C, Parker AJ, Allcock K, Aleong R, Coyne LH, Deshpande R, Raine-Fenning N, Bugg G.... (2013) Maternal smoking during pregnancy and fetal organ growth: a magnetic resonance imaging study. PloS one, 8(7). PMID: 23843995  

  • June 9, 2014
  • 11:04 AM
  • 1,196 views

Smoking Linked to Brain White Matter Dysfunction

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence produce harmful effects on the brain.Some of these effects are related to direct effects on vascular health. Vascular changes seen with smoking are known to contribute to increased risk for stroke and dementia.Advances in brain imaging techniques allow for more direct study on smoking's effect on specific brain structures.Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a relatively recent imaging tool allowing for study of brain white matter function.Brain white matter ........ Read more »

Umene-Nakano W, Yoshimura R, Kakeda S, Watanabe K, Hayashi K, Nishimura J, Takahashi H, Moriya J, Ide S, Ueda I.... (2014) Abnormal white matter integrity in the corpus callosum among smokers: tract-based spatial statistics. PloS one, 9(2). PMID: 24516568  

  • June 4, 2014
  • 10:12 AM
  • 934 views

Types of Mathematics Learning Disorders

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Learning mathematics is a complex process that forms a key element in modern education.Significant mathematics learning difficulties emerge in 5 to 10 per cent of all elementary and secondary education students.Struggling to acquire skills in mathematics is more than a single deficit and appears to involve multiple cognitive skills.Giannis Karagiannakis and colleagures recently summarized what is known about mathematics learning disorders and proposed four subtypes. I will summarize these subtyp........ Read more »

Karagiannakis G, Baccaglini-Frank A, & Papadatos Y. (2014) Mathematical learning difficulties subtypes classification. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 57. PMID: 24574997  

  • June 3, 2014
  • 11:14 AM
  • 847 views

Executive Cognition in Autism Sprectrum Disorder

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Executive functions (EF) of the brain are processes used to make complex decisions and plans.Deficits in EF can produce significant impairment in the ability to successfully many daily life challenges.EF are felt to be primarily a reflection of workings of the frontal lobe although additional brain regions contribute this cognitive skill.Simonetta Panerai and colleagues from Italy recently examined the key components of EF in a group of children with autism sprectrum disorder (ASD). They adminis........ Read more »

  • June 3, 2014
  • 09:56 AM
  • 916 views

Gene Scissors

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

Gene scissors allow scientists to cut out any gene: a dream for gene therapy! [Infographic]... Read more »

  • June 2, 2014
  • 11:52 AM
  • 964 views

Brain Resting Connectivity Deficits in Autism

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Resting connectivity is a measure of brain circuitry obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).This technique is relatively new but there is emerging evidence of the potential value in research and clinical assessment.Research in brain connectivity includes looking for distinct patterns in brain disorders compared to health controls.One such type of study in autism has been published by a group of Japanese researchers.Takashi Itahashi and colleagues recruited 46 adult subjects wit........ Read more »

Itahashi T, Yamada T, Watanabe H, Nakamura M, Jimbo D, Shioda S, Toriizuka K, Kato N, & Hashimoto R. (2014) Altered network topologies and hub organization in adults with autism: a resting-state FMRI study. PloS one, 9(4). PMID: 24714805  

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