The bacterial flagellum is quite an intricate system for such a “primitive” organism. New research is telling us about how the flagellum is assembled and how it is regulated. A series of new work is related to the switching of the torque in the C ring so that flagella can spin counter clockwise or clockwise without a change in proton ion gradient flow. A series of conformation changes in the FLiD alter the position of charge clouds so that opposite charges drive a turn in the opposite direction.... Read more »
Eisele NA, Ruby T, Jacobson A, Manzanillo PS, Cox JS, Lam L, Mukundan L, Chawla A, & Monack DM. (2013) Salmonella require the fatty acid regulator PPARδ for the establishment of a metabolic environment essential for long-term persistence. Cell host , 14(2), 171-82. PMID: 23954156
Lee LK, Ginsburg MA, Crovace C, Donohoe M, & Stock D. (2010) Structure of the torque ring of the flagellar motor and the molecular basis for rotational switching. Nature, 466(7309), 996-1000. PMID: 20676082
Minamino T, Imada K, Kinoshita M, Nakamura S, Morimoto YV, & Namba K. (2011) Structural insight into the rotational switching mechanism of the bacterial flagellar motor. PLoS biology, 9(5). PMID: 21572987
Carsiotis M, Weinstein DL, Karch H, Holder IA, & O'Brien AD. (1984) Flagella of Salmonella typhimurium are a virulence factor in infected C57BL/6J mice. Infection and immunity, 46(3), 814-8. PMID: 6389363
"Keep clear of the moors"Among the many researchers and research groups admired on this blog for their contribution to the world of autism research, the name Dennis Wall is fast becoming a real favourite. Aside from mention of the words 'systems biology' in his profile at Stanford University, I'm particularly interested in the way the Wall research group are looking at trying to apply machine-learning approaches to things like autism assessment.I've covered a few of their past research reports with regards to instruments like the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) previously (see here and see here respectively). More recently was the work suggesting that YouTube videos and non-expert raters might be a useful resource for autism triage (see here). That last report certainly set the cat among [some] pigeons...Today I'm talking about another paper from the Wall laboratory by Marlena Duda and colleagues  (open-access) and the suggestion that: "reductions in the process of detecting and monitoring autism are possible". The ADOS was once again the focus of the study following on from their previous 'preliminary' foray .The paper is open-access but here are a few choice details:If I'm reading the paper correctly, this was a follow-up study to the previous Wall paper  testing the accuracy of the "observation-based classifier (OBC)" which I think was previously called/included the ADTree algorithm. This time around "a cohort of archival score sheets of over 2600 subjects, including more than 280 assessments of non-spectrum controls" were included in the study derived from ADOS and ADOS-2 algorithms. ADOS-2 by the way, represents the revised algorithms used to score ADOS reported by Gotham and colleagues . I've talked about the Gotham paper before on this blog and how it seemed to 'predict' diagnosis of autism in DSM-5 (see here).The aim was to test whether a boiled down version of the ADOS / ADOS-2, the OBC, that: "presently contains eight behaviors... that are often impacted in children with autism, including eye contact, imaginative play and reciprocal communication" might be able to distinguish autism from not-autism and "shorten screening and diagnostic processes overall and potentially enabling more families to receive care far earlier and during timeframes when interventions have the most positive benefits".Results: "The OBC was significantly correlated with the ADOS-G (r=−0.814) and ADOS-2 (r=−0.779) and exhibited >97% sensitivity and >77% specificity in comparison to both ADOS algorithm scores". These figures aren't bad at all, if a little down on the previous Wall data . The authors add: "Less than 5% of all tested cases were misclassified by the OBC and 78% of the misclassified individuals were given a low OBC score".Obviously there is much more investigation needed in this area of autism research before one might start shortening ADOS assessments (or indeed doing away with trained ADOS raters altogether). The issue of comorbidity is, for example, something that needs to be included in any further study and whether that might interfere with any results obtained . I might also add that ADOS is only part of the diagnostic assessment for autism and does not replace reasoned clinical opinion.I am however drawn to the authors suggestion that: "use of the OBC as a web-based assessment in advance of a clinical visit may enable clinicians to quickly prioritize patients according to symptom severity, scheduling shorter, more immediate diagnostic appointments for individuals that can be clearly identified as on or off the autism spectrum, and allowing longer time periods for deeper evaluation of children that exhibit clinically challenging symptoms". Certainly with the numbers of children/adults seemingly coming through the various referral systems, this kind of triage might yet hold some usefulness. And it seems other groups are getting in on the computer-assisted act ...Music to close and The Marcels with Blue Moon. "Keep clear of the moors" as we were once told...---------- Duda A. et al. Testing the accuracy of an observation-based classifier for rapid detection of autism risk. Translational Psychiatry. 2014; 4: e424. Wall DP. et al. Use of machine learning to shorten observation-based screening and diagnosis of autism. Transl Psychiatry. 2012 Apr 10;2:e100. Gotham K. et al. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Apr;37(4):613-27. Leyfer OT. et al. Overlap between autism and specific language impairment: comparison of Autism Diagnostic Interview and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Autism Res. 2008 Oct;1(5):284-96. Hashemi J. et al. Computer Vision Tools for Low-Cost and Noninvasive Measurement of Autism-Related Behaviors in Infants. Autism Research and Treatment. 2014. 935686.----------M Duda, J A Kosmicki, & D P Wall (2014). Testing the accuracy of an observation-based classifier for rapid detection of autism risk Translational Psychiatry, 4 : 10.1038/tp.2014.65... Read more »
M Duda, J A Kosmicki, & D P Wall. (2014) Testing the accuracy of an observation-based classifier for rapid detection of autism risk. Translational Psychiatry. info:/10.1038/tp.2014.65
Scapular mobilizations, sham mobilizations, and supervised exercise can help alleviate symptoms related to subacromial impingement syndrome but no intervention was most effective.... Read more »
Aytar A, Baltaci G, Uhl T, Tuzun H, Oztop P, & Karatas M. (2014) The Effects of Scapular Mobilization in Patients With Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Clinical Trial. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. PMID: 25054347
When I try to explain epigenetics to someone, I like to use the musician metaphor. Your genes are the sheet music and how your body reads those genes, that is your body acting like a musician, making those notes it’s own. This is even more evident when you realize that all human cells contain essentially the same DNA sequence. Up until now we've had to be the audience to this genetic symphony, but new research is helping scientists take control of the music.... Read more »
Müller-Ott K, Erdel F, Matveeva A, Mallm JP, Rademacher A, Hahn M, Bauer C, Zhang Q, Kaltofen S, Schotta G.... (2014) Specificity, propagation, and memory of pericentric heterochromatin. Molecular systems biology, 10(8), 746. PMID: 25134515
Yet another study that attempts to make a link between vaccines and autism has been withdrawn by the publishers. Data from the CDC was re-analysed, and low and behold, a link between vaccine timing and autism was drawn, but only for African-American boys. The problems with this paper and the anti-vaccine movement in general are discussed.... Read more »
Hooker, B. (2014) Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young african american boys: a reanalysis of CDC data. Translational Neurodegeneration, 3(1), 16. DOI: 10.1186/2047-9158-3-16
Tang G, Gudsnuk K, Kuo SH, Cotrina ML, Rosoklija G, Sosunov A, Sonders MS, Kanter E, Castagna C, Yamamoto A.... (2014) Loss of mTOR-Dependent Macroautophagy Causes Autistic-like Synaptic Pruning Deficits. Neuron. PMID: 25155956
"These data are consistent with evidence of multisystem dysregulation in CFS [Chronic Fatigue Syndrome] and implicate the involvement of DNA modifications in CFS pathology". So said the paper by Wilfred de Vega and colleagues  (open-access here) which, I think, represents a bit of a first for CFS with their examination of the possible role of epigenetic modifications in relation to the condition(s) .Ladies first @ Wikipedia I have to say that I was really quite excited by the de Vega paper and the fact that someone has actually started to apply the science of epigenetics (see here) to CFS. Indeed, only a few months back I mentioned the dearth of research in this area (see here) on the back of some interesting if preliminary findings in relation to things like HERV expression (see here) in ME (myalgic encephalomyelitis) which may very well be linked to methylation issues .A few details about the de Vega paper might be useful, bearing in mind it is open-access:This was a preliminary study which included 12 participants diagnosed with CFS and 12 asymptomatic controls, all women, and age- and BMI matched. Participants were recruited from the SolveCFS BioBank which also talks a little about this trial on their website (see here). Alongside the donation of a blood sample, participants completed the RAND-36, asking questions about health-related quality of life. "Methylomes in PBMCs [peripheral blood mononucleated cells] were examined" looking for any differences in methylation patterns between the groups. CpG sites were the analytical target, which as has been discussed in previous posts (see here), are those islands of DNA which can be methylated. Oh, and I should at this point also say that methylation or hypermethylation of specific parts of genes normally means gene silencing . Alongside looking at any methylation differences between the groups, some analytical time was also devoted to gene ontology (GO) and network analysis with the aim to "identify major enriched biological themes". In other words, to look at the biological functions behind any differentially methylated DNA sites.Results: perhaps unsurprisingly, there were some differences between the groups: "1,192 CpG sites were identified as differentially methylated between CFS patients and healthy control subjects, corresponding to 826 genes". These differences were present "across promoters, gene regulatory elements and within coding regions of genes". Further: "within genic regions, 30% of differentially methylated regions were hypomethylated and 70% were hypermethylated overall".When it came to where in the genome differences were found and what functions might be impacted, well among other things, there was "an overrepresentation of terms related to immune cell regulation". With particular regard for gene regulatory elements, and bearing in mind: "Differential methylation of gene regulatory elements is classically associated with alterations in gene expression", the authors reported "a number" of differentially methylated CpGs in such elements related to the immune response. There is also some chatter about the de Vega data being "consistent with previous observations of a Th1- to Th2-mediated immune response shift in CFS".As per my previous comment, this was quite a small-scale study which although valuable, only really dips it's toe into the epigenetic waters potentially associated with cases of CFS. The authors also note that their results "do not indicate whether these observed epigenetic differences are a cause or a consequence of CFS".That being said, and knowing what we are starting to know about methylation and how we might be able to manipulate methylation patterns through for example, the use of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors , there may be some scope to explore whether a reversal or inhibition of hypermethylation for example, might exert some effect on the clinical signs and symptoms of at least some CFS. I say this without making any value judgements nor providing anything that looks, sounds or smells like clinical advice.I'd like to think that the de Vega paper might stimulate further research into a possible role for epigenetics in relation to CFS. I say this acknowledging that genes and gene expression are likely to be only one part of the spectrum of presentations which fall under the CFS banner; not forgetting important areas such as the viral link to cases (see here), the growing emphasis on mitochondrial issues (see here) and even some potential role for those trillions of beasties which call our darkest recesses home (see here).Music then, and Bill Haley and the Comets. Did you know he has an asteroid named after him?---------- de Vega WC. et al. DNA Methylation Modifications Associated with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 11;9(8):e104757. Whiteley P. et al. Correlates of Overlapping Fatigue Syndromes. J Nutr Environ Med. 2004; 14: 247-259. Laska MJ. et al. (Some) cellular mechanisms influencing the transcription of human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-Fc1. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53895. Baylin SB. DNA methylation and gene silencing in cancer. Nature Clinical Practice Oncology. 2005; 2: S4-S11. Goffin J. & Eisenhauer E. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors-state of the art. Ann Oncol. 2002 Nov;13(11):1699-716.----------de Vega WC, Vernon SD, & McGowan PO (2014). DNA Methylation Modifications Associated with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PloS one, 9 (8) PMID: 25111603... Read more »
de Vega WC, Vernon SD, & McGowan PO. (2014) DNA Methylation Modifications Associated with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PloS one, 9(8). PMID: 25111603
Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Arch Height... Read more »
Knapik, J., Trone, D., Tchandja, J., & Jones, B. (2014) Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes on the Basis of Foot Arch Height: Summary of Military Investigations. Journal of Orthopaedic , 1-25. DOI: 10.2519/jospt.2014.5342
Another issue in defining and understanding recovery is that patients and clinicians may have different opinions about what recovery looks like and how to get there. Certainly, there is a body of literature from the critical feminist tradition in particular that explores how at times, patients can “follow the rules” of treatment systems to achieve a semblance of “recovery,” from a weight restoration and nutrition stabilization perspective, but feels nothing like a full and happy life (see, for example, Gremillion, 2003; Boughtwood & Halse, 2008).
This potential disconnect is one reason for favoring a holistic recovery as articulated by Bardone-Cone et al. and for attending to patients’ subjective experiences of recovery (see part 2 of this series here), as Malson and others have done (see part 3 of this series here). In 2006, Noordenbos & Seubring conducted a study that further unpacked this potential disconnect through a deeper examination of how individuals and therapists conceive of recovery. Carrie at ED Bites touched on this article in her recovery series here, but I’m hoping that this …
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Unpacking Recovery Part 3: Can Patients Imagine Recovery?
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Unpacking Eating Disorder Recovery Part 1: The Recovery Model
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Noordenbos, G., & Seubring, A. (2006) Criteria for Recovery from Eating Disorders According to Patients and Therapists. Eating Disorders, 14(1), 41-54. DOI: 10.1080/10640260500296756
You would think we learn about every part of a cell in biology, but we really don't. Case in point, about 50 years ago, electron microscopy revealed the presence of tiny blob-like structures that form inside cells, move around and disappear. The reason you probably haven't heard of these structures is because scientists really don't know what they do even 50 years later. Although they do have an idea about them, these shifting cloud-like collections of proteins are believed to be crucial to the life of a cell, and will ideally offer a new approach to disease treatment.... Read more »
Toretsky, J., & Wright, P. (2014) Assemblages: Functional units formed by cellular phase separation. The Journal of Cell Biology, 206(5), 579-588. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201404124
We can all get a little het-up about things, whether it’s something big like moving cities or something smaller like getting ready for a first date!But imagine how difficult life would be if we were to become excessively worried about even minor things?... Read more »
Katzman, M., & Tsirgielis, D. (2011) Treatment Approaches to Generalized Anxiety Disorder. International Journal of Clinical Reviews. DOI: 10.5275/ijcr.2011.08.09
Gosselin P, & Laberge B. (2003) [Etiological factors of generalized anxiety disorder]. L'Encephale, 29(4 Pt 1), 351-61. PMID: 14615705
Humans are essentially 90% bacteria. These bacteria pepper our skin and hang out in our digestive tracts, helping to break down complex carbohydrates and keeping bad bugs in check. We know how the human microbiome (our collection of bacteria) gets … Continue reading →... Read more »
David LA, Materna AC, Friedman J, Campos-Baptista MI, Blackburn MC, Perrotta A, Erdman SE, & Alm EJ. (2014) Host lifestyle affects human microbiota on daily timescales. Genome biology, 15(7). PMID: 25146375
Modern classroom? @ Wikipedia The paper published by Matthew Siegel and colleagues  talking about some preliminary observations on the use of lithium where symptoms of mood disorder might be present in cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) caught my eye recently. Concluding that: "lithium may be a medication of interest for those who exhibit two or more mood disorder symptoms, particularly mania or euphoria/elevated mood" the sentiments of more research-to-do in this area presents some intriguing options. That all being said, side-effects of lithium supplementation may yet scupper any large-scale plans for using this medication option with this cohort as per the authors note that: "Forty-seven percent of patients were reported to have at least one side effect, most commonly vomiting (13%), tremor (10%), fatigue (10%), irritability (7%), and enuresis (7%)".I had a few thoughts after reading the Siegel paper and their findings based on the use of Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) ratings that "Forty-three percent of patients who received lithium were rated as "improved"". Mood disorders, or the symptoms of mood disorders, covers quite a bit of diagnostic ground. My recent discussions on bipolar disorder being fairly frequent in cases of Asperger syndrome (see here) coincide with the Siegel findings and particularly the case report by Frazier and colleagues  discussing a treatment regime which mentions the use of lithium. Other reports have similarly described the use of lithium as a possible management option where bipolar disorder and autism are comorbid . What this tells me is that Siegel et al were not the first to look at lithium and autism (with comorbidity).A quick glance at the other peer-reviewed literature in this area suggests that lithium is also finding some favour where less idiopathic types of autism are present. The paper by Luiz & Smith  talking about lithium as a promising treatment for Fragile X syndrome represents another potentially important area. The precise mode of action is still the subject of some conjecture but the overview provided by Chiu & Chuang  (open-access) gives some indication of what might be going on and could be similarly mapped on to potential biological mechanisms linked to autism and mood disorder if and when comorbid.Finally, I have to make some mention about the important links being made between the use of lithium and the prevention of suicide in mood disorders . I know it's not exactly a topic which makes great dinner party conversation but the emerging evidence base, alongside other important compounds, could potentially be life-saving for some people. Without trying to brush everyone on the autism spectrum as being at risk from suicide, the growing body of evidence suggesting that suicide ideation (see here) or suicide attempts (see here) might be more frequent for those on the autism spectrum  is something that needs to be taken seriously. This may imply that alongside appropriate societal support being provided, lithium might also have some important role to fulfil for some people...---------- Siegel M. et al. Preliminary Investigation of Lithium for Mood Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2014 August 5. Frazier JA. et al. Treating a child with Asperger's disorder and comorbid bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Jan;159(1):13-21 Kerbeshian J. et al. Lithium carbonate in the treatment of two patients with infantile autism and atypical bipolar symptomatology. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987 Dec;7(6):401-5. Liu Z. & Smith CB. Lithium: A Promising Treatment for Fragile X Syndrome. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2014 May 15. Chiu CT. & Chuang DM. Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders. Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Nov;128(2):281-304. Cipriani A. et al. Lithium in the prevention of suicide in mood disorders: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013 Jun 27;346:f3646. Paquette-Smith M. et al. History of Suicide Attempts in Adults With Asperger Syndrome. Crisis. 2014; 35: 273-277.----------Siegel M, Beresford CA, Bunker M, Verdi M, Vishnevetsky D, Karlsson C, Teer O, Stedman A, & Smith KA (2014). Preliminary Investigation of Lithium for Mood Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology PMID: 25093602... Read more »
Siegel M, Beresford CA, Bunker M, Verdi M, Vishnevetsky D, Karlsson C, Teer O, Stedman A, & Smith KA. (2014) Preliminary Investigation of Lithium for Mood Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. PMID: 25093602
Anthrax is a deadly disease with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Because it is, thankfully, also quite rare, it is relatively easy to track its whereabouts and going-ons when an outbreak occurs. Typically, outbreaks of anthrax have been traced to groups of people involved in high-risk activities involving grazing animals and their byproducts: anthrax favors shepherds, butchers, wool-sorters, leather workers, and even the odd drum-playing hippies. In 2009, however, an outbreak upended this pattern and targeted a novel population: heroin users, overwhelmingly those injecting the drug.... Read more »
Berger, T., Kassirer, M., & Aran, A. (2014) Injectional anthrax - new presentation of an old disease. Eurosurveillance, 19(32), 20877. DOI: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.32.20877
Creating new drug molecules is challenging, developing drugs that are highly effective against a target, but with minimal (or no) toxicity and side-effects to the patient can be an exercise in futility. These drug properties are directly conferred by the 3D structure of the drug molecule. So ideally, the drug should have a shape that is perfectly complementary to a disease-causing target, so that it binds it with high specificity.With that, scientists have developed a synthetic amino acid that can impact the 3D structure of bioactive peptides and enhance their potency.... Read more »
Chen S. Gopalakrishnan R, Schaer T, Marger F, Hovius R, Bertrand D, Pojer F, Heinis C. (2014) Di-thiol amino acids can structurally shape and enhance the ligand-binding properties of polypeptides. Nature Chemistry. info:/10.1038/nchem.2043
New guidelines for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) identify candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). These devices help protect patients from arrhythmias (an irregular heartbeat) which can limit blood flow to vital organs, like the brain for example. Identifying which pacents would benefit from an ICD has been difficult. But the new guidelines, which were recently published, will help determine the patients most likely to benefit from ICDs by testing to see which of the patients are at higher risk for sudden cardiac death.... Read more »
Perry M. Elliott, (Chairperson) (UK)*, Aris Anastasakis, (Greece), Michael A. Borger, (Germany), Martin Borggrefe, (Germany), Franco Cecchi, (Italy), Philippe Charron, (France), Albert Alain Hagege, (France), Antoine Lafont, (France), Giuseppe Limongelli,. (2014) 2014 ESC Guidelines on diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). European Heart Journal . info:/10.1093/eurheartj/ehu284
A brief post to direct you to the paper by Nicolaidis and colleagues  talking about primary care for adults on the autism spectrum and mention of an issue quite important to this blog: "the recognition of associated conditions"."When 900 years old you reach, look as good you will not".Alongside the announcement of what seems like an interesting workshop organised by the US IACC (Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee) titled: "IACC Workshop on Under-Recognized Co-Occurring Conditions in ASD", comorbidity, whether psychiatric or more somatic, appearing alongside a diagnosis of autism seems to be moving up the agenda. The fact that both children and adults with autism are covered in the growing interest in this area is an important point to make, particularly in light of recent discussions on the direction of autism research (see here).I'll leave you, yet again, with a link to the document produced by the UK group Treating Autism titled: "Medical Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorders" which provides a pretty good overview of the peer-reviewed literature in this area, and importantly, is free to view, download and share.---------- Nicolaidis C. et al. Primary Care for Adults on the Autism Spectrum. Med Clin North Am. 2014 Sep;98(5):1169-1191.----------Nicolaidis C, Kripke CC, & Raymaker D (2014). Primary Care for Adults on the Autism Spectrum. The Medical clinics of North America, 98 (5), 1169-1191 PMID: 25134878... Read more »
The basic and one of oldest socio-cognitive domains of Human species is music. Listening to music regularly helps to keep the neurons and synapses more active. Depending on the way sound waves are heard or pronounced, they have an impact in the way neurological (brain and nerve) system work in the human body. Neurological studies have identified that music is a valuable tool for evaluating the brain system . Its observed that while listening to music, different parts of the brain are involved in processing music, this include the auditory cortex, frontal cortex, cerebral cortex and even the motor cortex . Research findings indicate some of the cognitive tests are more influenced by exposure to music . In 1993, Dr. Gordon Shaw of the University of California-Irvine found a temporary spike in the intelligence quotient in college students after they listened to Mozart music. Most of the school children prefer to study with a radio or television turned on  it improves verbal memory, creativity and memorizing of image material . Each type of music has its own frequency, it can either resonate or it can be in conflict with the body’s rhythms (heart rate). Each frequency band of EEG rhythm relates to specific functions of brain, example Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm theta) often appears on Electroencephalogram (EEG) during consecutive mental tasks .
Beta activity relates to increased alertness and cognitive processes . While listening to pleasant music there is decrease in alpha power at the left frontal lobe and unpleasant music produces decrease in […]
The post Neurobiological Basis of Music Therapy appeared first on The UberBrain.
... Read more »
Kristeva R, Chakarov V, Schulte-Mönting J, & Spreer J. (2003) Activation of cortical areas in music execution and imagining: a high-resolution EEG study. NeuroImage, 20(3), 1872-83. PMID: 14642497
Schellenberg, E., Nakata, T., Hunter, P., & Tamoto, S. (2007) Exposure to music and cognitive performance: tests of children and adults. Psychology of Music, 35(1), 5-19. DOI: 10.1177/0305735607068885
Asada H, Fukuda Y, Tsunoda S, Yamaguchi M, & Tonoike M. (1999) Frontal midline theta rhythms reflect alternative activation of prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in humans. Neuroscience letters, 274(1), 29-32. PMID: 10530512
TSANG, C., TRAINOR, L., SANTESSO, D., TASKER, S., & SCHMIDT, L. (2006) Frontal EEG Responses as a Function of Affective Musical Features. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 930(1), 439-442. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05764.x
Sammler D, Grigutsch M, Fritz T, & Koelsch S. (2007) Music and emotion: electrophysiological correlates of the processing of pleasant and unpleasant music. Psychophysiology, 44(2), 293-304. PMID: 17343712
Luu P, Tucker DM, & Makeig S. (2004) Frontal midline theta and the error-related negativity: neurophysiological mechanisms of action regulation. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 115(8), 1821-35. PMID: 15261861
Kubota Y, Sato W, Toichi M, Murai T, Okada T, Hayashi A, & Sengoku A. (2001) Frontal midline theta rhythm is correlated with cardiac autonomic activities during the performance of an attention demanding meditation procedure. Brain research. Cognitive brain research, 11(2), 281-7. PMID: 11275489
Pavlygina RA, Sakharov DS, & Davydov VI. (2004) [Spectral analysis of the human EEG during listening to musical compositions]. Fiziologiia cheloveka, 30(1), 62-9. PMID: 15040288
Lonsdale, A., & North, A. (2011) Why do we listen to music? A uses and gratifications analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 102(1), 108-134. DOI: 10.1348/000712610X506831
Foot Orthotics and Patellofemoral Pain... Read more »
Lack, S., Barton, C., Woledge, R., Laupheimer, M., & Morrissey, D. (2014) The immediate effects of foot orthoses on hip and knee kinematics and muscle activity during a functional step-up task in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Clinical Biomechanics. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2014.08.005
Ebola has a nasty reputation for the way it damages the body. It's rightfully earned when you look at the death rate. But when you look at the actual details of an Ebola infection, a surprising fact surfaces: The virus isn't what ends up killing you, it's your own immune system. Sure they are trying different ways to outsmart the virus, but it's mutating... quickly. In fact, scientists have rapidly sequenced and analyzed more than 99 Ebola virus genomes. The hope it to better understand the enemy and possibly outsmart it.... Read more »
Gire, S., Goba, A., Andersen, K., Sealfon, R., Park, D., Kanneh, L., Jalloh, S., Momoh, M., Fullah, M., Dudas, G.... (2014) Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.1259657
This post is a commentary on a piece by Matthew Lieberman in Edge, in which he expresses concerns about the way in which researchers are undertaking replication studies. He argues that some people are making careers out of trying to disprove others, and in so doing are damaging science.
I argue that we need to develop a more mature understanding that the move towards more replication is not about making or breaking careers: it is about providing an opportunity to move science forward, improve our methodology and establish which results are reliable. Unless we do that, we damage the careers of the junior scientists who come after us, who may spend years trying to build on a finding that proves to be an illusion. ... Read more »
Button, K., Ioannidis, J., Mokrysz, C., Nosek, B., Flint, J., Robinson, E., & Munafó, M. (2013) Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(6), 442-442. DOI: 10.1038/nrn3502
Ioannidis, J. (2005) Contradicted and Initially Stronger Effects in Highly Cited Clinical Research. JAMA, 294(2), 218. DOI: 10.1001/jama.294.2.218
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