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  • June 24, 2015
  • 04:10 PM
  • 53 views

Pre-Labor C-Section Affects Newborn’s Immune System

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hans Bisgaard, DMSc Professor of Paediatrics University of Copenhagen and Head of the Danish Pediatric Asthma Centre Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Prof. Bisgaard: Programming of the immune response in perinatal life seems … Continue reading →
The post Pre-Labor C-Section Affects Newborn’s Immune System appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Pre-labor cesarean section is associated with a distinct and gestational age-related distribution of circulating immune cells in newborns. (2015) Pre-Labor C-Section Affects Newborn's Immune System. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 24, 2015
  • 02:05 PM
  • 140 views

Oh, to have Dr. Facebook on call!

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

If it were up to Internet-savvy Americans, more of them would be emailing or sending Facebook messages to their doctors to chat about their health. That’s the result of a national survey led by Joy Lee of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the US.... Read more »

  • June 24, 2015
  • 12:26 PM
  • 61 views

Placenta-on-a-Chip Technology Enhances Study Of Fetal Circulation

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dan Dongeun Huh, Ph.D. Wilf Family Term Chair & Assistant Professor Department of Bioengineering University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The placenta … Continue reading →
The post Placenta-on-a-Chip Technology Enhances Study Of Fetal Circulation appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Dan Dongeun Huh, Ph.D., Wilf Family Term Chair , Department of Bioengineering, & University of Pennsylvania. (2015) Placenta-on-a-Chip Technology Enhances Study Of Fetal Circulation. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 24, 2015
  • 12:04 PM
  • 58 views

High Blood Pressure In Young Adulthood Increases Risk Of Later Heart Failure

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Satoru Kishi, MD Division of Cardiology Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Kishi: Blood pressure (BP) at the higher end of the population distribution … Continue reading →
The post High Blood Pressure In Young Adulthood Increases Risk Of Later Heart Failure appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Satoru Kishi, MD Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, & Baltimore, Maryland. (2015) High Blood Pressure In Young Adulthood Increases Risk Of Later Heart Failure. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 24, 2015
  • 11:51 AM
  • 53 views

Obesity Largely Driving Health Care and Societal Burden

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Yang Lin on behalf of all authors Department of Surgery, Division of Public Health Sciences Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine St Louis, Missouri Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What … Continue reading →
The post Obesity Largely Driving Health Care and Societal Burden appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Dr. Yang Lin on behalf of all authors. (2015) Obesity Largely Driving Health Care and Societal Burden. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 24, 2015
  • 11:02 AM
  • 121 views

Bipolar Disorder Link to Rheumatoid Arthritis

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Finding links between disorders felt to be distinct is a helpful tool in understanding genetics and pathophysiology. An example would be the discovery that individuals with genetically determined elevated cholesterol levels had higher rates of cardiovascular disease. This led to drug development of cholesterol lowering agents leading to reduced rates of cardiovascular disease and mortality.A recent population-based study from a research team in Taiwan identified an increased risk of bipolar disorder in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.In their study, 2,570 patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis were identified from a national insurance database.A comparison group of 2,570 patients without rheumatoid arthritis were identified as a control group.The key finding from the study was an approximate doubling of the risk for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in those with rheumatoid arthritis (odds ratio 2.13, 95% confidence interval 1.12-4.24). Rheumatoid arthritis patients had additional elevated bipolar riks if they also had asthma, cirrhosis of the liver or an alcohol use disorder. The research team noted a possible explanation for increased risk of bipolar disorder following rheumatoid arthritis is inflammatory immune dysfunction.Peripheral markers of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis have been linked to upregulation of central nervous system inflammation. The authors note peripheral markers of inflammation known as cytokines may reach the brain through blood brain barrier leaks, active transport, activation of endothelial cells or cytokine receptor binding.The clinical implications of this finding are important. Early active treatment of rheumatoid arthritis may reduce risk for central nervous system complications including bipolar disorder. Clinicians treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis should actively monitor for emergence of mood disorders including bipolar disorder. One potential confounding issue in this study is the potential for rheumatoid arthritis medications to induce mood symptoms. Corticosteroid drugs such as prednisone are commonly used in rheumatoid arthritis. This class of drug is known to induce insomnia and hypomanic or manic states in some individuals.Reader with more interest in this topic can access the free full-text manuscript by clicking on the PMID link below.Photo of water lilies is from the author's files. Follow the author on Twitter @WRY999Hsu CC, Chen SC, Liu CJ, Lu T, Shen CC, Hu YW, Yeh CM, Chen PM, Chen TJ, & Hu LY (2014). Rheumatoid arthritis and the risk of bipolar disorder: a nationwide population-based study. PloS one, 9 (9) PMID: 25229610... Read more »

  • June 24, 2015
  • 08:00 AM
  • 139 views

The CPU In Your Head

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

It’s hard to believe, but part of your brain – the part that controls your body systems – actually comes from your mouth! What’s more, that same part of the brain talks to cells in your lungs that can smell what you breathe in and may have something to do with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.... Read more »

Gu, X., Karp, P., Brody, S., Pierce, R., Welsh, M., Holtzman, M., & Ben-Shahar, Y. (2014) Chemosensory Functions for Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 50(3), 637-646. DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0199OC  

  • June 24, 2015
  • 07:25 AM
  • 40 views

Gut Microbiome May Influence Our Behavior and Long Term Memory

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kathy Magnusson D.V.M., Ph.D Professor Oregon State College of Veterinary Medicine Principal Investigator with the Linus Pauling Institute Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Magnusson: There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiome … Continue reading →
The post Gut Microbiome May Influence Our Behavior and Long Term Memory appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Kathy Magnusson D.V.M., Ph.D Professor, Oregon State College of Veterinary Medicine, & Principal Investigator with the Linus Pauling Institute. (2015) Gut Microbiome May Influence Our Behavior and Long Term Memory. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 24, 2015
  • 07:05 AM
  • 32 views

Primary Seat Belt Laws Save Lives

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH Division of Emergency Medicine Boston Children’s Hospital Boston, MA 02115 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause … Continue reading →
The post Primary Seat Belt Laws Save Lives appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH, Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, & Boston, MA 02115. (2015) Primary Seat Belt Laws Save Lives. MedicalResearch.com. info:/http://medicalresearch.com/pediatrics/primary-seat-b…aws-save-lives/15235

  • June 24, 2015
  • 04:51 AM
  • 153 views

Infant sleep duration a risk factor for autism spectrum behaviours in girls?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

To quote from the study results published by Janet Saenz and colleagues [1] (open-access available here): "less sleep duration in infant girls across a period of 5 days was predictive of higher ASD [autism spectrum disorder] scores on the BITSEA [Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment] in toddlerhood."Based on a sample of 47 children - 29 males and 18 females - researchers initially studied sleep patterns for participants at 3-4 months of age using actigraphs to ascertain sleep duration and efficiency and determine whether there was any connection to later BITSEA scores at 18-24 months of age. They reported various results in the most part not significant across genders, sleeping patterns and the subsequent effect on scores of social-emotional problems. In the detail however, they did find a suggestion that "sleep duration was a significant predictor of autism spectrum behaviors" specifically in girls and "after controlling for sleep efficiency, a 1-min decrease in sleep duration resulted in a 0.01 point predicted increase in a child’s autism spectrum behaviors score." This, bearing in mind, that BITSEA scores for autism spectrum behaviours range between 0-17.I'm not wildly enthusiastic about the results reported by Saenz et al given the relatively small sample size and the snap analysis of two variables (sleep and reported behaviour) separated by over a years worth of development. Correlation is not necessarily causation and all that jazz. Indeed, even the authors concede that their use of a "non-clinical sample" limits the applicability of their results to "the low severity end of the diagnostic spectrums."That being said, I do wonder if these findings invite quite a bit more investigation specifically when it comes to all those resources being put into the early detection of autism as exemplified in the recent paper by Sacrey and colleagues [2]. Sleep and autism is a research topic not unfamiliar to this blog (see here) and the idea that there may be small but measurable differences in sleep parameters in cases of already diagnosed autism. I'm not aware of too much in the way of experimental research reporting on early sleep patterns as being a 'risk' factor for autism outside of results such as those reported by Humphreys et al [3]. The idea that sleep issues might become more present as a child develops is a theme explored by Sivertsen et al [4] and the behavioural 'issue' link has also been mentioned by others [5].Finally, it is worth reiterating the focus on female autism spectrum behaviours reported by Saenz et al. As per other work by the authors [6] and findings supporting: "the hypothesis that early infancy may be another critical period for the development of gender-linked behavior" based on their examination of infancy salivary testosterone levels and toddler BITSEA ratings, there may be some important lessons to be learned. Sex differences in behavioural presentation when it comes to autism (see here) is a big talking point at the moment in light of discussions about how the gender ratios for diagnosis might be skewed by either a female autism phenotype or just plain old dogma about autism being a male-dominated label. Again, I've not come across much in the way of peer-reviewed research where sleep has been examined from the perspective of risk of autism or autism linked behaviours taking into account gender differences. Hence, another potential research project presents itself and perhaps even more intriguing: could 'alteration' of early sleep patterns offset the future risk of autism?Music: Kelis - Caught Out There.----------[1] Saenz J. et al. Sleep in infancy predicts gender specific social-emotional problems in toddlers. Front Pediatr. 2015 May 11;3:42.[2] Sacrey LA. et al. Can parents' concerns predict autism spectrum disorder? A prospective study of high-risk siblings from 6 to 36 months of age. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;54(6):470-8.[3] Humphreys JS. et al. Sleep patterns in children with autistic spectrum disorders: a prospective cohort study. Arch Dis Child. 2014 Feb;99(2):114-8.[4] Sivertsen B. et al. Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum problems: a longitudinal population-based study. Autism. 2012 Mar;16(2):139-50.[5] Schwichtenberg AJ. et al. Behavior and sleep problems in children with a family history of autism. Autism Res. 2013 Jun;6(3):169-76.[6] Saenz J. & Alexander GM. Postnatal testosterone levels and disorder relevant behavior in the second year of life. Biol Psychol. 2013 Sep;94(1):152-9.----------Saenz J, Yaugher A, & Alexander GM (2015). Sleep in infancy predicts gender specific social-emotional problems in toddlers. Frontiers in pediatrics, 3 PMID: 26029685... Read more »

  • June 23, 2015
  • 07:19 PM
  • 32 views

Many Petroleum Product Releases Due To Private Accidents and Damage To Utilities or Lines

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ayana R. Anderson, MPH Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Large mass casualty gas explosions … Continue reading →
The post Many Petroleum Product Releases Due To Private Accidents and Damage To Utilities or Lines appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Ayana R. Anderson, MPH, Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, & Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2015) Many Petroleum Product Releases Due To Private Accidents and Damage To Utilities or Lines. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 23, 2015
  • 06:49 PM
  • 40 views

Few Well Done Studies Support Medical Use of Cannabis

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Penny F. Whiting, PhD School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol The National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care West at University Hospitals, Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol UK Kleijnen … Continue reading →
The post Few Well Done Studies Support Medical Use of Cannabis appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Penny F. Whiting, PhD, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, & The National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health. (2015) Few Well Done Studies Support Medical Use of Cannabis. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 23, 2015
  • 06:24 PM
  • 67 views

Mechanism Linking Excess Fructose Intake To Heart Disease Delineated

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Wilhelm Krek Institute of Molecular Health Sciences Zürich, Switzerland MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Krek: Fructose and glucose are major components of dietary sugars consumed in the … Continue reading →
The post Mechanism Linking Excess Fructose Intake To Heart Disease Delineated appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Potentially, a surplus of fructose can help trigger the mechanisms increasing cardiac valve disease or high blood pressure. (2015) Mechanism Linking Excess Fructose Intake To Heart Disease Delineated. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 23, 2015
  • 12:11 PM
  • 159 views

Bipolar Disorder Linked to Increased Dementia Risk

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

A variety of risk factors have been identified in Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia.The risk for dementia following major psychiatric syndromes in mid-life is an important research area.Renate Zilkens and colleagues in Australia recently published an informative study of psychiatric disorders and later dementia risk. This study used a population-based case control methodology.The key elements in the design of this study included the following:Subjects: General population in Western AustraliaData sources: inpatient, outpatient and emergency medical records along with death recordsCases: Incident cases of dementia between ages of 65 and 84 years of ageControls: Age and sex-matched individuals without incident dementia diagnosisPsychiatric diagnoses: medical record diagnoses that were required to be present at least ten years prior to dementia onsetStatistical analysis: odds ratio using conditional logistic regressionThe research group in this study used a variety of models to assess risk based on specific medical and psychiatric disorders.For simplicity, I have used data from the study to put together the summary graph in this post.This graph estimates later dementia odds ratios for specific disorders when that disorder is present during the 65-69 year age period.There is evidence of a strong increase in risk for dementia following bipolar disorder diagnosis (odds ratio 4.71, 95% confidence interval 2.29 to 9.65). Bipolar disorder is the psychiatric disorder with the second highest odds ratio being topped only by schizophrenia with an estimated odds ratio of 12.1. The odds ratio with depression was only slight lower than that associated with a diabetes diagnosis (odds ratio 2.77 vs 3.47). Anxiety disorder had a small but statistically significant increased odds ration for later dementia (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.65)Alcoholism diagnosis by age 65 years of age is also associated with a marked increase in dementia risk (odds ratio 4.14, 95% confidence interval 2.25 to 7.61).The authors note their findings support the role of psychiatric disorders in contributing to brain vascular abnormalities that can contribute to later cognitive decline. Additionally, they note there is increasing evidence that psychiatric disorders are associated with brain inflammation and immune system dysfunction, areas know to contribute to cognitive decline.This study is important is suggests at lease five psychiatric disorders need to be considered as potential risk factors for dementia (bipolar disorder plus schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and alcoholism). Adding these risk factors may allow for improvement in detection and prevention efforts.Additionally, the finding suggest dementia populations may have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. These psychiatric disorders can complicate dementia management and increase the need for psychiatric assessment and consultation in geriatric care settings.Readers with more interest in this topic can access the free full-text manuscript by clicking on DOI link below.Follow the author on Twitter @WRY999Zilkens, R., Bruce, D., Duke, J., Spilsbury, K., & Semmens, J. (2014). Severe Psychiatric Disorders in Mid-Life and Risk of Dementia in Late- Life (Age 65-84 Years): A Population Based Case-Control Study Current Alzheimer Research, 11 (7), 681-693 DOI: 10.2174/1567205011666140812115004... Read more »

  • June 23, 2015
  • 06:59 AM
  • 104 views

New Skin Rejuvenation Technique Uses Pulsed Electric Fields

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Alexander Golberg Ph.D. Center for Engineering in Medicine Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School, and Shriners Burns Hospital Boston, MA, 02114 MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main … Continue reading →
The post New Skin Rejuvenation Technique Uses Pulsed Electric Fields appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Dr. Alexander Golberg Ph.D. Center for Engineering in Medicine, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Shriners Burns Hospital, & Boston, MA, 02114. (2015) New Skin Rejuvenation Technique Uses Pulsed Electric Fields. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 23, 2015
  • 06:47 AM
  • 97 views

Newer Glaucoma Treatments May Be Best For Less Advanced Disease

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pradeep Ramulu MD MHS PhD Associate Professor of Ophthalmology Wilmer Eye Institute Johns Hopkins University MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Ramulu: Looking at what procedures are used allows … Continue reading →
The post Newer Glaucoma Treatments May Be Best For Less Advanced Disease appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Pradeep Ramulu MD MHS PhD, Associate Professor of Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, & Johns Hopkins University. (2015) Newer Glaucoma Treatments May Be Best For Less Advanced Disease. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 23, 2015
  • 06:35 AM
  • 87 views

Commuter Patterns Can Help Predict Influenza Spread

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Brooke Bozick Ph.D. Candidate Population Biology, Ecology, & Evolution Program Emory University MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Response: Previous research at the global scale has shown that air travel is important for the spread … Continue reading →
The post Commuter Patterns Can Help Predict Influenza Spread appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Brooke Bozick, Ph.D. Candidate, Population Biology, Ecology, , & Emory University. (2015) Commuter Patterns Can Help Predict Influenza Spread. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 23, 2015
  • 05:01 AM
  • 168 views

Toxoplasma seropositivity and pediatric cognitive functions

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

A brief post for you today as I keep a promise made in a previous entry to cover the paper by Angelico Mendy and colleagues [1] who concluded that: "Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children."Based on the analysis of over 1700 children/young adults aged 12-16 years old "who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey" researchers examined the possibility of a relationship between various psychometric test scores - "including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory" - and Toxoplasma seropositivity (that is, showing immunological evidence of either past or current infection by Toxoplasma gondii). Finding that approximately 7% of participants were seropositive for contact with the protozoan, researchers also highlighted a possible correlation between infection history and issues with both reading ability and memory capacity. This 'relationship' also appeared to be mediated by serum vitamin E levels in that: "Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations." A good write-up of the study can be found here.As regular readers might know (and are probably pretty bored of hearing about) I'm really rather interested in T. gondii and in particular the growing tide of peer-reviewed research hinting at a possible link between this organism and [some] schizophrenia. Accepting there is still quite a bit more to do looking at the possibility of link between the gondii and schizophrenia - including answering important questions about whether childhood cat ownership might be a risk factor - I'd like to think that the Mendy results might have a further role to play. I'm specifically thinking about the idea that cognitive decline (if I can call it that) might be part and parcel of schizophrenia and even something that pre-dates the onset of symptoms [2]. I draw back from making too many speculations in this area bearing in mind correlation is not the same as causation and the requirement for replicative investigations but would be rather interested to see if Mendy et al will be producing any follow-up data of their participants with a view to say, the prevalence of schizophrenia as a function of T. gondii seropositivity and/or psychometric scores?Music: My Bloody Valentine - You Made Me Realise.----------[1] Mendy A. et al. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children. Parasitology. 2015 May 20:1-7.[2] Keefe RS. The longitudinal course of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: an examination of data from premorbid through posttreatment phases of illness. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014;75 Suppl 2:8-13.----------Mendy A, Vieira ER, Albatineh AN, & Gasana J (2015). Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children. Parasitology, 1-7 PMID: 25990628... Read more »

  • June 22, 2015
  • 09:24 PM
  • 22 views

Early Palliative Care Consultations Are Well Received By Patients But Don’t Decrease Health Services

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gabrielle Rocque MD Division of Hematology & Oncology University of Alabama Birmingham, Alabama MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Rocque: This study grew out of a retrospective study we … Continue reading →
The post Early Palliative Care Consultations Are Well Received By Patients But Don’t Decrease Health Services appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Gabrielle Rocque MD, Division of Hematology , University of Alabama, & Birmingham, Alabama. (2015) Early Palliative Care Consultations Are Well Received By Patients By Don’t Decrease Health Services . MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • June 22, 2015
  • 06:35 PM
  • 105 views

Oncology Evidence Based On Surrogate Survival May Be Poor

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Vinay Prasad, MD, MPH Medical Oncology Service, National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Prasad: In medicine, there are two types of endpoints:  clinical endpoints and … Continue reading →
The post Oncology Evidence Based On Surrogate Survival May Be Poor appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Vinay Prasad, MD, MPH, Medical Oncology Service, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, & Bethesda, Maryland. (2015) Oncology Evidence Based On Surrogate Survival May Be Poor. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

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