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All posts; Tags Include "Behavioral Neuroscience"

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  • October 14, 2014
  • 09:30 PM
  • 1,260 views

What is the habenula?

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Despite the fact that it is present in almost all vertebrate species, very little was known about the habenula until fairly recently. In the past several years, however, the habenula has received a significant amount of attention for its potential role in both cognition (e.g. reward processing) and disorders like depression. Still, the habenula remains a little-known structure whose functions are yet to be fully elucidated.Where is the habenula?The habenula is part of the diencephalon and, toget........ Read more »

  • October 14, 2014
  • 11:30 AM
  • 983 views

Vampire Diaries: Tales of Sleep

by Allison in Dormivigilia

Researchers at UPENN have done gene profiles of blood taken from subjects sensitive or resistant to sleep deprivation. Is the blood gaining some street cred in neuroscience?... Read more »

Arnardottir, E., Nikonova, E., Shockley, K., Podtelezhnikov, A., Anafi, R., Tanis, K., Maislin, G., Stone, D., Renger, J., Winrow, C.... (2014) Blood-Gene Expression Reveals Reduced Circadian Rhythmicity in Individuals Resistant to Sleep Deprivation. SLEEP. DOI: 10.5665/sleep.4064  

  • October 14, 2014
  • 09:30 AM
  • 1,187 views

Zombies And The Loss of Free Will

by Mark E. Lasbury in The 'Scope

Nature is rife with examples of how one organism can rob another of its free will, turning them into zombies so to say. Who would have guessed that Alfred Hitchcock's The Birds was really a zombie movie.... Read more »

  • October 9, 2014
  • 08:06 PM
  • 470 views

Use of CAM in Mental Health – What Does it Take ?

by Vivek Misra in Uberbrain Research Frontier

“These are ways of treating illness that have developed outside the mainstream of modern medicine.” (The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2009) There is growing evidence that Complementary Therapies are being used to good effect within mental health services throughout the UK and Internationally. Many clinicians are expanding the spectrum and variety of services to be […]... Read more »

  • October 7, 2014
  • 08:00 AM
  • 1,313 views

Get Some Sleep - Your Brain Will Thank You

by Mark E. Lasbury in The 'Scope

We all know we should get more sleep, but new research is showing that it isn’t just a good idea, it preserves brain structure and function. Sleep loss affects learning, and new studies show that sleep deprivation can cause irreversible neuron loss in the locus coeruleus, and that depression associated with lack of sleep can reduce hippocampus size. In fatal familial insomnia, the prion plaques destroy the thalamus and indicate a decrease in mitochondrial function – the same type pro........ Read more »

  • October 5, 2014
  • 09:21 PM
  • 1,275 views

Serotonin, depression, neurogenesis, and the beauty of science

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

If you asked any self-respecting neuroscientist 25 years ago what causes depression, she would likely have only briefly considered the question before responding that depression is caused by a monoamine deficiency. Specifically, she might have added, in many cases it seems to be caused by low levels of serotonin in the brain. The monoamine hypothesis that she would have been referring to was first formulated in the late 1960s, and at that time was centered primarily around norepinephrine. But in........ Read more »

  • October 2, 2014
  • 11:01 AM
  • 730 views

Parenting: Genetics and Environmental Effects

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Effective parenting is a key element in child development.Both genetic and environmental factors appear to contribute to the cognitive, emotional and behavioral aspects of parenting.Childhood temperament also influences the process of parenting. A well-behaved, emotionally stable and loving child is obviously much easier to parent than a child with behavioral and emotional problems.Bonamy Oliver and colleagues from the United Kingdom have recently published an informative twin study of pare........ Read more »

Oliver BR, Trzaskowski M, & Plomin R. (2014) Genetics of parenting: The power of the dark side. Developmental psychology, 50(4), 1233-40. PMID: 24364831  

  • September 29, 2014
  • 10:32 AM
  • 1,004 views

Family Attachment and the Brain Cingulate Cortex

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Healthy family attachment provides a key element for social support and successful interpersonal relationships.Several brain regions as well as hormonal factors appear to modulate positive emotional responses to family members.I have previously reviewed several studies involving the prosocial effects of the hormone oxytocin and the related hormone vasopressin.Nicolas Rusch from the Department of Psychiatry at Ulm University in Germany along with colleagues in Brazil and London recently published........ Read more »

  • September 26, 2014
  • 08:14 AM
  • 905 views

Anthropomorphic Neuroscience Driven by Researchers with Large TPJs

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

For immediate release — SEPTEMBER 26, 2014Research from the UCL lab of Professor Geraint Rees has proven that the recent craze for suggesting that rats have “regrets” or show “disappointment” is solely due to the size of the left temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) in the human authors of those papers (Cullen et al., 2014). This startling breakthrough was part of a larger effort to associate every known personality trait, political attitude, and individual difference with the size of a un........ Read more »

  • September 24, 2014
  • 12:37 PM
  • 765 views

Why Women Give Better Gifts

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Consumer spending on gifts for birthdays and holidays is a multi-billion dollar big business.Despite this large economic impact, little research examines factors associated with gift recipient satisfaction.Selecting good gifts for others involves a complex social decision-making process related to judging the value hierarchy of others.A study from the Netherlands recently published in the journal PLOS One featured three experiments on gift selection in a series of men and women.The design of the........ Read more »

Pollmann MM, & van Beest I. (2013) Women are better at selecting gifts than men. PloS one, 8(12). PMID: 24386082  

  • September 15, 2014
  • 04:01 PM
  • 1,156 views

Humanized FoxP2 and the timing of habits

by Björn Brembs in bjoern.brembs.blog

Last week, Elizabeth Pennisi asked me to comment on the recent paper from Schreiweis et al. entitled “Humanized FoxP2 accelerates learning by enhancing transitions from declarative to procedural performance”. Since I don’t know how much, if anything, of my answers […] ↓ Read the rest of this entry...... Read more »

Schreiweis, C., Bornschein, U., Burguiere, E., Kerimoglu, C., Schreiter, S., Dannemann, M., Goyal, S., Rea, E., French, C., Puliyadi, R.... (2014) Humanized Foxp2 accelerates learning by enhancing transitions from declarative to procedural performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1414542111  

  • September 9, 2014
  • 09:49 PM
  • 787 views

Prejudice in the brain

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Despite the great strides that have been made toward a more egalitarian society in the United States over the past 50 years, events like what occurred in Ferguson last month are a bleak reminder of the racial tensions that still exist here. Of course, the United States is not alone in this respect; throughout the world we can see abundant examples of strain between different races, as well as between any groups with dissimilar characteristics. In fact, it seems that the quickness with which we f........ Read more »

  • September 8, 2014
  • 10:41 AM
  • 852 views

Coping with Stress – Some Essential Constructs

by Vivek Misra in Uberbrain Research Frontier

Anxiety, insomnia, muscle tension, fatigue, high blood pressure, and anger are just some of the symptoms of stress. Stress not only affects our body, but also our behavior that can lead to social withdrawal. This presentation will explore the nature of our mind and the various factors in our lives that cause us stress. We will learn simple meditation techniques that can nourish the mind which will lead to increased focus, greater productivity, and improved relationships. ~ Pandi Gadadhara Pandi,........ Read more »

  • September 8, 2014
  • 08:00 AM
  • 1,212 views

I’ll Wager That You Bet On Football, Or Maybe Football

by Mark E. Lasbury in The 'Scope

Betting on American football and football proper is a trillion dollar a year industry. Why do only 4% of gamblers become addicted. Some of it is actually due to the games themselves. New research is showing that a belief in your knowledge of the game and the “near miss” wherein you almost win your bet, are strong factors in dopamine signaling in the reward centers of the brain.... Read more »

Anselme P, & Robinson MJ. (2013) What motivates gambling behavior? Insight into dopamine's role. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 182. PMID: 24348355  

Huberfeld R, Gersner R, Rosenberg O, Kotler M, & Dannon PN. (2013) Football gambling three arm-controlled study: gamblers, amateurs and laypersons. Psychopathology, 46(1), 28-33. PMID: 22890307  

Khazaal Y, Chatton A, Billieux J, Bizzini L, Monney G, Fresard E, Thorens G, Bondolfi G, El-Guebaly N, Zullino D.... (2012) Effects of expertise on football betting. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 18. PMID: 22578101  

Zhou K, Tang H, Sun Y, Huang GH, Rao LL, Liang ZY, & Li S. (2012) Belief in luck or in skill: which locks people into gambling?. Journal of gambling studies / co-sponsored by the National Council on Problem Gambling and Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, 28(3), 379-91. PMID: 21894576  

Grötsch P, Lange C, Wiesbeck GA, & Lang U. (2013) Pathological Gambling Induced by Dopamine Antagonists: A Case Report. Journal of gambling studies / co-sponsored by the National Council on Problem Gambling and Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming. PMID: 24356928  

  • September 2, 2014
  • 08:00 AM
  • 1,290 views

The Anti-Vaccine Movement Is A Preventable Disease

by Mark E. Lasbury in The 'Scope

Yet another study that attempts to make a link between vaccines and autism has been withdrawn by the publishers. Data from the CDC was re-analysed, and low and behold, a link between vaccine timing and autism was drawn, but only for African-American boys. The problems with this paper and the anti-vaccine movement in general are discussed.... Read more »

  • August 30, 2014
  • 03:31 AM
  • 828 views

Neurobiological Basis of Music Therapy

by Vivek Misra in Uberbrain Research Frontier

The basic and one of oldest socio-cognitive domains of Human species is music. Listening to music regularly helps to keep the neurons and synapses more active. Depending on the way sound waves are heard or pronounced, they have an impact in the way neurological (brain and nerve) system work in the human body. Neurological studies have identified that music is a valuable tool for evaluating the brain system [1]. Its observed that while listening to music, different parts of the brain are involved........ Read more »

Peretz, I., & Zatorre, R. (2005) Brain Organization for Music Processing. Annual Review of Psychology, 56(1), 89-114. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070225  

Patton, J., Routh, D., & Stinard, T. (2013) Where do children study? Behavioral observations. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 24(6), 439-440. DOI: 10.3758/BF03330575  

Chan AS, Ho YC, & Cheung MC. (1998) Music training improves verbal memory. Nature, 396(6707), 128. PMID: 9823892  

TSANG, C., TRAINOR, L., SANTESSO, D., TASKER, S., & SCHMIDT, L. (2006) Frontal EEG Responses as a Function of Affective Musical Features. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 930(1), 439-442. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05764.x  

Luu P, Tucker DM, & Makeig S. (2004) Frontal midline theta and the error-related negativity: neurophysiological mechanisms of action regulation. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 115(8), 1821-35. PMID: 15261861  

Koelsch S. (2010) Towards a neural basis of music-evoked emotions. Trends in cognitive sciences, 14(3), 131-7. PMID: 20153242  

  • August 29, 2014
  • 07:15 PM
  • 695 views

A change of mind: from bitter recollections to sweet memories

by Shelly Fan in Neurorexia

There are a LOT of articles on this study already, but most don’t go into the technical details – the part that, in my opinion,...... Read more »

  • August 28, 2014
  • 11:40 AM
  • 888 views

Gambler Sub-types: Three Distinct Profiles

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

One method to advance understanding of a disorder is to use statistical modeling for sub-type or class analysis.Lia Nower and colleagues recently published the results of such an analysis from the large general population data-set known as the U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).In this sample, 851 adults 18 years and older were identified with disordered gambling.This group then underwent a type of latent class statistical analysis known as the Pathways........ Read more »

  • August 27, 2014
  • 10:58 AM
  • 810 views

Diagnostic Profile in Pathological Gamblers

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Behavioral disorders like pathological gambling (PG) rarely occur alone as a single uncomplicated disorder.In a previous post, I noted the overlap of PG with personality disorder, anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder and substance abuse.A recent study from Germany adds to our knowledge of the general diagnostic profile in the PG population.Erbas and Buchner reviewed German national data sources and other German studies to come up with a series of findings:Twelve month prevalence rates ........ Read more »

  • August 18, 2014
  • 10:16 AM
  • 784 views

Guidelines for Treatment of Problem Gambling

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Despite the prevalence and impact of problem gambling, few summaries or guidelines address treatment.Searching the guideline.gov website shows no recent additions to the guideline literature.A guideline was published by the Singapore Ministry of Health in 2011. This guideline is still relevant and highlights some of the key elements of a problem gambling treatment program.I will summarize some of these key elements from this source titled: "Management of gambling disorders".  In their summa........ Read more »

Lee KM, Chan HN, Cheah B, Gentica GF, Guo S, Lim HK, Lim YC, Noorul F, Tan HS, Teo P.... (2011) Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines: management of gambling disorders. Singapore medical journal, 52(6), 456. PMID: 21732000  

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