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  • April 21, 2015
  • 04:31 AM
  • 8 views

Jessica Biesiekierski on non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

It's not often that I dedicate a blog post to a specific individual and their views and opinions on a particular topic. Today however, I'm doing just that to provide you with a link to the paper from Jessica Biesiekierski on the topic of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) [1] (open-access).The reason? Well, aside from being one of the primary protagonists in the research topic of gluten-related ills outside of the autoimmune condition known as coeliac (celiac) disease (itself the to........ Read more »

Biesiekierski, J., & Iven, J. (2015) Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity: piecing the puzzle together. United European Gastroenterology Journal, 3(2), 160-165. DOI: 10.1177/2050640615578388  

  • April 20, 2015
  • 11:32 AM
  • 22 views

ADHD and Autism Overlap: Adult Twin Study

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Clinical studies show high rates of ADHD in adults with autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have estimated the prevalence of ADHD in adults with ASD at between 28 and 44% of individuals. The prevalence of ADHD in the adult general population without ASD is estimated at 2.5%.Given the overlap between these two developmental disorders, it makes sense to examine genetic factors that might contribute to co-occurrence.TJC Polderman along with colleagues from the Netherlands, ........ Read more »

  • April 20, 2015
  • 09:45 AM
  • 17 views

Aphasia factors vs. subtypes

by Dan Mirman in Minding the Brain

One of the interesting things (to me anyway) that came out of our recent factor analysis project (Mirman et al., 2015, in press; see Part 1 and Part 2) is a way of reconsidering aphasia types in terms of psycholinguistic factors rather than the traditional clinical aphasia subtypes. The traditional aphasia subtyping approach is to use a diagnostic test like the Western Aphasia Battery or the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination to assign an individual with aphasia to one of several subtype cate........ Read more »

Mirman, D., Chen, Q., Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Faseyitan, O.K., Coslett, H.B., & Schwartz, M.F. (2015) Neural Organization of Spoken Language Revealed by Lesion-Symptom Mapping. Nature Communications, 6(6762), 1-9. info:/

  • April 20, 2015
  • 04:51 AM
  • 26 views

Tics are common in adults with autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The title of this post comes from a quote included in the paper by Ursula Kahl and colleagues [1] based on their study of the "phenomenology and characteristics" of tics in adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with a small control group of adults with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). A tic by the way, is a "sudden, fast, repeated movement or sound."This is not the first time that tics have been examined with the autism spectrum in mind. The paper from C........ Read more »

Kahl, U., Schunke, O., Schöttle, D., David, N., Brandt, V., Bäumer, T., Roessner, V., Münchau, A., & Ganos, C. (2015) Tic Phenomenology and Tic Awareness in Adults With Autism. Movement Disorders Clinical Practice. DOI: 10.1002/mdc3.12154  

  • April 20, 2015
  • 12:05 AM
  • 23 views

Delayed Onset of Concussion Symptoms may Predict Delayed Recovery in Young Athletes

by Kathleen Cummer in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Delayed onset of symptoms after sport-related concussion puts young athletes at a 20.7 times greater risk for postconcussion syndrome... Read more »

  • April 19, 2015
  • 01:49 PM
  • 46 views

Botox makes unnerving journey into our nervous system

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

New research might bring a frown to even the most heavily botoxed faces, with scientists finding how some of the potent toxin used for cosmetic surgery escapes into the central nervous system. Researchers have shown how Botox – also known as Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A – is transported via our nerves back to the central nervous system.... Read more »

Wang, T., Martin, S., Papadopulos, A., Harper, C., Mavlyutov, T., Niranjan, D., Glass, N., Cooper-White, J., Sibarita, J., Choquet, D.... (2015) Control of Autophagosome Axonal Retrograde Flux by Presynaptic Activity Unveiled Using Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(15), 6179-6194. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3757-14.2015  

  • April 18, 2015
  • 05:22 AM
  • 60 views

Autistic traits in adult-onset psychiatric disorders?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"To conclude, the presentation of ALTs [autistic-like traits/symptoms] at the sub-threshold or threshold level may be closely associated with BPD [bipolar disorder] and SZ [schizophrenia]."That was the conclusion reached in the paper by Junko Matsuo and colleagues [1] (open-access here) based on their analysis of nearly 300 adults aged between 25-59 years including those diagnosed with "MDD [major depressive disorder], n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia,&n........ Read more »

Matsuo J, Kamio Y, Takahashi H, Ota M, Teraishi T, Hori H, Nagashima A, Takei R, Higuchi T, Motohashi N.... (2015) Autistic-Like Traits in Adult Patients with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia. PloS one, 10(4). PMID: 25838109  

  • April 17, 2015
  • 03:56 PM
  • 50 views

Artificial blood vessel lets researchers assess clot removal devices

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

For the first time, researchers have created an in vitro, live-cell artificial vessel that can be used to study both the application and effects of devices used to extract life-threatening blood clots in the brain. The artificial vessel could have significant implications for future development of endovascular technologies, including reducing the need for animal models to test new devices or approaches.... Read more »

  • April 17, 2015
  • 10:03 AM
  • 66 views

Mapping the language system: Part 2

by Dan Mirman in Minding the Brain

This is the second of a multi-part post about a pair of papers that just came out (Mirman et al., 2015, in press). Part 1 was about the behavioral data: we started with 17 behavioral measures from 99 participants with aphasia following left hemisphere stroke. Using factor analysis, we reduced those 17 measures to 4 underlying factors: Semantic Recognition, Speech Production, Speech Recognition, and Semantic Errors. For each of these factors, we then used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (........ Read more »

Hickok G. (2012) Computational neuroanatomy of speech production. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(2), 135-145. PMID: 22218206  

Hickok, Gregory S, & Poeppel, David. (2007) The cortical organization of speech processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(May), 393-402. info:/

Zhang Y., Kimberg D.Y., Coslett H.B., Schwartz M.F., & Wang Z. (2014) Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping using support vector regression. Human Brain Mapping, 35(12), 5861-5876. PMID: 25044213  

  • April 17, 2015
  • 04:38 AM
  • 77 views

Rhabdomyomas: an additional BHD hamartoma phenotype?

by Danielle Stevenson in BHD Research Blog

Hamartomas are benign, focal malformations formed by an excess of normal tissue growing in a disorganised fashion. Several hamartoma syndromes have been linked to aberrant mTOR signalling including BHD and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). In addition to the predisposition of BHD patients to develop hair follicle hamartomas or fibrofolliculomas (Birt et al., 1977), Fuyura et al., (2012) propose that the pulmonary cysts in BHD patients are hamartoma-like cystic alveolar formations. The benign nat........ Read more »

Bondavalli D, White SM, Steer A, Pflaumer A, & Winship I. (2015) Is cardiac rhabdomyoma a feature of Birt Hogg Dubé syndrome?. American journal of medical genetics. Part A, 167(4), 802-4. PMID: 25655561  

  • April 17, 2015
  • 03:52 AM
  • 61 views

Higher cancer mortality rates associated with mental illness

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The findings reported by Steve Kisely and colleagues [1] were of some interest recently and their assertion that despite cancer incidence being "the same as the general population for most psychiatric disorders" or even slightly reduced when a diagnosis of schizophrenia was for example received, mortality due to cancer was "increased in psychiatric patients."Such findings were based on their examination of: "Mental health records [that] were linked with cancer registrations and death r........ Read more »

  • April 16, 2015
  • 02:39 PM
  • 64 views

Could maple syrup help cut use of antibiotics?

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Another reason to have those waffles… well maybe. Researchers have found that a concentrated extract of maple syrup makes disease-causing bacteria more susceptible to antibiotics. In an ever increasing antibiotic resistant world, this news is almost as sweet as the syrup (okay no more bad puns). The findings suggest that combining maple syrup extract with common antibiotics could increase the microbes’ susceptibility, leading to lower antibiotic usage.... Read more »

  • April 16, 2015
  • 10:32 AM
  • 62 views

What is Neurofeedback Training for ADHD?

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

There are a variety of behavioral strategies for treating the attention and activity components of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).One of these strategies is known as neurofeedback. A recent study in the journal Pediatrics found evidence for effectiveness of in-school neurofeedback for ADHD in a randomized controlled trial.In this trial, 104 children between the ages of 7 and 11 years of age were randomized to one of three research arms: in-school neurofeedback, cognitive th........ Read more »

  • April 16, 2015
  • 09:48 AM
  • 56 views

Mapping the language system: Part 1

by Dan Mirman in Minding the Brain

My colleagues and I have a pair of papers coming out in Nature Communications and Neuropsychologia that I'm particularly excited about. The data came from Myrna Schwartz's long-running anatomical case series project in which behavioral and structural neuroimaging data were collected from a large sample of individuals with aphasia following left hemisphere stroke. We pulled together data from 17 measures of language-related performance for 99 participants, each of those participants was also........ Read more »

Mirman, D., Chen, Q., Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Faseyitan, O.K., Coslett, H.B., & Schwartz, M.F. (2015) Neural Organization of Spoken Language Revealed by Lesion-Symptom Mapping. Nature Communications, 6(6762), 1-9. info:/

  • April 16, 2015
  • 08:40 AM
  • 51 views

Outbreak! Time To Review The Origins Of Vaccination

by Bill Sullivan in The 'Scope

Imagine a world without vaccines. The recent measles outbreak in Disneyland is providing us with a very small taste of what such a world would be like. Today on THE 'SCOPE, we go back in time to the age of smallpox and review the fascinating discoveries that led Edward Jenner to invent vaccination, a process that has saved countless lives.... Read more »

Babkin, I., & Babkina, I. (2015) The Origin of the Variola Virus. Viruses, 7(3), 1100-1112. DOI: 10.3390/v7031100  

  • April 16, 2015
  • 05:21 AM
  • 53 views

Paternal sperm epigenetic differences and offspring autism risk

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"These data suggest that epigenetic differences in paternal sperm may contribute to autism risk in offspring."So said the preliminary study results published by Jason Feinberg and colleagues [1]  (open-access) looking at "paternal semen biosamples obtained from an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enriched-risk pregnancy cohort, the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI) cohort." Researchers analysed 44 semen samples to ascertain whether DNA methylation differences - one typ........ Read more »

Jason I Feinberg, Kelly M Bakulski, Andrew E Jaffe, Rakel Tryggvadottir, Shannon C Brown, Lynn R Goldman, Lisa A Croen, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Craig J Newschaffer, M Daniele Fallin.... (2015) Paternal sperm DNA methylation associated with early signs of autism risk in an autism-enriched cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology. info:/10.1093/ije/dyv028

  • April 15, 2015
  • 03:45 PM
  • 67 views

Brain development suffers from lack of fish oil fatty acids

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

While being inundated with advertisements directed at moms to be, skeptical parents should question the supposed health benefits of anything being sold. However, while recent reports question whether fish oil supplements support heart health, scientists have found that the fatty acids they contain are vitally important to the developing brain. Meaning there might actually be truth in advertising -- this time at least.... Read more »

  • April 15, 2015
  • 03:31 AM
  • 44 views

Maternal diabetes and offspring autism risk... again

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"In this large, multiethnic clinical cohort of singleton children born at 28 to 44 weeks’ gestation, exposure to maternal GDM [gestational diabetes mellitus] diagnosed by 26 weeks’ gestation was associated with risk of ASD [autism spectrum disorder] in offspring."That was the conclusion reached by Anny Xiang and colleagues [1] (open-access) following their analysis of some 3300 children diagnosed with ASD as part of a wider cohort of over 300,000 children "born in 19........ Read more »

Xiang, A., Wang, X., Martinez, M., Walthall, J., Curry, E., Page, K., Buchanan, T., Coleman, K., & Getahun, D. (2015) Association of Maternal Diabetes With Autism in Offspring. JAMA, 313(14), 1425. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2015.2707  

  • April 15, 2015
  • 12:05 AM
  • 53 views

Hurts So Good: Eccentric Hamstrings to Prevent Strains

by Nicole Cattano in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

A program focused on eccentric hamstring strengthening may prevent hamstring injuries.... Read more »

  • April 14, 2015
  • 03:18 PM
  • 60 views

Watch out Atkins: Over eating fatty foods can alter your muscle metabolism

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

More bad news on the obesity front and strangely enough, on the popular diet front too — at least for diets like atkins. New research shows that even short term high-fat diets can change your metabolism. So while you might think that you can get away with eating fatty foods for a few days without it making any significant changes to your body, think again.... Read more »

Anderson, A., Haynie, K., McMillan, R., Osterberg, K., Boutagy, N., Frisard, M., Davy, B., Davy, K., & Hulver, M. (2015) Early skeletal muscle adaptations to short-term high-fat diet in humans before changes in insulin sensitivity. Obesity, 23(4), 720-724. DOI: 10.1002/oby.21031  

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