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  • July 23, 2014
  • 01:13 PM
  • 232 views

Preregistration for All Medical Animal Research

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

Writing in the European Journal of Clinical Investigation, three Dutch researchers say that All preclinical trials should be registered in advance in an online registry Citing the fact that all clinical trials are (in theory) already registered, authors Jansen of Lorkeers et al say that the system should be extended to cover preclinical medical research, […]The post Preregistration for All Medical Animal Research appeared first on Neuroskeptic.... Read more »

Jansen of Lorkeers, S., Doevendans, P., & Chamuleau, S. (2014) All preclinical trials should be registered in advance in an online registry. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. DOI: 10.1111/eci.12299  

  • July 23, 2014
  • 12:14 PM
  • 119 views

Vaccine halves dengue cases

by Yao-Hua Law in TORCH

[Another version of this article was first published on SciDev.Net. Click here for link.]   A vaccine that can half the number of dengue cases will soon be available. A recent trial conducted in Southeast Asia shows that this dengue vaccine achieves a vaccine efficacy of 56.5%: the vaccine reduces an individual’s chance of getting […]... Read more »

  • July 23, 2014
  • 03:46 AM
  • 169 views

Trauma and PTSD raise risk of autoimmune disorders?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I admit to some head scratching when I first read the paper by Aoife O’Donovan and colleagues [1] reporting that among war veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan campaigns, "trauma exposure and PTSD [post-traumatic stress disorder] may increase risk of autoimmune disorders".It wasn't that I didn't believe the results, but rather that the idea that a physical event with a psychological consequence could impact on a somatic condition with an autoimmune element to it seemed to open up some new avenues particularly pertinent to this blog and its focus on psychology and biology intersecting. That there may be consequences for other conditions from the O'Donovan findings was something else that piqued my interest.Sunset in Rio @ BBC 1Anyway, a few details first:A retrospective study based on the analysis of several thousands of medical records of US troops deployed into active theatre in Iraq or Afghanistan was the study starting point. The idea being that outside of PTSD being "associated with endocrine and immune abnormalities" [2] there may be more to see when it comes to autoimmune disease - conditions characterised by a breakdown in the immune system distinguishing self from other. The types of autoimmune disorder included for study ranged from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to lupus erythematosus.From an initial cohort of 666,269 veterans, 203,766 (30%) were diagnosed with PTSD and just shy of 20% were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder other than PTSD. Comparing those with PTSD with those without, authors reported a "significantly higher adjusted relative risk (ARR) for diagnosis with any of the autoimmune disorders alone or in combination compared to veterans with no psychiatric diagnoses... and compared to veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders other than PTSD".Both men and women with PTSD seemed to be equally affected by autoimmune disorders. Military sexual trauma exposure was also "independently associated with increased risk in both men and women" of autoimmune disorders.The first thing that struck me about the O'Donovan findings was the observation that nearly a third of all veterans were diagnosed with PTSD. I've talked before about concepts like shell shock and how thousands of troops suffered psychological trauma during the First World War (see here). In the modern era where trench warfare has to some extent been overtaken by the digital battlefield, it appears that the psychological harms of war still persist and still inflict a terrible burden.As intrigued as I was about the PTSD - autoimmune disorder connection included in the O'Donovan paper, a quick trawl through some of the other research in this area tells me this is not the first time that such an association has been made. The results from Boscarino [3] hinted that "chronic sufferers of PTSD may be at risk for autoimmune diseases" based on an analysis of Vietnam war veterans. The comparison between veterans who operated in different theatres of conflict (Iraq/Afghanistan vs. Vietnam) also to some degree negates any individual geographical effect from the war zone itself as influencing the results. The paper by Zung and colleagues [4] looking at paediatric type 1 diabetes frequency and psychological stress associated with the 2006 Lebanon War concluded that war trauma might play a role in the increased numbers of cases situated near the conflict. One wonders what the outcome of current events might be too. Such data also implies that age and occupation (i.e. a military career) are not going to be able to account for the PTSD - autoimmunity link either.So then to the question of what mechanism might be driving this association. Outside of the general area of immune response and something like inflammation [5], the paper by Sommershof and colleagues [6] reported data pointing to a "profoundly altered composition of the peripheral T cell compartment [which] might cause a state of compromised immune responsiveness" in relation to traumatic stress and physical health. I'm no expert on T cells but I gather that they do play an important role in the issue of autoimmunity [7] (open-access) so perhaps there is more research to do there. O'Donovan et al also list "lifestyle factors" as also influencing the trauma exposure / PTSD - autoimmune disease relationship which brings into play a whole host of issues ranging from drug and/or alcohol abuse to less extreme environmental factors. I'd also be minded to suggest that culturally-related issues might also play a role in any relationship as per studies like the one from Whealin and colleagues [8] talking about "risk and resilience correlates of PTSD" as a function of ethnicity. I might also draw your attention to the important paper by Alessio Fasano on gut permeability and autoimmune disease [9] which might very well link PTSD to other physiological events as per other descriptions [10].Whichever way you look at the O'Donovan paper, their findings present some stark facts about caring for war veterans. They also emphasise how war really can be hell.----------[1] O'Donovan A. et al. Elevated Risk For Autoimmune Disorders In Iraq And Afghanistan Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Biological Psychiatry. 2014. June 28.[2] Pace TW. & Heim CM. A short review on the psychoneuroimmunology of posttraumatic stress disorder: from risk factors to medical comorbidities. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Jan;25(1):6-13.[3] Boscarino JA. Posttraumatic stress disorder and physical illness: results from clinical and epidemiologic studies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1032:141-53.[4] Zung A. et al. Increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in Israeli children following the Second Lebanon War. Pediatr Diabetes. 2012 Jun;13(4):326-33.[5] Tursich M. et al. Association of trauma exposure with proinflammatory activity: a transdiagnostic meta-analysis. Translational Psychiatry. 2014. July 22.[6] Sommershof A. et al. Substantial reduction of naïve and regulatory T cells following traumatic stress. Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Nov;23(8):1117-24.[7] Dejaco C. et al. Imbalance of regulatory T cells in human autoimmune diseases. Immunology. Mar 2006; 117: 289–300.[8] Whealin JM. et al. Evaluating PTSD prevalence and resilience factors in a predominantly Asian American and Pacific Islander sample of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans. J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 25;150(3):1062-8.[9] Fa... Read more »

  • July 23, 2014
  • 03:17 AM
  • 83 views

Novel Methods May Improve Stem Cell Survival after Transplantation into Damaged Tissues

by beredim in Stem Cells Freak

BioResearch Open Access is published online six times per year.Stem cells are a very promising solution for treating damaged organs and tissues, but with current transplantation approaches stem cell survival is poor, greatly limiting their effectiveness.New methods are being developed and tested to improve the survival and optimize their therapeutic function after transplantation, as described in a Review article in BioResearch Open Access, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.In the article 'Preconditioning Stem Cells for In Vivo Delivery,' Sébastien Sart, Ecole Polytechnique (Palaiseau, France) and Teng Ma and Yan Li, Florida State University (Tallahassee) examine the leading strategies for preconditioning stem cells prior to transplantation to prepare them for the environment often found in damaged tissue.Preconditioning methods might include exposing stem cells to microenvironments characterized by reduced oxygen levels, heat shock, and oxidative stress, creating three-dimensional stem cell aggregates or microtissues, and using hydrogels in which to embed or encapsulate the cells.Read More... Read more »

Sébastien Sart, Teng Ma, and Yan Li. (2014) Preconditioning Stem Cells for In Vivo Delivery . BioResearch Open Access. info:/10.1089/biores.2014.0012.

  • July 23, 2014
  • 12:05 AM
  • 155 views

Despite the Hype: Many Former NFL Athletes May Have Normal Neurological Function and Structure

by Jane McDevitt in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Neuropsychological impairments were found in some retired NFL players; however, the majority of retired NFL players had no clinical signs of chronic brain damage. Some retired players had lesions found on brain imaging tests and these were associated with the number of previous concussions.... Read more »

  • July 22, 2014
  • 07:04 PM
  • 127 views

Over the counter drug addiction

by DJMac in Recovery Review

In many countries around the world, codeine is available only on prescription. It’s a weak opioid, but can still cause addiction. Low dose codeine is also available in the UK, over-the-counter (OTC) in pharmacies. It’s sold in combination with paracetamol (co-codamol, e.g. Solpadol), in combination with ibuprofen (e.g. Nurofen Plus), and in combination with dihydrocodeine (co-dydramol, e.g. [...]
The post Over the counter drug addiction appeared first on Recovery Review.
... Read more »

  • July 22, 2014
  • 06:47 PM
  • 201 views

When Crazy becomes a Crime

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

My friend has a glass eye, you would never notice and unless you knew the story you might not think anything of it. His older brother did it. Yes, you […]... Read more »

Dana Goldman,, John Fastenau,, Riad Dirani,, Eric Hellend,, Geoff Joyce,, Ryan Conrad,, & Darius Lakdawalla,. (2014) Medicaid Prior Authorization Policies and Imprisonment Among Patients With Schizophrenia. The American Journal of Managed Care, 20(7). info:/2014;20(7):577-586

  • July 22, 2014
  • 01:48 PM
  • 188 views

Fasting Improves Recovery of Bone Marrow Stem Cells after Chemotherapy

by Jalees Rehman in The Next Regeneration

Fasting is defined as either completely abstaining from or minimizing food intake for a defined period time - ranging from about 12 hours to even a few weeks. Calorie restriction, on the other hand, refers to an overall reduction in the daily calorie intake by about 20%-40% without necessarily reducing the meal intake frequency. Although calorie restriction is well-suited for weight loss and thus also reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease, proponents of fasting claim that it has distinct health benefits which cannot be attributed to weight loss.
... Read more »

  • July 22, 2014
  • 04:55 AM
  • 97 views

Mesenchymal stem cells promote muscle repair and strengthening after resistance exercise

by beredim in Stem Cells Freak

Professor Marni BoppartNew research in mice reveals that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) help rejuvenate skeletal muscle after resistance exercise. By injecting MSCs into mouse leg muscles prior to several bouts of eccentric exercise (similar to the lengthening contractions performed during resistance training in humans that result in mild muscle damage), researchers were able to increase the rate of repair and enhance the growth and strength of those muscles in the exercising mice.The findings, appearing in the journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, may one day lead to new interventions to combat age-related declines in muscle structure and function, said University of Illinois kinesiology and community healthprofessor Marni Boppart, who led the research.Read More... Read more »

Zou K, Huntsman HD, Valero MC, Adams J, Skelton J, De Lisio M, Jensen T, & Boppart MD. (2014) Mesenchymal Stem Cells Augment the Adaptive Response to Eccentric Exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. PMID: 24905768  

  • July 22, 2014
  • 04:32 AM
  • 161 views

Common variation and the genetics of autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The paper by Trent Gaugler and colleagues [1] reporting that the genetic architecture of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) seems in the most part to be due to "common variation" over and above "rare variants or spontaneous glitches" adds to the quite voluminous literature in this area.Everything in proportion? @ Wikipedia Based on an analysis of "a unique epidemiological sample from Sweden" researchers looked at DNA variations in some 3000 individuals with autism and asymptomatic controls. They were able to model their findings "based mostly on combined effects of multiple genes and non-shared environmental factors" including some "synthesis of results from other studies".Their results: "Most genetic risk for autism comes from common inherited gene variations that can be found in many individuals without the disorder" as per one write-up of the study results. Spontaneous mutations - those so-called de novo mutations which seem to be of growing interest to autism research - were reported to only 'modestly' increase risk of the condition (2.6% of the total risk). About 40% of the risk was unaccounted for, but combined with those common inherited gene variations, made up about 90% of the total risk or liability for ASD.Quite a lot of the discussion about these results has focused on the issue of tiny genetic effects which many people not on the autism spectrum have present in their genome adding up into something with "substantial impact" when present together. Other research has hinted at similar things as for example, in the paper by St Pourcain and colleagues [2] looking at the genetics of social communication issues.Whilst I do think that the Gaugler paper is an important one, I am minded to suggest a few words of caution. First and foremost is the reliance on observed genetic variation in the current paper. Although no expert in genetics, my very basic knowledge is that such variations are structural in nature as per issues like single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The presence of such mutations (which we all have by the way, dotted around our genomic landscape) whilst of interest, don't actually though tell you an awful lot about the function of particular genes as a consequence of those point mutations unless further studies are conducted. Genes for example expressing protein can be affected by such mutations but, as we've come to realise in the past few decades, gene expression is also to some degree affected by other variables, as per the rise and rise of the science of epigenetics and the focus on non-structural effects on the genome. It's beyond the scope of this post to go too heavily into epigenetics and autism, but the research forays so far have provided some interesting data on issues like DNA methylation and autism (see here) and potential knock-on effects (see here). Importantly, structural variations might not necessarily be the same, or have the same effects, as epigenetic variations although the two may work synergistically.Second, and I hate to bang on about this, but autism or ASD does not normally appear in some sort of diagnostic vacuum. As per the Gillberg work on the ESSENCE of autism (see here) or the 'big data' studies from the likes of Kohane and colleagues (see here), not only is autism an extremely heterogeneous condition in terms of presentation, but also a condition more than likely to co-exist alongside some heightened risk of certain comorbidity. It's all well and good saying that cumulative common genetic variants raise the risk of autism but, as per other biomarker discussions, we might very well replace the word autism with something like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or epilepsy or even something more somatic along the lines of the various work looking at autoimmune conditions appearing alongside autism. In short, genetic risk might be related to other things outside of just autism or its individual traits, and as I was reminded recently: "correlation is not the same as causation" (thanks Natasa). Oh, and then there is the RDoC initiative to consider...Finally, it is a glaring omission in quite a bit of the coverage of this paper that the 41% of risk "unaccounted for" does not receive more interest than it has. I don't want to speculate on what might be included in the array of factors involved in this category (outside of my previous chatter on possible epigenetic factors) but will again draw your attention to other work on the old genetics-environment relationship with autism in mind and the question of heritability (see here and see here). That also one media piece talking about the Gaugler study is quoted as saying: "On their own, none of these common variants will have sufficient impact to cause autism" is an important detail which implies both cumulative effects and possibly the input of some external force(s). And those effects may very well cross the nature-nuture debate in some instances as per the results from Mitchell and colleagues talked about in a previous post.Deciphering the genetic architecture of autism is still very much a work in progress. This latest contribution to the issue is important not least for the conclusions arrived at with talk of an additive model and it's intersection with common genetic mutations present in the general population. That being said, I still want to see more from the discipline. I'd like to see a more comprehensive analysis taking into account both genetic and epigenetic factors crossing environmental contributions too. I'd also like to see more focus on smaller groups on the autism spectrum as a function of things like developmental trajectory (see here) or response to certain interventions (see here). And for those who seem to be using this work as a hammer against environment being related to cases of autism, just remember, there may be many, many routes towards a clinical diagnosis...----------[1] Gaugler T. et al. Most genetic risk for autism resides with common variation. Nature Genetics. 2014. July 20.[2] St Pourcain B. et al. Common variation contributes to the genetic architecture of social communication traits. Mol Autism. 2013 Sep 18;4(1):34.----------... Read more »

Gaugler T, Klei L, Sanders SJ, Bodea CA, Goldberg AP, Lee AB, Mahajan M, Manaa D, Pawitan Y, Reichert J.... (2014) Most genetic risk for autism resides with common variation. Nature genetics. PMID: 25038753  

  • July 21, 2014
  • 01:27 PM
  • 207 views

Autism and Parents: Reducing stress

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Raising an autistic child can be a gift. Unfortunately it can also be challenging and stressful. Let’s be real, it’s stressful just being a parent, throw in a disability that […]... Read more »

  • July 21, 2014
  • 03:24 AM
  • 174 views

Autism and asthma yet again

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Asthma is approximately 35 % more common in autistic children".Pipe down @ Wikipedia That was the finding reported by Stanley Kotey and colleagues [1] based on their analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) dataset, a resource looking at "the physical and emotional health of children ages 0-17 years of age" resident in the United States. I don't intend to dwell too much on the Kotey findings aside from pointing out: (a) the reported prevalence of autism came in at 1.8% which is not a million miles away from the latest US estimate made by the CDC and, (b) although the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for asthma in cases of autism was 1.35 (CI: 1.18-1.55), the adjusted OR taking into account factors such as "age, gender, body mass index, race, brain injury, secondhand smoke and socio-economic status" dropped down to 1.19... so perhaps it was more accurate to conclude that asthma is approximately 20% more common in kids with autism. Oh and that OR and relative risk might not necessarily be one and the same [2].The NSCH is a valuable resource which provides snapshots for lots of different aspects of child health and wellbeing (see here). A quick trawl of the sections pertinent to an autism and/or asthma diagnosis (see section 2 here) reveals how information about diagnosis is arrived at. I was taken by the fact that questioning about an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis was "applicable for ages 2-17 years only" which perhaps ties into some of the issues raised in other papers when it comes to early diagnosis.Asthma and autism is a topic not totally unfamiliar to this blog (see here). The quite recent paper from Tsai and colleagues [3] covered in a previous post (see here) detailing how asthma might be a risk factor for autism puts the Kotey findings into some potential context albeit not necessarily with the same directional association. The paper from Chen and colleagues [4] likewise also discussed in another post (see here) also implicates comorbidity (ADHD in that case) as a potential confounding variable bearing in mind the estimated rates of ADHD in cases of autism (see here).When it comes to the hows and whys of any relationship between asthma and autism, a rather large void starts to appear outside of any link just being due to coincidence [5]. "[The] Autism-secondhand smoke interaction was insignificant" kinda suggests that tobacco smoke filled houses and cars were probably not a primary reason for any connection. Given what is known about asthma - a chronic lung condition characterised by inflammation of the airways - one might look to something like immune function as being a commonality between the conditions especially in light of recent meta-analyses with autism in mind. A couple of years back I did a sort of focus on some of the work from Kevin Becker (see here) including his paper on the hygiene hypothesis [6] (open-access here). I'm not necessarily saying that this is the primary connector, merely that the interaction between immune functions and environment might have some role to play. I might add that all the recent chatter on air pollution and autism (see here and see here and most recently here) might also be something to look at with further assiduity. Oh, and one might also think about certain medicines as perhaps being important to this relationship too (see here).I would close with a last sentence from Kotey et al: "screening may be an efficient approach to reduce risk of morbidity due to asthma". In other words, asthma is yet another comorbidity for which a diagnosis of autism seemingly carries no protection, and the onus is on professionals to reduce any further health inequality...So: Ben E King and Stand By Me. "Chopper! Sic'em, boy!"----------[1] Kotey S. et al. Co-occurrence of Autism and Asthma in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Children in the United States. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014 Jul 6.[2] Davies HT. et al. When can odds ratios mislead? BMJ. 1998 Mar 28;316(7136):989-91.[3] Tsai PH. et al. Increased risk of autism spectrum disorder among early life asthma patients: An 8-year nationwide population-based prospective study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2014; 8: 381-386.[4] Chen MH. et al. Asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide population-based prospective cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(11):1208-14.[5] Mrozek-Budzyn D. et al. The frequency and risk factors of allergy and asthma in children with autism--case-control study. Przegl Epidemiol. 2013;67(4):675-9, 761-4.[6] Becker KG. Autism, asthma, inflammation, and the hygiene hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69(4):731-40.----------Kotey, S., Ertel, K., & Whitcomb, B. (2014). Co-occurrence of Autism and Asthma in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Children in the United States Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders DOI: 10.1007/s10803-014-2174-y... Read more »

  • July 21, 2014
  • 03:24 AM
  • 187 views

Autism and asthma yet again

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Asthma is approximately 35 % more common in autistic children".Pipe down @ Wikipedia That was the finding reported by Stanley Kotey and colleagues [1] based on their analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) dataset, a resource looking at "the physical and emotional health of children ages 0-17 years of age" resident in the United States. I don't intend to dwell too much on the Kotey findings aside from pointing out: (a) the reported prevalence of autism came in at 1.8% which is not a million miles away from the latest US estimate made by the CDC and, (b) although the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for asthma in cases of autism was 1.35 (CI: 1.18-1.55), the adjusted OR taking into account factors such as "age, gender, body mass index, race, brain injury, secondhand smoke and socio-economic status" dropped down to 1.19... so perhaps it was more accurate to conclude that asthma is approximately 20% more common in kids with autism. Oh and that OR and relative risk might not necessarily be one and the same [2].The NSCH is a valuable resource which provides snapshots for lots of different aspects of child health and wellbeing (see here). A quick trawl of the sections pertinent to an autism and/or asthma diagnosis (see section 2 here) reveals how information about diagnosis is arrived at. I was taken by the fact that questioning about an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis was "applicable for ages 2-17 years only" which perhaps ties into some of the issues raised in other papers when it comes to early diagnosis.Asthma and autism is a topic not totally unfamiliar to this blog (see here). The quite recent paper from Tsai and colleagues [3] covered in a previous post (see here) detailing how asthma might be a risk factor for autism puts the Kotey findings into some potential context albeit not necessarily with the same directional association. The paper from Chen and colleagues [4] likewise also discussed in another post (see here) also implicates comorbidity (ADHD in that case) as a potential confounding variable bearing in mind the estimated rates of ADHD in cases of autism (see here).When it comes to the hows and whys of any relationship between asthma and autism, a rather large void starts to appear outside of any link just being due to coincidence [5]. "[The] Autism-secondhand smoke interaction was insignificant" kinda suggests that tobacco smoke filled houses and cars were probably not a primary reason for any connection. Given what is known about asthma - a chronic lung condition characterised by inflammation of the airways - one might look to something like immune function as being a commonality between the conditions especially in light of recent meta-analyses with autism in mind. A couple of years back I did a sort of focus on some of the work from Kevin Becker (see here) including his paper on the hygiene hypothesis [6] (open-access here). I'm not necessarily saying that this is the primary connector, merely that the interaction between immune functions and environment might have some role to play. I might add that all the recent chatter on air pollution and autism (see here and see here and most recently here) might also be something to look at with further assiduity. Oh, and one might also think about certain medicines as perhaps being important to this relationship too (see here).I would close with a last sentence from Kotey et al: "screening may be an efficient approach to reduce risk of morbidity due to asthma". In other words, asthma is yet another comorbidity for which a diagnosis of autism seemingly carries no protection, and the onus is on professionals to reduce any further health inequality...So: Ben E King and Stand By Me. "Chopper! Sic'em, boy!"----------[1] Kotey S. et al. Co-occurrence of Autism and Asthma in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Children in the United States. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014 Jul 6.[2] Davies HT. et al. When can odds ratios mislead? BMJ. 1998 Mar 28;316(7136):989-91.[3] Tsai PH. et al. Increased risk of autism spectrum disorder among early life asthma patients: An 8-year nationwide population-based prospective study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2014; 8: 381-386.[4] Chen MH. et al. Asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide population-based prospective cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(11):1208-14.[5] Mrozek-Budzyn D. et al. The frequency and risk factors of allergy and asthma in children with autism--case-control study. Przegl Epidemiol. 2013;67(4):675-9, 761-4.[6] Becker KG. Autism, asthma, inflammation, and the hygiene hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69(4):731-40.----------Kotey, S., Ertel, K., & Whitcomb, B. (2014). Co-occurrence of Autism and Asthma in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Children in the United States Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders DOI: 10.1007/s10803-014-2174-y... Read more »

  • July 21, 2014
  • 12:05 AM
  • 185 views

It’s Only One Little Muscle Group…The Impact of Lumbar Multifidus Size on Lower Extremity Injury

by Mark A. Sutherlin in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Smaller lumbar multifidus size during preseason and the competitive season was associated with lower extremity injury in Australian Football. Additionally, lumbar multifidus asymmetry, limb kicking dominance and a history of low back pain were also associated with increased lower extremity injury.... Read more »

Hides, J., Stanton, W., Mendis, M., Franettovich Smith, M., & Sexton, M. (2014) Small Multifidus Muscle Size Predicts Football Injuries. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 2(6). DOI: 10.1177/2325967114537588  

  • July 20, 2014
  • 09:13 PM
  • 214 views

Parasite Cures Cancer

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

A parasite commonly found in the intestines of cats turns out to be an immune system boost against cancer!... Read more »

  • July 20, 2014
  • 03:43 PM
  • 178 views

Babylonian Neurology and Psychiatry

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

A fascinating little paper in Brain examines Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon. It’s a collaboration by British neurologist Edward H. Reynolds and Assyriologist James V. Kinnier Wilson. The sources they discuss are almost 4,000 years old, dating to the Old Babylonian Dynasty of 1894 – 1595 BC. Writing in cuneiform script impressed into clay tablets, […]The post Babylonian Neurology and Psychiatry appeared first on Neuroskeptic.... Read more »

Reynolds EH, & Kinnier Wilson JV. (2014) Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon. Brain : a journal of neurology. PMID: 25037816  

  • July 20, 2014
  • 11:47 AM
  • 145 views

Neury Thursday: mitochondria, neuron health, and sufficient sleep

by Allison in Dormivigilia

Researchers have uncovered further evidence as to why partial sleep deprivation degrades neuron health at a microscopic level... Read more »

  • July 20, 2014
  • 11:33 AM
  • 166 views

Antiretrovirals and Pregnancy Risk

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Don’t drink when you are pregnant, we all know that you aren’t supposed to do that. We also know you shouldn’t smoke, use drugs, and should talk to your Doctor […]... Read more »

Mugo NR, Hong T, Celum C, Donnell D, Bukusi EA, John-Stewart G, Wangisi J, Were E, Heffron R, Matthews LT.... (2014) Pregnancy Incidence and Outcomes Among Women Receiving Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 312(4), 362-371. PMID: 25038355  

  • July 20, 2014
  • 11:21 AM
  • 171 views

Slowing Heart Disease

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

Stopping just one minor enzyme leads to an entire cascade of pathways that can slow heart disease.... Read more »

Blazevic T, Schwaiberger AV, Schreiner CE, Schachner D, Schaible AM, Grojer CS, Atanasov AG, Werz O, Dirsch VM, & Heiss EH. (2013) 12/15-lipoxygenase contributes to platelet-derived growth factor-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. The Journal of biological chemistry, 288(49), 35592-603. PMID: 24165129  

  • July 20, 2014
  • 04:57 AM
  • 87 views

Role of Astroglia in Down's Syndrome Revealed Thanks to iPSCs

by beredim in Stem Cells Freak

David Pleasure, Chen Chen, Wenbin Deng and Peng Jiang(left to right)Researchers from UC Davis School of Medicine and Shriners Hospitals for Children -- Northern California have identified a group of cells in the brain that they say plays an important role in the abnormal neuron development in Down syndrome.After developing a new model for studying the syndrome using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, the scientists also found that applying an inexpensive antibiotic to the cells appears to correct many abnormalities in the interaction between the cells and developing neurons.The findings, which focused on support cells in the brain called astroglial cells, appeared in Nature Communications."We have developed a human cellular model for studying brain development in Down syndrome that allows us to carry out detailed physiological studies and screen possible new therapies. This model is more realistic than traditional animal models because it is derived from a patient's own cells." said Wenbin Deng, associate professor of biochemistry and molecular medicine and principal investigator of the study. Read More... Read more »

Chen C, Jiang P, Xue H, Peterson SE, Tran HT, McCann AE, Parast MM, Li S, Pleasure DE, Laurent LC.... (2014) Role of astroglia in Down's syndrome revealed by patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature communications, 4430. PMID: 25034944  

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