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All posts; Tags Include "Behavioral Neuroscience"

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  • July 8, 2015
  • 08:30 AM
  • 950 views

What the Heck Are Those Doing There?

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

The neuroendocrine system has lots of exceptions, and this includes the male testes. Just why are they housed outside the main body cavities where they are vulnerable to all sorts of dangers, including your siblings’ kicks? You may think you know, but you probably have only part of the answer. Why is one bigger than the other and why do some animals only have one? ... Read more »

Bogaert, A. (1997) Genital asymmetry in men. Human Reproduction, 12(1), 68-72. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/12.1.68  

  • July 7, 2015
  • 03:50 PM
  • 1,096 views

The powerful influence of placebos on the brain

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

The term placebo effect describes an improvement in the condition of a patient after being given a placebo--an inert substance (e.g. sugar pill) the patient expects may hold some benefit for him. The placebo effect has long been recognized as an unavoidable aspect of medical treatment. Physicians before the 1950s often took advantage of this knowledge by giving patients treatments like bread pills or injections of water with the understanding that patients had a tendency to feel better when they........ Read more »

  • July 3, 2015
  • 05:15 AM
  • 700 views

Here be values (in the brain): how the ventral striatum participates in decision-making

by Pierre Megevand in Neuroscience and Medicine

A new research article shows that the ventral striatum includes a representation of the value attributed to potential choices in a gambling task, and of the decision eventually reached.... Read more »

  • June 16, 2015
  • 10:23 PM
  • 1,490 views

Know your brain: Default mode network

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Where is the default mode network?The default mode network (sometimes called simply the default network) refers to an interconnected group of brain structures that are hypothesized to be part of a functional system. The default network is a relatively recent concept, and because of this there is not yet a complete consensus on which brain regions should be included in a definition of it. Regardless, some structures that are generally included are the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate........ Read more »

Buckner RL, Andrews-Hanna JR, & Schacter DL. (2008) The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1-38. PMID: 18400922  

  • June 3, 2015
  • 10:03 PM
  • 994 views

Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: Uncovering the mechanism

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Parkinson's disease (PD) belongs to a group of diseases that are referred to as neurodegenerative because they involve the degeneration and death of neurons. In PD a group of structures called the basal ganglia, which play a role in facilitating movement, are predominantly affected. The substantia nigra, one of the basal ganglia nuclei as well as one of the most dopamine-rich areas in the brain, is severely impacted; by the end stages of the disease patients have often lost 50-70% of the dopamin........ Read more »

de Hemptinne, C., Swann, N., Ostrem, J., Ryapolova-Webb, E., San Luciano, M., Galifianakis, N., & Starr, P. (2015) Therapeutic deep brain stimulation reduces cortical phase-amplitude coupling in Parkinson's disease. Nature Neuroscience, 18(5), 779-786. DOI: 10.1038/nn.3997  

  • June 2, 2015
  • 03:41 PM
  • 753 views

Neurobiology of Child Neglect/Abuse: Nemeroff Lecture Notes

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

I had the opportunity to attend the Warren Neuroscience Lecture presented by Dr. Charles Nemeroff in Tulsa, OK on June 2, 2015.Dr. Nemeroff has been an international leader in research in mood and anxiety disorders. His recent focus has been on the effects of adverse childhood environments on risk for adult mood and anxiety disorders. Here are my notes that summarize some of the key points from his lecture.Introduction:Stress is an important factor in understanding depressionEarly life stre........ Read more »

  • May 26, 2015
  • 10:18 AM
  • 772 views

Conduct Disorder as a Substance Abuse Risk Factor

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In this series of research reviews on conduct disorder several important findings are evident.Conduct disorder (CD) commonly evolves into adult antisocial personality disorderConduct disorder in children often presents along with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning problemsCD in childhood and adolescence raises risk for alcohol, drug and nicotine dependence.Margaret Sibley and colleagues recently published a study of CD and ADHD and later initiation and escalation of the use of........ Read more »

  • May 18, 2015
  • 10:45 AM
  • 811 views

Brain Imaging and Conduct Disorder: Temporal Lobe Abnormalities

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Conduct disorder is a complex behavioral disorder with significant risk for later adult psychopathology.There is increasing evidence for a biological basis for conduct disorder.Twin studies show a significant genetic contribution to the disorder.Brain imaging studies also point to biological factors in conduct disorder.Gregory Wallace and colleagues recently published a structural MRI study of conduct disorder in 22 adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18. Conduct disorder subjects were compar........ Read more »

Wallace GL, White SF, Robustelli B, Sinclair S, Hwang S, Martin A, & Blair RJ. (2014) Cortical and subcortical abnormalities in youths with conduct disorder and elevated callous-unemotional traits. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(4), 456-650. PMID: 24655655  

  • May 14, 2015
  • 10:31 AM
  • 763 views

Male Depression Risk Via Childhood Conduct Disorder

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Conduct disorder represents an important childhood-onset condition that commonly persists into adulthood.Adult antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse are known risks associated with conduct disorder.A recent study by Kenneth Kendler and Charles Gardner identified male conduct disorder as a risk factor for adult major depression.Their study using the Virginia Twin Registry examined 20 developmental risk factors in male and female twins for presence of recent adult major depression.A ........ Read more »

  • May 7, 2015
  • 10:30 AM
  • 893 views

Conduct Disorder: Predictors, Gender and Genetics

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Genetic factors contribute to risk for many childhood mental disorders.Gender issues in childhood psychopathology are also important factors.Boys show higher rates for conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Nora Kerekes and colleagues in Sweden and Australia examined a large twin study of childhood behavioral and neurobehavioral disorders. The aims of this study were to better understand the developmental and genetic feature........ Read more »

  • May 5, 2015
  • 11:12 AM
  • 620 views

Bad Boy. Bad Boy. Is It Conduct Disorder?

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Defining the line between normal childhood behavior and more serious problems like conduct disorder (CD) is important.Conduct disorder is linked to a significant risk for a lifelong problem with aggression. Identifying CD early in life provides the hope that early intervention might reduce the later consequences of the disorder.The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry has an excellent online resource center to understand conduct disorder. They note the condition is characteri........ Read more »

  • April 30, 2015
  • 10:35 AM
  • 847 views

Bupropion: A Non-stimulant ADHD Drug Treatment

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Stimulant drugs including dextroamphetamine (Adderall) and methylphenidate (Ritalin) remain among the most common and effective drug treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Alternative to stimulant drugs are needed to expand treatment options for clinicians and patients.One problem with the stimulants is the potential for misuse and diversion of prescription drugs to illicit drug use.One non-stimulant FDA approved drug (atomoxetine/Strattera) is available in the U.S.An add........ Read more »

  • April 27, 2015
  • 10:50 AM
  • 633 views

ADHD and Vehicular Accident Risk

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Attention and impulsive behaviors found in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can contribute to accident risk in children and adults.A recent study of adult drivers in France provides evidence for increased accident risk in adults with ADHD.Researchers at the Bordeaux University Hospital interviewed a series of adult drivers seen in the emergency department following a road traffic crash.A total of 777 eligible subjects completed assessments of accident information, distraction expo........ Read more »

  • April 22, 2015
  • 12:13 PM
  • 689 views

Brain EEG and the Genetics of ADHD

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Twin studies in ADHD demonstrate a significant genetic contribution to the disorder.Linking this genetic influence to specific biomarkers may provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ADHD.Grainne McLoughlin and colleagues at the University of California San Diego and King's College London recently published a twin study of brain EEG and the genetics of ADHD.In their study 67 twin pairs (34 monozygotic and 33 dizygotic) between the ages of 12 and 15 years completed tasks measuring........ Read more »

  • April 21, 2015
  • 08:36 AM
  • 1,052 views

If only all science were this reproducible

by Björn Brembs in bjoern.brembs.blog

For our course this year I was planning a standard neurogenetic experiment. I hadn’t ever done this experiment in a course, yet, just two weeks ago I tried it once myself, with an N=1. The students would get two groups […] ↓ Read the rest of this entry...... Read more »

Kaun, K., Riedl, C., Chakaborty-Chatterjee, M., Belay, A., Douglas, S., Gibbs, A., & Sokolowski, M. (2007) Natural variation in food acquisition mediated via a Drosophila cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Journal of Experimental Biology, 210(20), 3547-3558. DOI: 10.1242/​jeb.006924  

  • April 20, 2015
  • 11:32 AM
  • 619 views

ADHD and Autism Overlap: Adult Twin Study

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Clinical studies show high rates of ADHD in adults with autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have estimated the prevalence of ADHD in adults with ASD at between 28 and 44% of individuals. The prevalence of ADHD in the adult general population without ASD is estimated at 2.5%.Given the overlap between these two developmental disorders, it makes sense to examine genetic factors that might contribute to co-occurrence.TJC Polderman along with colleagues from the Netherlands, ........ Read more »

  • April 16, 2015
  • 10:42 AM
  • 688 views

Here Comes Optomom!

by neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Optogenetic manipulation in a naïve female mouse induces maternal behavior in response to pup distress calls (Marlin et al. 2015). Video 6: Pup retrieval by Oxt-IRES-Cre virgin female after optical stimulation of left primary auditory cortex (Marlin et al. 2015). One of the really amazing things is that neural activity in response to the distress cries […]... Read more »

  • April 16, 2015
  • 10:32 AM
  • 654 views

What is Neurofeedback Training for ADHD?

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

There are a variety of behavioral strategies for treating the attention and activity components of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).One of these strategies is known as neurofeedback. A recent study in the journal Pediatrics found evidence for effectiveness of in-school neurofeedback for ADHD in a randomized controlled trial.In this trial, 104 children between the ages of 7 and 11 years of age were randomized to one of three research arms: in-school neurofeedback, cognitive th........ Read more »

  • April 13, 2015
  • 10:22 AM
  • 745 views

Treating Insomnia in Children with ADHD

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Insomnia commonly complicates the clinical presentation and treatment in children with ADHD.Stimulant therapy may provide significant relief for daytime attention and hyperactivity symptoms. However, stimulants do not appear to help with comorbid insomnia. In fact, stimulant therapy may cause more problems with insomnia in ADHD.Behavioral treatments are known to be effective in children without ADHD. Now we have a recently published study showing the effectiveness of behavioral treatment of inso........ Read more »

  • April 9, 2015
  • 10:38 AM
  • 749 views

Brain Volume Differences in ADHD Normalize By Adulthood

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Brain volume differences in ADHD have been documented in some childhood studies.ADHD symptoms diminish with maturation in many but not all individuals. It is unclear whether this improvement in symptoms is also related to maturation of brain regions.A recent study from the Netherlands provides some answers on this issue. A. Marten H. Onnink and colleagues performed a structural MRI study of 119 adults with ADHD compared to a group of controls.This study is important because it examined effects o........ Read more »

Onnink AM, Zwiers MP, Hoogman M, Mostert JC, Kan CC, Buitelaar J, & Franke B. (2014) Brain alterations in adult ADHD: effects of gender, treatment and comorbid depression. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(3), 397-409. PMID: 24345721  

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