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All posts; Tags Include "Behavioral Neuroscience"

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  • July 29, 2016
  • 11:22 AM
  • 664 views

Elite Cyclists and Brain Fatigue Resistance

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In a Brain Post from 2012 I reviewed a study of fatigue in elite athletic performance. This study supported a key role in the brain insula in regulating the perception of exercise-induced fatigue. You can access this post by clicking HERE.An update on this topic was recently published in PloS One by a research team in Australia.This study compared performance on a cognitive task after extreme 20 minute cycling time trial. Professional cyclists were compared to recreational cyclists on the Stroop........ Read more »

Martin K, Staiano W, Menaspà P, Hennessey T, Marcora S, Keegan R, Thompson KG, Martin D, Halson S, & Rattray B. (2016) Superior Inhibitory Control and Resistance to Mental Fatigue in Professional Road Cyclists. PloS one, 11(7). PMID: 27441380  

  • July 17, 2016
  • 06:24 AM
  • 711 views

Know your brain: Periaqueductal gray

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Where is the periaqueductal gray?















The periaqueductal gray, or PAG, is an area of gray matter found in the midbrain. The PAG surrounds the cerebral aqueduct (hence the name periaqueductal) and occupies a column of brainstem that stretches about 14 mm long. There are no obvious visible anatomical divisions within the PAG, but researchers have divided the PAG into four columns based on differences in connectivity and function: the dorsomedial, dorsolater........ Read more »

  • July 12, 2016
  • 11:36 AM
  • 492 views

Dextromethorphan for Alzheimer's Disease Agitation

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In my last post I summarized a review of the pharmacology of the drug dextromethorphan.This drug is receiving significant attention for disorders in neuroscience medicine. A phase 2 clinical trial of dextromethorphan-quinidine (DM-Q) was published last fall in JAMA.Here are the key design and results from this study:Subjects: 220 subjects with a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease with clinically significant agitation.Randomization Design: This was a five week trial of 3:4 random........ Read more »

Cummings JL, Lyketsos CG, Peskind ER, Porsteinsson AP, Mintzer JE, Scharre DW, De La Gandara JE, Agronin M, Davis CS, Nguyen U.... (2015) Effect of Dextromethorphan-Quinidine on Agitation in Patients With Alzheimer Disease Dementia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA, 314(12), 1242-54. PMID: 26393847  

  • June 6, 2016
  • 11:50 AM
  • 581 views

Neuroscience Medicine: The Time Has Come

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

As basic and clinical sciences advance, it becomes increasing important to understand the role of multidisciplinary efforts in scientific progress. In this post, I propose rethinking and renaming the medically-related neuroscience disciplines into a new specialty called neuroscience medicine.Basic neuroscience research has evolved and emerged as a powerful discipline due to the increasing use of multidisciplinary research teams. Basic neuroscience involves collaboration of various scientifi........ Read more »

  • May 31, 2016
  • 03:33 AM
  • 573 views

Of mice and NREM: In this brain circuit, memories depend on sleep

by neuroamanda in It Ain't Magic

Neuroamanda explains a recent study that showed how top-down signals during NREM sleep affect memory consolidation in mice.... Read more »

Miyamoto, D., Hirai, D., Fung, C., Inutsuka, A., Odagawa, M., Suzuki, T., Boehringer, R., Adaikkan, C., Matsubara, C., Matsuki, N.... (2016) Top-down cortical input during NREM sleep consolidates perceptual memory. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0902  

  • May 26, 2016
  • 10:02 AM
  • 640 views

Free Alcohol Use Reduction App

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

An investigational app and online program to reduce alcohol intake is now available free to the public.This tool is an application of cognitive bias modification. A link to a study supporting cognitive bias modification is noted in the citation below. Click on the PMID link to get to the abstract.The program uses a 15 minutes per day tool for four days.The program was developed at the London School of Economics by Professor Paul Dolan.Users who sign up to use the tool will be providing data to f........ Read more »

  • May 17, 2016
  • 02:35 PM
  • 536 views

Nurses Frequently Attending Church Live Longer

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The Harvard-based Nurses' Health Study has been a remarkably productive longitudinal health study.My wife has been a subject in this study and frequently completes interval questionnaires regarding her health status.A recent publication looked at the relationship between religious service attendance and mortality in the Nurses's Health Study cohort.This manuscript tried to provide a more valid look at the relationship between religiosity/spirituality and health. Previous studies have found a lin........ Read more »

  • May 14, 2016
  • 06:16 PM
  • 729 views

What's really the deal with toxoplasma gondii and human behavior?

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged







T. gondii cyst in a mouse brain.







For a simple protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii has experienced something of a meteoric rise in popularity over the past several years. Actually, to be fair T. gondii has garnered quite a bit of interest since the 1930s, when it was discovered the parasite could be transmitted from a mother to a fetus in the womb, sometimes resulting in severe congenital disorders. Curiosity about T. gondii grew significantly in the early 2000s, ........ Read more »

Parlog A, Schlüter D, & Dunay IR. (2015) Toxoplasma gondii-induced neuronal alterations. Parasite immunology, 37(3), 159-70. PMID: 25376390  

  • May 11, 2016
  • 01:00 PM
  • 401 views

How to Solve Homicide Crimes

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Homicide rates in the U.S. represent a significant public health challenge. Homicide is a top ten leading cause of death in many groups in the U.S.One method to reduce homicide rates is to quickly identify and arrest individuals who have committed homicide. This is due to the fact that individuals committing homicide have a high rate of future homicide.A recent study from Michigan State University and Indiana University examined characteristics of U.S. police departments that have high rates of ........ Read more »

  • May 10, 2016
  • 12:54 PM
  • 404 views

Smartphones and Sleep Data: Data Mining

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Smartphones contribute a treasure trove of data that is likely to expand our knowledge of a variety of human behaviors.An example of this is a recent study published in Science Advances by a research team from the University of Michigan.The University of Michigan team developed a smartphone app called ENTRAIN and then used the app to collect sleep data on subjects from around the world.They came up with some very interesting findings including the following:The time of going to sleep appears mor........ Read more »

  • May 10, 2016
  • 07:40 AM
  • 642 views

Do dragons dream of tasty crickets?

by gdw in FictionalFieldwork

(Also appeared on United Academics) Sleep cycles When we leave the day behind us and nestle ourselves in our cosy beds, we sleep. Sleep, however, comes in stages that repeat themselves. It’s a five-stage cycle that last about 90 minutes in humans. Four stages of non-REM sleep are followed by a period of REM (Rapid […]... Read more »

Shein-Idelson M, Ondracek JM, Liaw HP, Reiter S, & Laurent G. (2016) Slow waves, sharp waves, ripples, and REM in sleeping dragons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 352(6285), 590-5. PMID: 27126045  

  • May 4, 2016
  • 12:00 PM
  • 479 views

Jazz drunk, in a basement

by Kiralee Musgrove in Neuroscientist on music

The good things in Melbourne are hidden away. Behind non-descript doors and trick bookcases. On rooftops. Down laneways. Pop-ups, warehouses, basements; Lady Melbs rewards those who seek. Which requires little persuasion, I have noticed. Melburnians go silly at the whiff of intrigue.... Read more »

Wise, R. (2004) Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5(6), 483-494. DOI: 10.1038/nrn1406  

  • May 3, 2016
  • 12:00 PM
  • 437 views

"The Biggest Loser": Long-term Effects

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Yesterday I posted a link to a New York Times article that posted a summary outcome in fourteen participants in TV's "The Biggest Loser" show.The study found a trend towards post-show weight gain for 13/14 of the participants.Four participants actually gained so much weight that after six years they weighed more than before participating in the show.A key finding from the study was this weight gain could be explained by a metabolic response resulting in up to 800 calories less burned daily ........ Read more »

Fothergill, E., Guo, J., Howard, L., Kerns, J., Knuth, N., Brychta, R., Chen, K., Skarulis, M., Walter, M., Walter, P.... (2016) Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition. Obesity. DOI: 10.1002/oby.21538  

  • April 29, 2016
  • 11:32 AM
  • 609 views

Cuckoldary is rare in humans!

by Farid Pazhoohi in Epistemophil

Human behavioral scientists argue that extra-pair copulation is adaptive in human females, as through extra-pair copulation, women can acquire good genes from other potential mates. This is suggested because it is found that women experience greater sexual attraction to particular extra-pair men, but not their own partners, during their highest peak of fertility (Gangestad & […]... Read more »

Gangestad, S., & Thornhill, R. (2008) Human oestrus. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275(1638), 991-1000. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2007.1425  

Larmuseau MH, Matthijs K, & Wenseleers T. (2016) Cuckolded Fathers Rare in Human Populations. Trends in ecology , 31(5), 327-9. PMID: 27107336  

  • April 11, 2016
  • 12:00 PM
  • 422 views

Why you should fire up about music neuroscience

by Kiralee Musgrove in Neuroscientist on music

My alarm goes off at 6am most mornings. I adopted this unfortunate habit some years ago when I discovered I do my best thinking early, with a hot drink and still. My biological sensibilities remain supremely offended by this. (Describing me as a “disgruntled” early riser would not be far from the truth.) Still, among the things that must be thought at 6am, there are a select few which have me in front of my laptop, ready-to-go by 6:20am. As you might have deduced, music neuroscience ........ Read more »

Araya-Salas, M. (2012) Is birdsong music?. Significance, 9(6), 4-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-9713.2012.00613.x  

Brown, L., de Bruin, N., Doan, J., Suchowersky, O., & Hu, B. (2010) Obstacle crossing among people with Parkinson's disease is influenced by concurrent music. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 47(3), 225-231. PMID: 20665348  

Downey, L., Blezat, A., Nicholas, J., Omar, R., Golden, H., Mahoney, C., Crutch, S., & Warren, J. (2013) Mentalising music in frontotemporal dementia. Cortex, 49(7), 1844-1855. DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2012.09.011  

James, C., Dupuis-Lozeron, E., & Hauert, C. (2012) Appraisal of musical syntax violations by primary school children. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 71(3), 161-168. DOI: 10.1024/1421-0185/a000084  

Mingle, M., Eppley, T., Campbell, M., Hall, K., Horner, V., & de Waal FB. (2014) Chimpanzees prefer African and Indian music over silence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 40(4), 502-505. PMID: 25546107  

Osuch, E., Bluhm, R., Williamson, P., Théberge, J., Densmore, M., & Neufeld, R. (2009) Brain activation to favorite music in healthy controls and depressed patients. Neuroreport, 20(13), 1204-1208. PMID: 19617860  

Sarkamo, T., Ripolles, P., Vepsalainen, H., Autti, T., Silvennoinen, H., Salli, E., Laitinen, S., Forsblom, A., Soinila, S., & Rodri­guez-Fornells, A. (2014) Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: A voxel-based morphometry study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 1-16. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00245  

Shannon, R. (2016) Is birdsong more like speech or music?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(4), 245-247. PMID: 26944220  

Snowdon, C., Zimmermann, E., & Altenmüller, E. (2015) Music evolution and neuroscience. Music, Neurology, and Neuroscience: Evolution, the Musical Brain, Medical Conditions, and Therapies, 17-34. DOI: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2014.11.019  

  • March 23, 2016
  • 09:05 AM
  • 742 views

We Agree to Disagree: The Science of Why Your Political Posts Won’t Make Anyone Change Their Mind

by EE Giorgi in CHIMERAS

In today's heated political stage, where everyone has a soapbox thanks to outlets like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and all the personal blogs, I've tried my best not to share my political views publicly. And I've miserably failed. I use my own Facebook page and profile to talk about science, books and photography, but then I can't resist browsing other people's posts. Most of my friends are not as shy as me about making their political views heard and that's when I fall into the trap: I comment........ Read more »

Patterson, R., Operskalski, J., & Barbey, A. (2015) Motivated explanation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00559  

  • March 21, 2016
  • 09:00 AM
  • 357 views

How not to be a music neuroscientist

by Kiralee Musgrove in Neuroscientist on music

"Erm, what is it, that thing that you do?"

This is the question that follows the eyebrow V, that follows my response to the question, “what are you doing your PhD on?”.

Music neuroscientists. I can tell you what we do not do.... Read more »

Kraus, N., & Chandrasekaran, B. (2010) Music training for the development of auditory skills. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(8), 599-605. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2882  

  • March 20, 2016
  • 09:39 AM
  • 840 views

Neuropsychiatric Outcomes Of Traumatic Brain Injury

by Vivek Misra in Uberbrain Research Frontier

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, is a substantial head injury that results in damage to the brain. This damage can cause a wide spectrum of possible health outcomes. Factors that are likely to influence neuropsychiatric outcome in TBI can be classified as pre-injury, injury and post-injury factors. Injury-related factors include a) the type of physical injury
Read More
The post Neuropsychiatric Outcomes Of Traumatic Brain Injury appeared first on UBRF: UberBrain R........ Read more »

  • March 19, 2016
  • 11:36 PM
  • 917 views

The amygdala: Beyond fear

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged







THE AMYGDALA SHOWN ALONG WITH OTHER LIMBIC SYSTEM STRUCTURES.






The amygdala---or, more appropriately, amygdalae, as there is one in each cerebral hemisphere---was not recognized as a distinct brain region until the 1800s, and it wasn't until the middle of the twentieth century that it began to be considered an especially significant area in mediating emotional responses. Specifics about the role of the amygdala in emotion remained somewhat unclear, however, ........ Read more »

LeDoux, Joseph. (2007) The Amygdala. Current Biology. info:/

  • March 16, 2016
  • 09:59 AM
  • 796 views

An open letter to all science lovers who want to defend science ... please don't.

by EE Giorgi in CHIMERAS

Last week I had an animated discussion on Facebook over an older post in which I describe some literature I dug out on possible (underline “possible”!) correlations with autism. True, my post is highly incomplete, but it was meant as a discussion starter to point at things that scientists have been looking at in an attempt to unravel what feels like a rise in autism. Is autism the new childhood plague of our modern society or has it always been around and we just became more aware of it? And........ Read more »

Kushak RI, Buie TM, Murray KF, Newburg DS, Chen C, Nestoridi E, & Winter HS. (2016) Evaluation of Intestinal Function in Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. PMID: 26913756  

Heijtz, R., Wang, S., Anuar, F., Qian, Y., Bjorkholm, B., Samuelsson, A., Hibberd, M., Forssberg, H., & Pettersson, S. (2011) Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 3047-3052. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1010529108  

Mulle, J., Sharp, W., & Cubells, J. (2013) The Gut Microbiome: A New Frontier in Autism Research. Current Psychiatry Reports, 15(2). DOI: 10.1007/s11920-012-0337-0  

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