Bibimbop Brugmansia ** Do NOT try this at home.Edible flowers can make for a beautiful garnish on salads and trendy Brooklyn cocktails, but those decorative flourishes can be a disaster for the oblivious amateur. An unusual case report in BMC Research Notes summarizes what happens when you sprinkle toxic flower petals on your bibimbop (Kim et al., 2014).A 64 year old Koren woman came to the emergency room with incoherent speech and fluctuations in attention, orientation and comprehension. She had called her daughter for help but couldn't remember why. (Hint: that's because she ingested flowers containing scopolamine and atropine, two potent anticholinergic compounds that can cause amnesia).In contrast to these alterations in her mental state, she did not show dilated pupils, dry mouth, increased heart rate, or other changes to the autonomic nervous system typically observed with anticholinergics [which seems odd to me]. After 10 hours had elapsed, she became fully conscious and remembered that she had added a few flowers to her bowl of bibimbop, a traditional Korean dish. Twenty-four hours later, her memory for the entire episode was hazy.Angel's Trumpet (Brugmansia), a popular ornamental shrub, has a long history in ethnobotany and toxicology as a deliriant, differentiated from the psychedelic and dissociative hallucinogens. There are numerous case reports of presumed Angel's Trumpet poisoning in the literature. A 2003 review reported on 33 patients, 31 of whom deliberately consumed a brewed tea (Isbister et al., 2003). Dilation of the pupils (mydriasis) was seen in 100% of the patients, which is why it's odd that Kim et al. did not observe this.In fact, one paper reported on accidental unilateral mydriasis in a 11 year old girl who touched “a nice pink flower, similar to a trumpet” and then rubbed her eye (Andreola et al., 2008).But the most infamous case of deliberate Angel's Trumpet abuse is the young man who severed his own penis and tongue after drinking a tea, “illustrating that consuming this beautiful flower with the name of an angel and the poison of the devil can be very dangerous” (Marneros et al., 2006).Scopolamine blocks M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors that are prominently distributed in the cerebral cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. The septo-hippocampal cholinergic system plays an important role in learning and memory, accounting for the oft-observed amnesia. Brugmansia was (and is) used by Native groups in South America for religious ceremonies. According to Lockwood (1979), the Jivaro in eastern Ecuador used Brugmansia in a boyhood rite of passage. The adults understood the potential danger of the delirious and hallucinatory state and closely supervised the child:When a Jivaro reaches the age of six he seeks an arutam wakani, an acquired soul. ... To acquire an arutam soul, the boy, usually accompanied by his father, makes a pilgrimage to a sacred waterfall where he bathes, fasts, and drinks infusions of fresh tobacco water. If no vision or apparition appears, recourse may be to drink maikua, the juice of Brugmansia.... . .The arutam seeker is watched over by men not taking the maikua, in order to protect him from accidents or self-inflicted harm that might occur during the initial violent stages when the drug is taking effect. If the boy is fortunate, the arutam will appear to him, usually in the form of a pair of large creatures, often animals such as jaguars or anacondas.In more recent times, the street drug 'burundanga' has been used by criminals to incapacitate potential victims, as Vaughan Bell has explained.So the question arises, with such a long and distinguished literature, why was a new case study of Brugmansia poisoning published? Obviously, there are vast cultural differences between indigenous South American peoples, curious German and Australian youth, and elderly Korean women.Heungmi kkotjeon (Pan-fried Sweet Black Rice Cake with Flower Petals)CC BY-SA 2.0The beautiful Korean dish above is made with non-toxic edible flowers. Another (similar?) dish is hwajeon, or "flower cake". Might this lead to a greater danger in accidentally eating toxic flowers? Kim et al. conclude:This case is unique in that AT was ingested as an ingredient of a traditional Korean dish. ... Considering the fact that one can purchase it from virtually any florist without much difficulty, and that the number of adolescent recreational drug users is increasing, AT could be misused in the near future. The flowers of AT are occasionally used to garnish foods, so raising the awareness of the toxicities of this plant to the general public is important.Further ReadingThe tree of drunkenessHallucinations and hospitalizations: Angel’s TrumpetThe plant of human puppetsCultural Chemistry - the plant that robs you of your free will?Is free will spent by a knock-out drug?Mind controller: What is the 'burundanga' drug?... Read more »
Isbister, G., Oakley, P., Dawson, A., & Whyte, I. (2003) Presumed Angel's trumpet (Brugmansia) poisoning: Clinical effects and epidemiology. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 15(4), 376-382. DOI: 10.1046/j.1442-2026.2003.00477.x
Kim, Y., Kim, J., Kim, O., & Kim, W. (2014) Intoxication by angel’s trumpet: case report and literature review. BMC Research Notes, 7(1), 553. DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-553
The effect of forefoot varus on the hip and knee and the effect of the hip and knee on forefoot supinatus …... Read more »
Scattone Silva, R., Maciel, C., & Serrão, F. (2014) The effects of forefoot varus on hip and knee kinematics during single-leg squat. Manual Therapy. DOI: 10.1016/j.math.2014.07.001
Take Home Message: The use of a tuning fork in ruling out fractures is not currently recommended due to low diagnostic accuracy. Little clinical standards, low study quality and small sample size limits the results therefore more standardization and training should be done to improve its clinical efficiency.
In some situations radiographic imaging is not readily available and clinicians must attempt to assess an injury with other tools such as a tuning fork. Unfortunately, the diagnostic accuracy of tuning forks is not known. Therefore, Mugunthan and colleagues completed a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tuning forks for assessing fracture.... Read more »
Mugunthan, K., Doust, J., Kurz, B., & Glasziou, P. (2014) Is there sufficient evidence for tuning fork tests in diagnosing fractures? A systematic review. BMJ Open, 4(8). DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005238
Muscle wasting diseases can be difficult to watch. They are typically slow and have a very painful progression, some to the point of not even being able to breath on ones own. But new research might change all that. Scientists have developed a novel technique to promote tissue repair in damaged muscles. The technique also creates a sustainable pool of muscle stem cells needed to support multiple rounds of muscle repair.... Read more »
Vittorio Sartorelli, & Alessandra Sacco. (2014) STAT3 signaling controls satellite cell expansion and skeletal muscle repair. Nature Medicine. info:/10.1038/nm.3656
Fist bumps minimize contact time and surface area, diminishing germ transfer in terms of greetings--especially compared to handshakes.... Read more »
Ghareeb, P., Bourlai, T., Dutton, W., & McClellan, W. (2013) Reducing pathogen transmission in a hospital setting. Handshake verses fist bump: a pilot study. Journal of Hospital Infection, 85(4), 321-323. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2013.08.010
Clustering of foot strike patterns when running... Read more »
Forrester, S., & Townend, J. (2014) The Effect of Running Velocity on Footstrike Angle–A Curve-Clustering Approach. Gait . DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.08.004
It can be somewhat controversial to suggest that untreated recovery from eating disorders is possible. Certainly, people have varied opinions about whether someone can enact the difficult behavioral and attitudinal changes necessary to recover without the help of (at the very least) a therapist and a dietitian. Nonetheless, we still hear stories about individuals who consider themselves recovered without having sought out external sources of professional support.
When I think about untreated (or “spontaneous”) recovery from eating disorders, two studies in particular come to mind. The first study I am thinking about was written by Vandereycken (2012) and explores self-change, providing an overview of community studies of individuals who have not sought treatment for their eating disorders and implications for treatment and recovery. The second, by Woods (2004) is a qualitative study looking at the experiences of 16 women and 2 men who report recovering from AN and BN without having sought treatment. Vandereycken identifies some difficulties associated with trying to study untreated recovery, and Woods’ study highlights some possible mechanisms through which untreated recovery might …
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Unpacking Recovery Part 3: Can Patients Imagine Recovery?
Unpacking Recovery Part 2: The Multiple Facets of Recovery
Unpacking Eating Disorder Recovery Part 1: The Recovery Model
... Read more »
Vandereycken W. (2012) Self-change in eating disorders: is "spontaneous recovery" possible?. Eating disorders, 20(2), 87-98. PMID: 22364341
Frankenstein’s monster was (in the story) a scientific marvel that could not be matched. Growing up with the story, the idea of creating life where there was none was a feat that I had once thought was going to always be science fiction. Maybe this is why I was so surprised when I found out that scientists, using only a few ingredients, have successfully implemented a minimalistic model of the cell that can change its shape and move on its own.... Read more »
I'll draw your attention to three papers in today's post which represent the extremes of where self-imposed dietary restrictions can potentially lead in relation to the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Issues with diet - outside of use of diet as an intervention measure - are something which have been talked about quite a bit in the autism research literature (see here)."You look like a gangster"The first paper by Baird & Ravindranath  describes a case report of an 11-year old with autism who became "critically ill" as a consequence of a diet exclusively limited to a single fast food, "a particular type of fried chicken". Liver dysfunction and "severe lactic acidosis" were listed as clinical findings ascribed to a diet "deficient in multiple micronutrients, including the B vitamins thiamine and pyridoxine". The authors reported some resolution of symptoms as and when B vitamin supplements were given including positive changes to "status epilepticus-with low serum pyridoxine- [which] resolved rapidly with pyridoxine". I might add that issues with lactate, elevated in lactic acidosis, are no stranger to autism research (see here and see here).The second paper comes from Gulko and colleagues  and talks about "MRI findings of scurvy in four patients with autism or developmental delay". Scurvy, a condition characterised by a lack of vitamin C, is something which has cropped up before on this blog (see here) and as per the Gulko findings: "Despite its rarity, the radiologist must consider scurvy in a pediatric patient with a restricted diet presenting with arthralgia [joint pain] or myalgia [muscle pain]".The final paper comes from Keown and colleagues  and describes the experiences of a young boy "identified to have a restricted diet" characterised among other things by consumption of "excessive quantities of carrot juice". As a result: "Blood investigations showed a raised serum carotene level and vitamin D deficiency". Vitamin D is something of an emerging area in relation to autism (see here).Combined, these papers suggest yet another set of physiological variables which may require further clinical scrutiny as and when a child or adult presents with an ASD particularly where diet is mentioned as potentially being an accompanying issue. As per the findings from Marshall and colleagues , finding appropriate strategies to increase food variety (and not just food volume) remains an area in some need of further research.---------- Baird JS. & Ravindranath TM. Vitamin B Deficiencies in a Critically Ill Autistic Child With a Restricted Diet. Nutr Clin Pract. 2014 Aug 11. pii: 0884533614541483. Gulko E. et al. MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Skeletal Radiol. 2014 Aug 12. Keown K. et al. Nutritional implications of selective eating in a child with autism spectrum disorder. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Mar 20;2014. pii: bcr2013202581. Marshall J. et al. Efficacy of interventions to improve feeding difficulties in children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Child Care Health Dev. 2014 Jun 25.-----------Baird JS, & Ravindranath TM (2014). Vitamin B Deficiencies in a Critically Ill Autistic Child With a Restricted Diet. Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition PMID: 25112945Gulko E, Collins LK, Murphy RC, Thornhill BA, & Taragin BH (2014). MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Skeletal radiology PMID: 25109378Keown K, Bothwell J, & Jain S (2014). Nutritional implications of selective eating in a child with autism spectrum disorder. BMJ case reports, 2014 PMID: 24654242... Read more »
Baird JS, & Ravindranath TM. (2014) Vitamin B Deficiencies in a Critically Ill Autistic Child With a Restricted Diet. Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. PMID: 25112945
Keown K, Bothwell J, & Jain S. (2014) Nutritional implications of selective eating in a child with autism spectrum disorder. BMJ case reports. PMID: 24654242
Runners Beliefs About the Risk Factors for Injury... Read more »
Saragiotto, B., Yamato, T., & Lopes, A. (2014) What Do Recreational Runners Think About Risk Factors for Running Injuries? A Descriptive Study Of Their Beliefs And Opinions. Journal of Orthopaedic , 1-18. DOI: 10.2519/jospt.2014.5710
Risk Factors for Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome... Read more »
Hamstra-Wright, K., Huxel Bliven, K., & Bay, C. (2014) Risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome in physically active individuals such as runners and military personnel: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-093462
Despite the barrage of visual information the brain receives almost constantly, it retains a remarkable ability to focus on important and relevant items. This fall, for example, NFL quarterbacks will be rewarded handsomely for how well they can focus their attention on color and motion – being able to quickly judge the jersey colors of teammates and opponents and where they’re headed is a valuable skill. How the brain accomplishes this feat, however, has been poorly understood.... Read more »
Guilhem Ibosemail, & David J. Freedman. (2014) Dynamic Integration of Task-Relevant Visual Features in Posterior Parietal Cortex. Neuron. info:/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.020
Although the title of this post talks about the science of epigenetics in autism, I'm actually going to be talking about two papers today, one of which also covers exposure to prenatal immune activation and what effect that might have on epigenetic processes in the mouse brain. This may also be relevant to at least some autism..."Beneath this mask there is an idea, Mr. Creedy. And ideas are bulletproof"First off we have the paper from Nardone and colleagues  (open-access) which, following some [methylomic] analysis of brain tissues from individuals who had an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) concluded: "a possible role for epigenetic processes in the etiology of ASD". The second paper by Basil and colleagues  (open-access) suggested that: "exposure to inflammation during prenatal life is associated with epigenetic changes". I'll go through each paper separately and then perhaps highlight a few overlapping areas...So, the Nardone paper:Following on from other reports detailing the analysis of methylation patterns in certain brain areas in samples from people with autism (see here), Nardone et al looked at "genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in autism brain and the significance of DNA methylation dysregulation in developing the disorder". DNA methylation by the way, is concerned with chemically altering gene function and has been explained in previous posts (see here for example).Brain tissues were the source material for analysis, obtained from a few tissue banks including from the UK Brain Bank for Autism for 13 people with autism and 12 non-autistic controls. The authors don't actually provide much information about the previous background of those donors aside from things like age, sex and post-mortem interval alongside a note that "clinical information is available upon request from the Autism Tissue Program". Also that autism samples were from those with "an ADI-R confirmed diagnosis of autism".Two brain areas, Brodmann Area 10 (BA10) and Brodmann Area 24 (BA24) were analysed for DNA methylation profiles.Results: "both brain regions have a profoundly distinctive epigenetic signature in the autistic brain" compared to asymptomatic controls. Further, the authors talk about "significant enrichment for genomic areas responsible for immune functions" in amongst hypomethylated methylation sites (CpGs) alongside enriched hypermethylation in CpG sites in genes "related to synaptic membrane". Hypermethylation (over-methylation?) is normally taken to mean gene silencing.A few further analyses, which are far and above my level of competence in this area, also suggested that "the autistic brain displays less region-specific identity, at the level of DNA methylation" and "a dysfunction in the developmental program that leads to less epigenetic distinction between cortical regions in the autistic compared with the control brain".Going back to the findings implicating immune system genes in the autism samples, when authors undertook some GO [gene ontology] enrichment analysis based on the genes which were differentially methylated in brain regions, they noted that 'immune response' was "the GO category that was most significantly represented in both transcriptome and our methylome analysis". This included processes such as leukocyte migration, cytokine-mediated signalling pathway(s) and "regulation of inflammatory response to antigens". Leukocyte migration and cytokine signalling... mmm.The authors conclude: "Our expression data strongly indicates the presence of an altered immune response in the autistic brain that correlates well with epigenetic modulation of genomic regions relevant to immune functions". Neuroinflammatory processes are also mentioned.Then to the Basil paper:Before heading into some of the details, I note a familiar name on the authorship list of this paper - Chloe Wong - who first-authored that very interesting paper on the methylome and autism  covered in a previous post.Authors aimed to test the hypothesis "that prenatal exposure to MIA [maternal immune activation] in the mouse results in global methylation differences in the brain and specifically alters DNA methylation in the promotor of Mecp2". MIA, by the way, is something which has been talked about with reference to autism (see here), in particular through the work of the late Paul Patterson. Mecp2 has been most prominently discussed with reference to a condition called Rett syndrome. So, the brains of offspring of mice artificially stimulated to reproduce the MIA model were examined. This examination included looking at global methylation differences (compared with saline exposed control mice) using LINE1 methylation differences as "a proxy" across the groups. LINE1 (long interspersed element 1) fall into the category of retrotransposons. Not a million miles away from those HERVs which I keep banging on about (see here), they cover about 17% of the genome and according to some authors continue "to diversify human genomes" .Results: "We found significant DNA hypomethylation in the hypothalamus and a similar trend in the striatum of offspring exposed to MIA compared with saline-exposed controls". This hypomethylation also stretched to the "Mecp2 gene promotor region" (at least in the hypothalamus). This effect was especially prominent in female mouse offspring. Ergo, early life exposure to inflammation may be associated with epigenetic changes in certain brain areas.Bearing in mind the Basil results were based on mice and the Nardone findings based on the examination of post-mortem neuronal tissue samples from people, I'm sure that you can perhaps see where there may be common threads between these studies. I should again point out that there isn't a complete clinical picture for all deceased persons included in the Nardone data, so one has to be a little cautious about extrapolating too much to just a diagnosis of autism. Supplementary table 9 (yes, I did go through the data) for example, lists 'seizure' and 'no seizure' alongside each participant which seems to be present for some of the data for participants with autism but none of the controls. If this is taken to mean that some participants with autism also had... Read more »
Nardone, S., Sharan Sams, D., Reuveni, E., Getselter, D., Oron, O., Karpuj, M., & Elliott, E. (2014) DNA methylation analysis of the autistic brain reveals multiple dysregulated biological pathways. Translational Psychiatry, 4(9). DOI: 10.1038/tp.2014.70
Basil, P., Li, Q., Dempster, E., Mill, J., Sham, P., Wong, C., & McAlonan, G. (2014) Prenatal maternal immune activation causes epigenetic differences in adolescent mouse brain. Translational Psychiatry, 4(9). DOI: 10.1038/tp.2014.80
With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (or cART) during the mid-90s, the life expectancy of HIV patients has significantly improved. An unfortunate side effect of this is that long-term complications are becoming more relevant: almost every second HIV patient is affected by neurocognitive disorders, which can lead to dementia. It has not as yet been fully understood how these disorders occur, but new research is shining a light on the culprit.... Read more »
Faissner S, Ambrosius B, Schanzmann I, Grewe B, Potthoff A, Münch J, Sure U, Gramberg T, Wittmann S, Brockmeyer N.... (2014) Cytoplasmic HIV-RNA in monocytes determines microglial activation and neuronal cell death in HIV-associated neurodegeneration. Experimental neurology. PMID: 25150097
The other day I was joking about how I was 3D-printing a baby sweater–the old way, with yarn and knitting needles. And I also mentioned that I assumed my niece-in-law was 3D-printing the baby separately. I’ve been musing (and reading) about 3D printing a lot lately–sometimes the plastic model part, sometimes the bioprinting of tissues […]... Read more »
The bacterial flagellum is quite an intricate system for such a “primitive” organism. New research is telling us about how the flagellum is assembled and how it is regulated. A series of new work is related to the switching of the torque in the C ring so that flagella can spin counter clockwise or clockwise without a change in proton ion gradient flow. A series of conformation changes in the FLiD alter the position of charge clouds so that opposite charges drive a turn in the opposite direction.... Read more »
Eisele NA, Ruby T, Jacobson A, Manzanillo PS, Cox JS, Lam L, Mukundan L, Chawla A, & Monack DM. (2013) Salmonella require the fatty acid regulator PPARδ for the establishment of a metabolic environment essential for long-term persistence. Cell host , 14(2), 171-82. PMID: 23954156
Lee LK, Ginsburg MA, Crovace C, Donohoe M, & Stock D. (2010) Structure of the torque ring of the flagellar motor and the molecular basis for rotational switching. Nature, 466(7309), 996-1000. PMID: 20676082
Minamino T, Imada K, Kinoshita M, Nakamura S, Morimoto YV, & Namba K. (2011) Structural insight into the rotational switching mechanism of the bacterial flagellar motor. PLoS biology, 9(5). PMID: 21572987
Carsiotis M, Weinstein DL, Karch H, Holder IA, & O'Brien AD. (1984) Flagella of Salmonella typhimurium are a virulence factor in infected C57BL/6J mice. Infection and immunity, 46(3), 814-8. PMID: 6389363
"Keep clear of the moors"Among the many researchers and research groups admired on this blog for their contribution to the world of autism research, the name Dennis Wall is fast becoming a real favourite. Aside from mention of the words 'systems biology' in his profile at Stanford University, I'm particularly interested in the way the Wall research group are looking at trying to apply machine-learning approaches to things like autism assessment.I've covered a few of their past research reports with regards to instruments like the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) previously (see here and see here respectively). More recently was the work suggesting that YouTube videos and non-expert raters might be a useful resource for autism triage (see here). That last report certainly set the cat among [some] pigeons...Today I'm talking about another paper from the Wall laboratory by Marlena Duda and colleagues  (open-access) and the suggestion that: "reductions in the process of detecting and monitoring autism are possible". The ADOS was once again the focus of the study following on from their previous 'preliminary' foray .The paper is open-access but here are a few choice details:If I'm reading the paper correctly, this was a follow-up study to the previous Wall paper  testing the accuracy of the "observation-based classifier (OBC)" which I think was previously called/included the ADTree algorithm. This time around "a cohort of archival score sheets of over 2600 subjects, including more than 280 assessments of non-spectrum controls" were included in the study derived from ADOS and ADOS-2 algorithms. ADOS-2 by the way, represents the revised algorithms used to score ADOS reported by Gotham and colleagues . I've talked about the Gotham paper before on this blog and how it seemed to 'predict' diagnosis of autism in DSM-5 (see here).The aim was to test whether a boiled down version of the ADOS / ADOS-2, the OBC, that: "presently contains eight behaviors... that are often impacted in children with autism, including eye contact, imaginative play and reciprocal communication" might be able to distinguish autism from not-autism and "shorten screening and diagnostic processes overall and potentially enabling more families to receive care far earlier and during timeframes when interventions have the most positive benefits".Results: "The OBC was significantly correlated with the ADOS-G (r=−0.814) and ADOS-2 (r=−0.779) and exhibited >97% sensitivity and >77% specificity in comparison to both ADOS algorithm scores". These figures aren't bad at all, if a little down on the previous Wall data . The authors add: "Less than 5% of all tested cases were misclassified by the OBC and 78% of the misclassified individuals were given a low OBC score".Obviously there is much more investigation needed in this area of autism research before one might start shortening ADOS assessments (or indeed doing away with trained ADOS raters altogether). The issue of comorbidity is, for example, something that needs to be included in any further study and whether that might interfere with any results obtained . I might also add that ADOS is only part of the diagnostic assessment for autism and does not replace reasoned clinical opinion.I am however drawn to the authors suggestion that: "use of the OBC as a web-based assessment in advance of a clinical visit may enable clinicians to quickly prioritize patients according to symptom severity, scheduling shorter, more immediate diagnostic appointments for individuals that can be clearly identified as on or off the autism spectrum, and allowing longer time periods for deeper evaluation of children that exhibit clinically challenging symptoms". Certainly with the numbers of children/adults seemingly coming through the various referral systems, this kind of triage might yet hold some usefulness. And it seems other groups are getting in on the computer-assisted act ...Music to close and The Marcels with Blue Moon. "Keep clear of the moors" as we were once told...---------- Duda A. et al. Testing the accuracy of an observation-based classifier for rapid detection of autism risk. Translational Psychiatry. 2014; 4: e424. Wall DP. et al. Use of machine learning to shorten observation-based screening and diagnosis of autism. Transl Psychiatry. 2012 Apr 10;2:e100. Gotham K. et al. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Apr;37(4):613-27. Leyfer OT. et al. Overlap between autism and specific language impairment: comparison of Autism Diagnostic Interview and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Autism Res. 2008 Oct;1(5):284-96. Hashemi J. et al. Computer Vision Tools for Low-Cost and Noninvasive Measurement of Autism-Related Behaviors in Infants. Autism Research and Treatment. 2014. 935686.----------M Duda, J A Kosmicki, & D P Wall (2014). Testing the accuracy of an observation-based classifier for rapid detection of autism risk Translational Psychiatry, 4 : 10.1038/tp.2014.65... Read more »
M Duda, J A Kosmicki, & D P Wall. (2014) Testing the accuracy of an observation-based classifier for rapid detection of autism risk. Translational Psychiatry. info:/10.1038/tp.2014.65
Scapular mobilizations, sham mobilizations, and supervised exercise can help alleviate symptoms related to subacromial impingement syndrome but no intervention was most effective.... Read more »
Aytar A, Baltaci G, Uhl T, Tuzun H, Oztop P, & Karatas M. (2014) The Effects of Scapular Mobilization in Patients With Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Clinical Trial. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. PMID: 25054347
When I try to explain epigenetics to someone, I like to use the musician metaphor. Your genes are the sheet music and how your body reads those genes, that is your body acting like a musician, making those notes it’s own. This is even more evident when you realize that all human cells contain essentially the same DNA sequence. Up until now we've had to be the audience to this genetic symphony, but new research is helping scientists take control of the music.... Read more »
Müller-Ott K, Erdel F, Matveeva A, Mallm JP, Rademacher A, Hahn M, Bauer C, Zhang Q, Kaltofen S, Schotta G.... (2014) Specificity, propagation, and memory of pericentric heterochromatin. Molecular systems biology, 10(8), 746. PMID: 25134515
Yet another study that attempts to make a link between vaccines and autism has been withdrawn by the publishers. Data from the CDC was re-analysed, and low and behold, a link between vaccine timing and autism was drawn, but only for African-American boys. The problems with this paper and the anti-vaccine movement in general are discussed.... Read more »
Hooker, B. (2014) Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young african american boys: a reanalysis of CDC data. Translational Neurodegeneration, 3(1), 16. DOI: 10.1186/2047-9158-3-16
Tang G, Gudsnuk K, Kuo SH, Cotrina ML, Rosoklija G, Sosunov A, Sonders MS, Kanter E, Castagna C, Yamamoto A.... (2014) Loss of mTOR-Dependent Macroautophagy Causes Autistic-like Synaptic Pruning Deficits. Neuron. PMID: 25155956
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