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  • July 14, 2014
  • 12:05 AM

Pitching: We Can Have too Much of a Good Thing

by Mark Rice in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Young pitchers who engage in “risk-prone” pitching activities are more likely to report arm tiredness and pain, which is related to shoulder and elbow injuries.... Read more »

Yang, J., Mann, B., Guettler, J., Dugas, J., Irrgang, J., Fleisig, G., & Albright, J. (2014) Risk-Prone Pitching Activities and Injuries in Youth Baseball: Findings From a National Sample. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(6), 1456-1463. DOI: 10.1177/0363546514524699  

  • July 13, 2014
  • 03:15 PM

New ways to test for Alzheimers

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Accurately diagnosing alzheimer’s is not an easy thing to do. In fact most of the time people aren’t diagnosed until very late in the progression of the disease, long after […]... Read more »

Matthew E Growdon,, Aaron Schultz,, Alexander Dagley,, Rebecca Amariglio,, Trey Hedden,, Dorene M. Rentz,, Keith Johnson,, Reisa Sperling,, Mark W. Albers,, & Gad Marshall,. (2014) Olfactory identification and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in clinically normal elderly. Nature Neuroscience. info:/

  • July 13, 2014
  • 05:21 AM

Hotter, Smarter, Better Brains

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

It is evident that (a) higher body temperature leads to higher brain performance and (b) the sames holds true in an evolutionary context in terms of brain size. So hotter = smarter?... Read more »

James F. Gillooly. (2013) Hotter is Smarter: The temperature-dependence of brain size in vertebrates. PeerJ. info:/10.7287/peerj.preprints.155v1

Wright KP Jr, Hull JT, & Czeisler CA. (2002) Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 283(6). PMID: 12388468  

  • July 12, 2014
  • 07:02 PM

Legal highs – not for human consumption

by DJMac in Recovery Review

Legal highs in Lothian The UK has the largest market for new psychoactive substances (NSP or “legal highs”) in Europe. Scotland is no stranger to them and, as a seminar in Edinburgh heard last week, the Lothian area is seeing a surge in demand, some worrying trends in injecting and significant new presentations due to problems [...]
The post Legal highs – not for human consumption appeared first on Recovery Review.
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  • July 12, 2014
  • 05:59 PM

Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field???

by Craig Payne in Running Research Junkie

Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field???... Read more »

Hryvniak, D., Dicharry, J., & Wilder, R. (2014) Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 3(2), 131-136. DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2014.03.008  

  • July 12, 2014
  • 01:59 PM

Infant once thought Cured of HIV tests Positive

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

I hate doing sad posts, it’s not my thing. But this is a big deal so I thought I would share it, the child known as the “Mississippi baby” – whom for […]... Read more »

Persaud, D., Gay, H., Ziemniak, C., Chen, Y., Piatak, M., Chun, T., Strain, M., Richman, D., & Luzuriaga, K. (2013) Absence of Detectable HIV-1 Viremia after Treatment Cessation in an Infant. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(19), 1828-1835. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1302976  

  • July 12, 2014
  • 04:31 AM

Gold standard addiction treatment

by DJMac in Recovery Review

  Gold standard addiction treatment Addiction to alcohol or other drugs is not easy to recover from. However there are many pathways to recovery, including through treatment. One group of patients does far better than most other groups. In fact their results are so impressive that many commentators have urged us to learn from what’s [...]
The post Gold standard addiction treatment appeared first on Recovery Review.
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DuPont, R., McLellan, A., White, W., Merlo, L., & Gold, M. (2009) Setting the standard for recovery: Physicians' Health Programs. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 36(2), 159-171. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2008.01.004  

  • July 12, 2014
  • 02:29 AM

Night-to-night variability of sleep in traumatic brain injury

by William Lu in The Quantum Lobe Chronicles

It's been a while since I've posted something substantial. My apologies to all 20 followers of TQLC. Academia and clinical cases have been taking up most of my time. However, some exciting news! My paper on variability of respiration during sleep in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has recently been accepted into Neurorehabilitation. In the paper my colleagues and I examined the sleep processes of individuals with TBI using polysomnography. Polysomnography is a tool used to measure biophysical changes during sleep and diagnose disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep, a big problem for individuals with TBI. The contraption is quite uncomfortable (as you can see by the image) and takes some getting used to. Thus, we looked at the "first-night effects" of polysomnography on our subjects to see if the measurements from night-to-night were reliable. We found that polysomnography was quite reliable on the first night compared to the second night, especially for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea. This isn't typically the case for the general population so we were a bit surprised. There are a few possible explanations for why individuals with TBI don't seem to experience such first-night effects. One reason is that after a TBI, sleep becomes disrupted due to biological changes in the brain that regulate sleep processes. Thus, when our sample entered the sleep lab, their sleep remained poor on night 1 AND night 2 with little change. A second possible explanation may be that they were unaffected by external environmental stimuli such as the uncomfortable sensors they had to wear. This explanation is supported by the fact that individuals with TBI tend to have higher amounts of slow-wave sleep (the deep, restful kind). However, our subjects still tended to complain of sleep disturbances and daytime fatigue. Quite the mystery and something that needs to be further explored. I would love to hear your thoughts.Here is a link to the uncorrected abstract. W, Cantor J, Aurora RN, Nguyen M, Ashman T, Spielman L, Ambrose A, Krellman J, & Gordon W (2014). Variability of respiration and sleep during polysomnography in individuals with TBI. NeuroRehabilitation PMID: 24990025... Read more »

Lu W, Cantor J, Aurora RN, Nguyen M, Ashman T, Spielman L, Ambrose A, Krellman J, & Gordon W. (2014) Variability of respiration and sleep during polysomnography in individuals with TBI. NeuroRehabilitation. PMID: 24990025  

  • July 11, 2014
  • 04:11 PM

Antioxidants can accelerate Cancer, ya really!

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Oxidative stress on the body caused by free radicals, billed as a bad thing. Fruits, veggies and just about anything with the word healthy in the title is “jam packed” […]... Read more »

Phimister, E., Chandel, N., & Tuveson, D. (2014) The Promise and Perils of Antioxidants for Cancer Patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(2), 177-178. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMcibr1405701  

  • July 11, 2014
  • 01:45 PM

Change your Genes with Stem Cells!

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

So researchers for the first time were evaluating the safety and reliability of the existing targeted gene correction technologies and in the process they successfully developed a new method of gene […]... Read more »

  • July 11, 2014
  • 10:22 AM

Ye Old Science Journal. Interesting articles from the premiere journal of 1880.

by The Lab Hippo in The Lab Hippo

One of the perks to my job is that I can get access to just about any journal article I want for free. I know, it sounds like a dream life, but hey you go to college for 10 years and you get some favors thrown your way. A few years ago Science scanned all their historical archives put them online, so I begun to peruse a few and was pleasantly amused. In what may become a recurring theme to the LabHippo, I now present to you some of the more entertaining articles. We begin with the first year Science was published, 1880, Volume 1, Issues 1-28.... Read more »

  • July 11, 2014
  • 10:21 AM

Part 2. Epigenetics. Rat Tounges & Ham Sandwiches Can Influence Children

by The Lab Hippo in The Lab Hippo

Picture your parents having sex. good, too weird? OK then, picture your grandparents having sex. Even weirder? Fine, picture your great-grandparents having sex. That one might not be as bad. Chances are you never met your great-grandparents, which makes them somewhat strangers to you. You had eight great-grandparents and though you might not even know their names, about 12.5 percent of your DNA was inherited from them. Now imagine your great-grandmother eating a ham sandwich while having sex with your great-grandfather. Could that ham sandwich somehow affect your great-grandmother’s DNA? Crazier still, could that ‘ham sandwich tainted DNA’ be passed down to the 12.5 percent that is now in you?... Read more »

Pembrey, M., Bygren, L., Kaati, G., Edvinsson, S., Northstone, K., Sjöström, M., & Golding, J. (2005) Sex-specific, male-line transgenerational responses in humans. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14(2), 159-166. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201538  

  • July 11, 2014
  • 10:19 AM

Epigenetics. Rat Tounges & Ham Sandwiches Can Influence Children (Part 1)

by The Lab Hippo in The Lab Hippo

There’s a concept in biology that has begun to break into mainstream culture that makes the mishmosh of genetics even more complicated. It’s called ‘epigenetics’, and it can explain how our environment, such as what we eat and breath, can influence our DNA. Biologists have known about epigenetics for some time, but it seems to have gained widespread traction lately largely due to findings that a mother can influence her unborn child’s DNA during pregnancy. This is called ‘intergenerational epigenetics’, and again, scientists have known about it for a while. What’s an even newer and more controversial aspect to epigenetics is ‘transgenerational epigenetics’. This is the idea that our environment can influence our children’s and even our grandchildren’s DNA before they are even conceived. How can that be possible?... Read more »

Rönn T, Volkov P, Davegårdh C, Dayeh T, Hall E, Olsson AH, Nilsson E, Tornberg A, Dekker Nitert M, Eriksson KF.... (2013) A six months exercise intervention influences the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue. PLoS genetics, 9(6). PMID: 23825961  

Weaver, I., Cervoni, N., Champagne, F., D'Alessio, A., Sharma, S., Seckl, J., Dymov, S., Szyf, M., & Meaney, M. (2004) Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 7(8), 847-854. DOI: 10.1038/nn1276  

  • July 11, 2014
  • 10:15 AM

Can antioxidants accelerate cancer growth? Why you shouldn’t smoke and drink Vitamin Water

by The Lab Hippo in The Lab Hippo

Recently a paper was published that showed adding antioxidants, such as vitamin E, to the diet of mice accelerated the growth of lung tumors. This finding contradicts the commonly held belief that antioxidants act to protect us from cancer and other diseases.... Read more »

Sayin VI, Ibrahim MX, Larsson E, Nilsson JA, Lindahl P, & Bergo MO. (2014) Antioxidants accelerate lung cancer progression in mice. Science translational medicine, 6(221). PMID: 24477002  

  • July 11, 2014
  • 06:17 AM

What ‘P.S. I Love You’ Taught Me About Blue Stress

by Samiiksha Rohilla in Workout Trends

Last evening, while watching people passing by my lane, I realized how lucky it is to be happy and alive. It wasn’t the same with me a few months back. I used to prefer staying alone. I had locked my guitar inside the cupboard. And I had quit my work. Was I in a state of […]
The post What ‘P.S. I Love You’ Taught Me About Blue Stress appeared first on .
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  • July 11, 2014
  • 04:48 AM

Maternal C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and offspring schizophrenia

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

A big quote to start this post: "This finding provides the most robust evidence to date that maternal inflammation may play a significant role in schizophrenia, with possible implications for identifying preventive strategies and pathogenic mechanisms in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders".Ophelia @ Wikipedia The source for this quote was the paper by Sarah Canetta and colleagues [1] based on an analysis of serum samples from mums for C-reactive protein (CRP) as part of the Finnish Prenatal Study of Schizophrenia cohort under the leadership (well, grant holding) of Prof. Alan Brown. Some media interest in this paper can be seen here.Regular readers of this blog might have heard me talk about some of Prof. Brown's previous research, again with CRP in mind but with an autism research slant (see here). I'll come back to some of that work shortly alongside some more recent research [2] in that area.In this latest paper, archived maternal serum samples related to nearly 800 people (offspring) diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder were assayed for CRP and results compared with maternal CRP levels related to a similarly sized asymptomatic control group. "Increasing maternal C-reactive protein levels, classified as a continuous variable, were significantly associated with schizophrenia in offspring (adjusted odds ratio=1.31, 95% confidence interval=1.10-1.56)". Even after controlling for confounders including a parental "history of psychiatric disorders" results remained significant. Ergo, one marker of inflammation present and elevated in spot sera samples of mums may have some implications for subsequent development of offspring.Having recently heard the sad news about the death of Paul Patterson (see his obituary here) my first thoughts turned to his valuable contributions to this area and the proposed maternal immune activation hypothesis of schizophrenia and autism [3] (open-access here). You'll note that Prof. Brown was the co-author on that last citation with Prof. Patterson, giving you a feel for how such research connections might fit together.My second thought was slightly more of a critical one with the realisation that CRP whilst a good marker of the acute-phase response linked to inflammation [4] may not necessarily present the whole picture when measured in a spot sample fashion or without reference to the multitude of other compounds reactive to an inflammatory status. Think cytokines for example (see here). I note also in the latest paper that maternal levels of CRP were the focus, and not specifically CRP levels in offspring with and without a diagnosis of schizophrenia. It would be interesting to see how the two measurements might correlate (or not). That being said, and as I've reported before, there is quite a body of evidence suggestive of on-going issues with CRP in at least a proportion of people on the schizophrenia spectrum. Inflammation and psychiatry seem to have some common ground (see here).Going back to the CRP work with autism in mind, I do think there is a pattern emerging from the available peer-reviewed evidence suggestive that inflammation (excess inflammation or elevated markers of inflammation?) during critical periods of pregnancy might have some connection with later offspring outcomes. The processes potentially relevant to any association are still the source of some speculation, as are the various ways that inflammation might come about: air pollution (see here), maternal obesity (see here), etc. Take yer pick, accepting that genetics and/or epigenetics are probably also going to play a role. What remains to be seen is how the idea of mitigating inflammation - however one goes about doing this - during those critical periods of pregnancy may impact on offspring risk of developmental or psychiatric outcomes. Indeed, as the paper from Patterson and Brown [3] concluded: "It has been suggested that the overall decline in bacterial illnesses due to antibiotic therapy and the initiation of immunization programs may be at least partially responsible for the reduction in the incidence of schizophrenia in certain countries in the last several decades". Does this mean such strategies have already impacted on some of the prevalence figures?---------- [1] Canetta S. et al. Elevated Maternal C-Reactive Protein and Increased Risk of Schizophrenia in a National Birth Cohort. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Jun 27. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13121579.[2] Brown AS. et al. Elevated maternal C-reactive protein and autism in a national birth cohort. Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;19(2):259-64.[3] Brown AS. & Patterson PH. Maternal infection and schizophrenia: implications for prevention. Schizophr Bull. 2011 Mar;37(2):284-90.----------Canetta, S., Sourander, A., Surcel, H., Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, S., Leiviskä, J., Kellendonk, C., McKeague, I., & Brown, A. (2014). Elevated Maternal C-Reactive Protein and Increased Risk of Schizophrenia in a National Birth Cohort American Journal of Psychiatry DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13121579... Read more »

Canetta, S., Sourander, A., Surcel, H., Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, S., Leiviskä, J., Kellendonk, C., McKeague, I., & Brown, A. (2014) Elevated Maternal C-Reactive Protein and Increased Risk of Schizophrenia in a National Birth Cohort. American Journal of Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13121579  

  • July 11, 2014
  • 02:42 AM

Induced pluripotent stem cells in the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa

by beredim in Stem Cells Freak

Researchers at the Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) have have created a way to develop personalized gene therapies for patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a leading cause of vision loss. The approach, the first of its kind, takes advantage of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) cell technology to transform skin cells into retinal cells, which are then used as a patient-specific model for disease study and preclinical testing.Using this approach, researchers led by Stephen H. Tsang, MD, PhD, showed that a form of RP caused by mutations to the gene MFRP (membrane frizzled-related protein) disrupts the protein that gives retinal cells their structural integrity. They also showed that the effects of these mutations can be reversed with gene therapy. The approach could potentially be used to create personalized therapies for other forms of RP, as well as other genetic diseases. The paper was published recently in the online edition of Molecular Therapy, the official journal of the American Society for Gene & Cell Therapy.Read More... Read more »

  • July 11, 2014
  • 01:23 AM

When running, lean forward at the ankle or the hip?

by Craig Payne in Running Research Junkie

When running, lean forward at the ankle or the hip?... Read more »

  • July 11, 2014
  • 12:15 AM

Remote CPR Skills Testing Online - A Crazy Idea?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

On the MedicCast, Jamie Davis interviews Roy Shaw of SUMO about a method of remote CPR certification for health care providers.

"The Single Use Manikin Option, or SUMO™, is an AHA-compliant way of getting certified in CPR completely online.[1]"

What different ways of dealing with certification/recertification problems should we use?... Read more »

Sutton RM, Niles D, Meaney PA, Aplenc R, French B, Abella BS, Lengetti EL, Berg RA, Helfaer MA, Nadkarni V. (2011) Low-Dose, High-Frequency CPR Training Improves Skill Retention of In-Hospital Pediatric Providers. PEDIATRICS, 128(1). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-2105d  

  • July 10, 2014
  • 01:59 PM

Don’t Listen to the Voices: Understanding Consciousness

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

There is a voice in my head. Don't worry it's mine... I think [a story for another time I'm sure], but why is my voice inside my head? What causes me to hear myself while I type these very words, or even better you to hear them in your voice as you read them? Consciousness is a complex and very confusing thing. I think therefore I am? Science has had trouble cracking that nut and philosophy just won't cut it in the realm of neuroscience. [...]... Read more »

Paller, K., & Suzuki, S. (2014) The source of consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2014.05.012  

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