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  • May 26, 2014
  • 04:43 AM

Occlusion Training: Get Bigger By Lifting Lighter

by Mansi Goel in Workout Trends

Before I answer this question in detail, I will try and explain exactly what occlusion training is, because not a lot of people would have heard of this before.

Occlusion training, a.k.a. blood flow restriction training (makes it easier to understand) in fitness circles, is a technique where while training with heavy weights the blood flow to the target muscles is restricted. It is the limbs where its done usually. Seems crazy right?

How can restriction in blood flow impact muscle growth at all?... Read more »

Loenneke, J., Fahs, C., Wilson, J., & Bemben, M. (2011) Blood flow restriction: The metabolite/volume threshold theory. Medical Hypotheses, 77(5), 748-752. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.07.029  

Loenneke, J., Abe, T., Wilson, J., Ugrinowitsch, C., & Bemben, M. (2012) Blood Flow Restriction: How Does It Work?. Frontiers in Physiology. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00392  

Loenneke, J., Wilson, J., Marín, P., Zourdos, M., & Bemben, M. (2011) Low intensity blood flow restriction training: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(5), 1849-1859. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-011-2167-x  

  • May 26, 2014
  • 03:00 AM

Legal high problems – time to wake up

by DJMac in Recovery Review

Legal high problems Legal highs, or novel psychoactive substances (NPS), have been causing unusual presentations at A&E (Emergency Room) departments in European cities. Because these are relatively new drugs, doctors and other healthcare professionals are not always familiar with them. They are not easy to test for either, requiring specialist forensic laboratories in the main. [...]
The post Legal high problems – time to wake up appeared first on Recovery Review.
... Read more »

  • May 25, 2014
  • 06:00 PM

Does Faster Epinephrine Administration Produce Better Outcomes from PEA-Asystole?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

If we are going to give epinephrine to patients with rhythms that are not shockable (PEA [Pulseless Electrical Activity] or Asystole), it appears that patients receiving epinephrine earlier have better outcomes than patients who receive epinephrine later in the hospital in the less acute care settings.

Does this mean that patients who receive epinephrine have better outcomes than patients who do not receive epinephrine?

We remain willfully ignorant of the answer to that question.
... Read more »

Bigham BL, Koprowicz K, Aufderheide TP, Davis DP, Donn S, Powell J, Suffoletto B, Nafziger S, Stouffer J, Idris A.... (2010) Delayed prehospital implementation of the 2005 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care. Prehospital emergency care : official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the National Association of State EMS Directors, 14(3), 355-60. PMID: 20388032  

  • May 25, 2014
  • 03:12 PM

Land of the Free, Home of the Afraid?

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Let’s take a Loony quiz! Do you believe any of these statements are true? Global warming isn’t real. GMO food is the devil. Organic and all natural are better. Science […]... Read more »

  • May 25, 2014
  • 04:25 AM

Leaky gut as a later life event in autism?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Leaky gut and autism. Yes, it happens and I've talked about it quite a bit on this blog. If you're bored of me mentioning this potentially important process and how it may tie into at least some parts of the very heterogeneous autisms, feel free to click away now.Salisbury Cathedral @ Wikipedia If not, today's post centres on a short paper by Alexander Penn and colleagues [1] which looked at measured levels of intestinal permeability in infants deemed at high-risk of autism by virtue of having a sibling diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition compared to those in a low-risk category with no family history of autism. They concluded: "intestinal permeability continues to decrease even after 3 months as part of typical development and that hyperpermeability is a later event in ASD [autism spectrum disorder] and may not appear in the first year of life". I should mention that the testing tool of choice for gut permeability in this study was the lactulose/mannitol sugar absorption ratio which involves drinking a solution of the two sugars and measuring the urinary output some hours later to ascertain intestinal permeability.The first part of the findings from Penn et al stressing that gut permeability might be a dynamic process is something really quite interesting. It's pretty well known that gut permeability in our earliest days of life is something rather different from what we [generally] experience as we mature bearing in mind that lots of different factors can seemingly affect intestinal permeability [2]. I don't really want to go into the hows and whys of this process but other authors have talked about it [3].The related issue to note about the Penn findings is the role that different infant feeding strategies might have on intestinal permeability. Again, other authors have talked about this issue [4] so no need for some long discussions from me about this issue.Then to that interesting sentence about "hyperpermeability is a later event in ASD". At least one of the high-risk kids examined in the study "demonstrated [intestinal] hyperpermeability" which begs the question: what happened to this infant compared to those who did not show similar findings? Did this finding correlate with subsequent development (or not) of autism and would this perhaps then have some role to play in those grand discussions about early red flags for autism? The other implication from leaky gut potentially not appearing "in the first year of life" is that this may be an example of something potentially acquired at least for some on the autism spectrum. My mind wanders back to all the discussions about regression and autism (see here) and whether this might be a physiological correlate to watch for in some cases. As to any precipitating factors 'causing' such regression, well, the obvious ones would be along the lines of food and what we already think we know about something like gluten and intestinal permeability. Whether there may be other factors or insults which might also be important to any relationship (e.g. gut bacteria) is something that really needs a lot more investigation.To close, I'm not ashamed to admit that I actually quite enjoyed seeing New Kids on the Block on Friday evening with my better half. As one of a handful of very supportive husbands / boyfriends / significant others all stood with arms folded throughout the gig whilst the girls really had some fun, all I will say is my toes were tapping when it came to a few songs... The Right Stuff. And keeping the music thing going... this week One Direction are also visiting the North East and then there was the Radio 1 Big Weekend 2014 from Glasgow (Coldplay were excellent).----------[1] Penn A. et al. Intestinal permeability as measured by lactulose mannitol ratio continues to decrease during infancy after 3 months of age for both control infants and infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorders (LB751). The FASEB Journal. 2014. 28: LB751.[2] Lambert GP. et al. Effect of aspirin dose on gastrointestinal permeability. Int J Sports Med. 2012 Jun;33(6):421-5.[3] Weaver LT. et al. Intestinal permeability in the newborn. Archive Dis Child. 1984; 59: 236-241.[4] Catassi C. et al. Intestinal permeability changes during the first month: effect of natural versus artificial feeding. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995 Nov;21(4):383-6----------Alexander Penn, Tiffany Lai, Leslie Carver, Sharon Taylor, Geert Schmid-Schnbein, & Karen Dobkins (2014). Intestinal permeability as measured by lactulose mannitol ratio continues to decrease during infancy after 3 months of age for both control infants and infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorders The FASEB Journal, 28... Read more »

Alexander Penn, Tiffany Lai, Leslie Carver, Sharon Taylor, Geert Schmid-Schnbein, & Karen Dobkins. (2014) Intestinal permeability as measured by lactulose mannitol ratio continues to decrease during infancy after 3 months of age for both control infants and infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorders . The FASEB Journal. info:other/

  • May 24, 2014
  • 04:49 PM

Gendering the Pro-Anorexia Paradox: Men in Pro-Ana Spaces

by Andrea in Science of Eating Disorders

When someone says “pro-ana,” what comes to mind? Likely, given the strong reactions pro-anorexia websites provoke, you may be able to conjure up an image of what would take place in such a forum. Thoughts of “thinspiration,” emaciated and waif-like images, and starving tips likely spring to mind, alongside considerations of the dangers of a community that would encourage behaviors that can be very harmful to health.
I’d venture to say that it is unlikely that you have pictured a man participating in these sites. Given that we know that men get eating disorders too, and that they may feel alienated in their struggles, is it surprising that some might seek out online communities, including pro-ana?
As Tetyana noted in previous posts on pro-ana (here and here), these sites can serve a harm reduction purpose and/or provide a space for sufferers to openly and honestly share their struggles and seek support from a community of understanding others. Is it possible that men, who may feel even more stigmatized than women with eating disorders (see this post, too), …

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What Really Goes On Inside Pro-Ana Communities? (Maybe They Are Not So Bad After All)
Polar Opposites? The Social Construction of Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa
Hide or Seek? Social Support and Eating Disorders

... Read more »

  • May 23, 2014
  • 01:00 PM

No pain, no [weight] gain?!

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Pain is… well a pain. As it turns out pain does more than just hurt. A study just released shows that chronic pain not only lowers life expectancy, but can […]... Read more »

  • May 23, 2014
  • 10:09 AM

New Omega Mice Produce Their Own Essential Fats

by Q Dragon in United Academics

Researchers create a transgenic mouse that stays healthier on a diet of carbohydrates and saturated fats... Read more »

  • May 23, 2014
  • 04:23 AM

GcMAF and autism continued

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"GcMAF treatment was able to normalize the observed differences in the dysregulated gene expression of the endocannabinoid system of the autism group". That is the potentially very important finding from Dario Siniscalco and colleagues* (open-access here) continuing the increasing scientific interest in all-things GcMAF (Gc Macrophage Activating Factor) with autism in mind.Watson and the shark @ Wikipedia A quick recap first: I've talked GcMAF and autism on this blog before (see here and see here) and how activating the 'big eaters' (macrophages) of the immune system might be important for some autism and a variety of other conditions too. The collected literature on GcMAF and autism is small... very small... at the moment comprising one paper by Bradstreet and colleagues [2]. So it is indeed a welcome sight to see some more science being done on this area (with the promise of more to come).The recent paper by Siniscalco et al is open-access but a few pointers might be useful:Blood samples were provided by a small group of participants diagnosed with autism (n=22) and age- and sex-matched asymptomatic controls (n=20). Blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were derived from said samples and dosed with GcMAF.At the same time, building on previous work by the authors [3] suggesting involvement of the cannabinoid system (EC) in some cases of autism, authors sought to examine whether the therapeutic effects of GcMAF previously highlighted in autism, might have something to do with the regulation of genes involved with the cannabinoid system. To look at this question, they extracted RNA from the BMDMs to look at the effect of GcMAF on the "transciptional regulation of EC genes". Those genes included CB2R, FAAH, NAPE-PLD and GAPDH.The results: quite a few of them but they included: "GcMAF treatment was able to significantly increase gene expressions both NAPE-PLD... and FAAH" in BMDMs from participants with autism. This contrasted with no observed changes in gene expression of any of the EC genes in the control samples.Perhaps a little unusually given the meaning of the name GcMAF as a 'macrophage activating factor', "GcMAF was able to trigger overall macrophage deactivation in autistic samples". Based on looking at something called Ki67 involved in cell proliferation, authors reported "a decrease of 23% in GcMAF treated monocyte derived macrophages from autistic children as compared to untreated macrophage cells". This reduction was also noted in the control samples too.I don't mind telling you that I kinda reached the limits of my very rudimentary knowledge of GcMAF and autism with this paper. I do find that the possibility of involvement of the cannabinoid system to cases of autism to be something really rather interesting as per other results in this area [3] and related research including that potentially impacting on comorbidity such as epilepsy. Linking GcMAF to that system potentially opens up some interesting research avenues.The fact also that GcMAF seemed to have a deactivating effect on macrophages is also a point of interest. I hope I'm not mis-interpreting the findings or anything but I do wonder if this would reinforce the fact that other biological effects may need further analysis when it comes to GcMAF and autism. It's also interesting that nagalase activity was not discussed in the Siniscalco paper so perhaps further inspection of those EC genes and their expression with nagalase in mind should be indicated in future work too.And if you want the authors take on this work, look no further...Here's a little song for everyone out there.... so said Kiss. And the rest is rock history.----------[1] Siniscalco D. et al. The in vitro GcMAF effects on endocannabinoid system transcriptionomics, receptor formation, and cell activity of autism-derived macrophages. J Neuroinflammation. 2014 Apr 17;11(1):78.[2] Bradstreet JJ. et al. Initial observations of elevated alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity associated with autism and observed reductions from GC protein—macrophage activating factor injections. Autism Insights. 2012. 4: 31-38.[3] Kerr DM. et al. Alterations in the endocannabinoid system in the rat valproic acid model of autism. Behav Brain Res. 2013 Jul 15;249:124-32.----------Siniscalco D, Bradstreet JJ, Cirillo A, & Antonucci N (2014). The in vitro GcMAF effects on endocannabinoid system transcriptionomics, receptor formation, and cell activity of autism-derived macrophages. Journal of neuroinflammation, 11 (1) PMID: 24739187... Read more »

  • May 22, 2014
  • 07:37 PM

New Tech Powers Medical Devices Inside Human Body

by dailyfusion in The Daily Fusion

A Stanford electrical engineer has invented a way to wirelessly transfer power deep inside the body, and then use this power to run tiny electronic medical gadgets such as pacemakers.... Read more »

Ho, J., Yeh, A., Neofytou, E., Kim, S., Tanabe, Y., Patlolla, B., Beygui, R., & Poon, A. (2014) Wireless power transfer to deep-tissue microimplants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1403002111  

  • May 22, 2014
  • 04:22 AM

Functional nerve cells from skin cells

by beredim in Stem Cells Freak

Mature nerve cells generated from human cells using enhanced transcription factors.Credit: Fahad AliA new method of generating mature nerve cells from skin cells could greatly enhance understanding of neurodegenerative diseases, and could accelerate the development of new drugs and stem cell-based regenerative medicine.The nerve cells generated by this new method show the same functional characteristics as the mature cells found in the body, making them much better models for the study of age-related diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and for the testing of new drugs.Eventually, the technique could also be used to generate mature nerve cells for transplantation into patients with a range of neurodegenerative diseases.By studying how nerves form in developing tadpoles, researchers from the University of Cambridge were able to identify ways to speed up the cellular processes by which human nerve cells mature. The findings are reported in the May 27th edition of the journal Development.Read More... Read more »

  • May 21, 2014
  • 07:37 PM

Preventing dog bites when you don't have a hero cat

by Cobb & Hecht in Do You Believe In Dog?

(source)Hey Julie! So much going on I need to take three deep breaths to calm down! Firstly - we have a winner! Actually - thanks to the awesome crew at SPARCS, we have two! Very excited to meet Marsha P and Kristi M at #SPARCS2014 and want to thank all the excellent people who responded to our giveaway shoutout on Facebook, Twitter and Google+. We hope those of your who weren't successful will consider still coming along or joining us on the livestream broadcast. Secondly - I loved learning about the differences in UK and US shelter workers perceptions of pit bulls and all the associated bits and pieces that went along with that in our latest guest post by Dr Christy Hoffman. Really, really interesting research and I look forward to the next piece of the puzzle (aka 'new science') in that area.Thirdly - it's dog bite prevention week in the USA right now! We can't all own Tara the Hero Cat (and to be fair, as much as she is worthy of her notoriety and 20million+ hits on the viral video showcasing her ninja skills, she didn't actually prevent the bite - although I'm pretty confident she helped prevent it being a whole lot worse). If you somehow missed what on earth I'm talking about - check out this clip of amazing Tara (but a warning, it does show security camera footage of a child being attacked by a dog and the subsequent wounds): Which brings us back to Dog Bite Prevention Week. We don't have a week like this in Australia, so I did some web trawling to check out what you guys have going on over there.  The AVMA have put up a whole lot of great information and resources about dog bite prevention, including this neat summary infographic: I was really pleased to see this analysis of information about the role of breed in dog bite risk and prevention, which reminded me of this piece on The Conversation by researcher Dr Rachel Casey from Bristol University in the UK, who has been part of a team investigating aggressive behaviour in dogs. The research highlights similarities across Australia, the UK and the US with most serious dog bites occurring to children by a known dog in a familiar area without direct adult supervision at the time of the attack. But of course - as Hero Cat Tara has shown us this week, not all dogs stick to these trends. It seems that there are many commonalities to serious dog bites that we can all be aware of to help reduce the risk, given that any dog can bite: Supervise children <14yo around dogs, even known dogsDon't try to pat a dog you don't know, even if it is on the other side of a fenceMake sure your dog is well socialised and trained in basic commandsKeep your dog healthyTeach your children to be mindful and careful of their actions around dogs, especially when the dog is tied up, eating or sleeping... Read more »

  • May 21, 2014
  • 03:26 PM

Weight Loss Science Fiction: The Paleo Diet

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

You, yes you! Put down the Big Mac, come on you can do it. Now, let’s get back to our roots. It’s time to go hunter gatherer on your ass. […]... Read more »

Frost Gary S. , Barraclough Timothy G. , Gibson Glenn R. , Walton Gemma E. , Sponheimer Matt , Johnson Laura P. , Costabile Adele , Swann Jonathan R. , & Psichasa Arianna . (2014) Impacts of Plant-Based Foods in Ancestral Hominin Diets on the Metabolism and Function of Gut Microbiota In Vitro. American Society For Microbiology , 5(3). DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00853-14  

  • May 21, 2014
  • 01:04 PM

Testing Boosts Memory: Brain Region Involvement

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Taking tests provides one method to assess the level of learning in a subject matter.Testing may also be an aid to improving memory and learning.Studies support periodic testing as a superior strategy to restudying learned material. Testing may promote learning by activating memory retrieval.The mechanism for the beneficial effects of testing on memory have received limited research attention.However, a recent fMRI study provides some insight into the specific brain regions involved in memory improvement with testing.Xiaonan L. Liu along with colleagues in the U.S. and China studied a group of young subjects using fMRI. The key elements of the study included the following elements:Subjects: Twenty healthy female and male graduate students from Capital Medical University in Beijing, ChinaProcedure: Subjects were given 90 pairs of Chinese words and then given tests of learning along with an opportunity to spend time restudying the word pairs. Imaging and Analysis: Subjects underwent 3.0 Tesla fMRI scanning during the procedure. Brain region activation patterns were compared for learning via retrievel (testing) and during restudy. Brain regions activated specifically with learning via retrieval and learning during restudy were identified by multivariate analysis.Regions known to be active in restudy learning or memory encoding were confirmed in the current study including the left prefrontal cortex, the left posterior parietal cortex and the hippocampus.The research team identified two regions activated specifically with retrieval (testing) learning. These two regions were the right prefrontal cortex and the right posterior parietal cortex.The authors note the right prefrontal cortex has been linked to working memory processes and cogntive control during memory retrieval.  They comment:"Conceivably, the activation of the right PFC (prefrontal cortex) during retrieval is responsible for stronger association formation and better learning than what typically occurs during study".This study adds to our understanding how testing may activate unique brain regions in the learning process.From a practical standpoint, teachers can use testing not only as an assessment tool, but as a memory enhancement strategy.  Use of restudy techniques alone appears to ignore key brain regions and mechanisms that improve memory.Readers with more interest in this topic can access the free full-text article by clicking on the citation link below.Figure highlighting the brain prefrontal cortex region is a screen shot of iPad app 3D Brain from the authors files.Liu XL, Liang P, Li K, & Reder LM (2014). Uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying learning from tests. PloS one, 9 (3) PMID: 24647122... Read more »

  • May 21, 2014
  • 09:33 AM

Video Tip of the Week: PhenX, standardizing phenotype measurements

by Mary in OpenHelix

This week’s tip is actually sort of a mega-tip. It’s not just one video–it’s a series of videos that the GeneticAlliance has provided (and there are more to come) with the theme: “Managing the Mass of Measures: Real People’s Real Data Made Useful”. It is part of their Standards and Tools webinar series that is […]... Read more »

Hamilton C. M., Strader L. C., Pratt J. G., Maiese D., Hendershot T., Kwok R. K., Hammond J. A., Huggins W., Jackman D., & Pan H. (2011) The PhenX Toolkit: Get the Most From Your Measures. American Journal of Epidemiology, 174(3), 253-260. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwr193  

  • May 21, 2014
  • 08:25 AM

To Err Is Human, To Study Errors Is Science

by Jalees Rehman in The Next Regeneration

The family of cholesterol lowering drugs known as 'statins' are among the most widely prescribed medications for patients with cardiovascular disease. Large-scale clinical studies have repeatedly shown that statins can significantly lower cholesterol levels and the risk of future heart attacks, especially in patients who have already been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. A more contentious issue is the use of statins in individuals who have no history of heart attacks, strokes or blockages in their blood vessels. Instead of waiting for the first major manifestation of cardiovascular disease, should one start statin therapy early on to prevent cardiovascular disease?
... Read more »

  • May 21, 2014
  • 08:20 AM

The Cold Cure All

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Having a cold is no fun. But exercise is excellent for decreasing nasal resistance so you aren’t so stuffed up. Vicks VapoRub has been a staple for children’s colds since the 1890’s, but it wasn’t until 2008 that research showed that the menthol effect on TRPM8 does not have any effect at all on nasal resistance and the brain just interprets TRPM8 cool sensing as a signal that your nose is open and passing air freely.

However, Vicks is effective as an anti-tussive agent. This activity also takes place via TRPM8 activation, but the neural mechanism is not known. However, a 2013 study showed that TRPM8 signaling in the nasal passages, and only the nasal passages, is capable of calming a cough. TRPM8 menthol in the trachea, throat, oral cavity, or lungs had no effect on cough.
... Read more »

Lindemann J, Tsakiropoulou E, Scheithauer MO, Konstantinidis I, & Wiesmiller KM. (2008) Impact of menthol inhalation on nasal mucosal temperature and nasal patency. American journal of rhinology, 22(4), 402-5. PMID: 18702906  

Buday T, Brozmanova M, Biringerova Z, Gavliakova S, Poliacek I, Calkovsky V, Shetthalli MV, & Plevkova J. (2012) Modulation of cough response by sensory inputs from the nose - role of trigeminal TRPA1 versus TRPM8 channels. Cough (London, England), 8(1), 11. PMID: 23199233  

Plevkova J, Kollarik M, Poliacek I, Brozmanova M, Surdenikova L, Tatar M, Mori N, & Canning BJ. (2013) The role of trigeminal nasal TRPM8-expressing afferent neurons in the antitussive effects of menthol. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 115(2), 268-74. PMID: 23640596  

  • May 21, 2014
  • 08:02 AM

New Technique For Regenerating Heavily Injured Muscles

by Agnese Mariotti in United Academics

Current therapies of heavily injured muscles imply surgical removal of the scar tissue and transplantation of immature muscles cells. Unfortunately, the transplanted cells are often unable to survive after transfer into patients. Now scientists bypassed this problem by providing the damaged tissue only with a biological scaffold of Extracellular Matrix (ECM). The results are promising.... Read more »

Brian M. Sicari, J. Peter Rubin, Christopher L. Dearth, Matthew T. Wolf, Fabrisia Ambrosio, Michael Boninger, Neill J. Turner, Douglas J. Weber, Tyler W. Simpson, Aaron Wyse, Elke H. P. Brown, Jenna L. Dziki, Lee E. Fisher, Spencer Brown, Stephen F. Badyl. (2014) An acellular biological scaffold promotes skeletal muscle formation in mice and humans with Volumetric Muscle Loss. Science Translational Medicine . info:/

  • May 21, 2014
  • 05:23 AM

Stem cells as future alternative source for meat

by beredim in Stem Cells Freak

The scientific progress that has made it possible to dream of a future in which stem cells could be used to grow and replace faulty organs also holds potential as an ethical and greener source for meat products. So, say scientists who suggest in the Cell Press journal Trends in Biotechnology that every town or village could one day have its very own small-scale, cultured meat factory."We believe that cultured meat is part of the future. Other parts of the future are partly substituting meat with vegetarian products, keeping fewer animals in better circumstances, perhaps eating insects, etc. This discussion is certainly part of the future in that it is part of the search for a 'protein transition.' It is highly effective in stimulating a growing awareness and discussion of the problems of meat production and consumption." said Cor van der Weele of Wageningen University in The Netherlands. Van der Weele and coauthor Johannes Tramper point out that the rising demand for meat around the world is unsustainable in terms of environmental pollution and energy consumption, not to mention the animal suffering associated with factory farming.Read More... Read more »

van der Weele Cor, & Tramper Johannes. (2014) Cultured meat: every village its own factory?. Trends in Biotechnology, 32(6), 294-296. DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2014.04.009  

  • May 21, 2014
  • 05:09 AM

Young sperm, poised for greatness

by beredim in Stem Cells Freak

Bradley CairnsIn the body, a skin stem cell will always become skin, and a heart stem cell will always become a heart cell. But in the first hours of life, cells in the nascent embryo are totipotent: meaning that they have the incredible flexibility to mature into skin, heart, gut, or any other type of cell.It was long assumed that the joining of egg and sperm launched a dramatic change in how and which genes were expressed. Instead, new research shows that totipotency is a step-wise process, manifesting as early as in precursors to sperm, called adult germline stem cells (AGSCs), which reside in the testes.The study was co-led by Bradley Cairns, Ph.D., University of Utah professor of oncological sciences, and Huntsman Cancer Institute investigator, and Ernesto Guccione, Ph.D., of the Agency for Science Technology and Research in Singapore. They worked closely with first author and Huntsman Cancer Institute postdoctoral fellow, Saher Sue Hammond, Ph.D. The research was published online in the journalCell Stem Cell.Read More... Read more »

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