There's something special about islands. After moving to islands, plants adapted to rocky outcrops evolve to grow in rainforests and alpine meadows, and finches evolve to behave like woodpeckers. But why? Islands contain new food sources and habitats, they often lack predators, and they can provide more geographic barriers to generate reproductive isolation—to name just a few possibilities. A newly published ecological experiment now provides evidence that one group of island lizards diversfi........ Read more »
Calsbeek, R., & Cox, R. (2010) Experimentally assessing the relative importance of predation and competition as agents of selection. Nature, 465(7298), 613-6. DOI: 10.1038/nature09020
Givnish, T., Millam, K., Mast, A., Paterson, T., Theim, T., Hipp, A., Henss, J., Smith, J., Wood, K., & Sytsma, K. (2009) Origin, adaptive radiation and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1656), 407-16. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2008.1204
Losos, J. (1990) Ecomorphology, performance capability, and scaling of West Indian Anolis lizards: an evolutionary analysis. Ecological Monographs, 60(3), 369-88. DOI: 10.2307/1943062
Pinto, G., Mahler, D., Harmon, L., & Losos, J. (2008) Testing the island effect in adaptive radiation: rates and patterns of morphological diversification in Caribbean and mainland Anolis lizards. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275(1652), 2749-57. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2008.0686
While working on a cell cycle lecture for the Education Resources web at Promega.com, I reread some classic papers describing classic cell-cycle experiments. Two of these papers describe the experiments by Murray and Kirschner showing that cyclin B synthesis and degradation are required for cycling in Xenopus oocyte extracts. When I took my first graduate-level [...]... Read more »
Murray AW, & Kirschner MW. (1989) Cyclin synthesis drives the early embryonic cell cycle. Nature, 339(6222), 275-80. PMID: 2566917
Murray AW, Solomon MJ, & Kirschner MW. (1989) The role of cyclin synthesis and degradation in the control of maturation promoting factor activity. Nature, 339(6222), 280-6. PMID: 2566918
Lund E, Liu M, Hartley RS, Sheets MD, & Dahlberg JE. (2009) Deadenylation of maternal mRNAs mediated by miR-427 in Xenopus laevis embryos. RNA (New York, N.Y.), 15(12), 2351-63. PMID: 19854872
One of my favorite pastimes is reading about situations where experts from different (and seemingly divergent) disciplines get together to discuss interdisciplinary cooperation and mutual progress. All too often scientists segregate themselves according to their area of expertise and only make use of the techniques that they are familiar with or have access to in [...]... Read more »
Finney, L., Chishti, Y., Khare, T., Giometti, C., Levina, A., Lay, P., & Vogt, S. (2010) Imaging Metals in Proteins by Combining Electrophoresis with Rapid X-ray Fluorescence Mapping. ACS Chemical Biology, 5(6), 577-587. DOI: 10.1021/cb1000263
... Read more »
Rytwinski, T., & Fahrig, L. (2010) Reproductive rate and body size predict road impacts on mammal abundance. Ecological Applications, 2147483647. DOI: 10.1890/10-0968.1
Posted by Victor Hanson-Smith Check-out this paper by Inna S. Povolotskaya and Fyodor A. Kondrashov. (It’s a closed-access Nature article; I’m sorry if you do not have a subscription!) The premise of this paper begins with two claims. First, protein-sequence space is finite. Second, proteins have been evolving away from one other (“expanding in sequence [...]... Read more »
Povolotskaya, I., & Kondrashov, F. (2010) Sequence space and the ongoing expansion of the protein universe. Nature, 465(7300), 922-926. DOI: 10.1038/nature09105
Sci was going to save this one for a Friday Weird Science, but it's just so awesome that she couldn't bring herself to save it. She had to blog it NOW! It's not neuroscience, but it's awesome. Also, there's dragons.
Not this kind:
(Anyone else think Dragon Age Origins is really awesome?! Well, Sci spends a lot of her time wondering why the ladies are so dang naked. You're climbing a high mountain pass in the winter! Your cleavage will suffer frostbite!!!)
It's this kind:
(Aieee!!!!)........ Read more »
Bull JJ, Jessop TS, Whiteley M. (2010) Deathly Drool: Evolutionary and Ecological Basis of Septic Bacteria in Komodo Dragon Mouths. PLoS ONE, 5(6). info:/10.1371/journal.pone.0011097
At the same time as we were learning that Vegetarians and Vegans might be more empathic than Omnivores we were also discovering the nature of empathy in Ravens. Published in PLoS One recently was a paper called “Do Ravens Show Consolation? Responses to Distressed Others” looking at the behaviour of Ravens and the implications for [...]... Read more »
Fraser, O., & Bugnyar, T. (2010) Do Ravens Show Consolation? Responses to Distressed Others. PLoS ONE, 5(5). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010605
We love getting interesting emails from our readers. Some are complaints about our (mostly mine) colorful language, many are emails telling us how they appreciate what we do, several even come from our colleagues who would like us to know about some recent research or a new expedition, and we get many readers asking us specific . . . → Read More: Pouring Oil on ‘Troubled Waters’... Read more »
MacDonald, I., Leifer, I., Sassen, R., Stine, P., Mitchell, R., & Guinasso, N. (2002) Transfer of hydrocarbons from natural seeps to the water column and atmosphere. Geofluids, 2(2), 95-107. DOI: 10.1046/j.1468-8123.2002.00023.x
Wyckoff, Lieut. A.B. (1886) The use of oil in storms at sea. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 23(123), 383-388. info:/
A bite from a Komodo dragon would take you down. They have large teeth that are very sharp. And their salivary glands secrete venom.
For a long time, people sort of overlooked those two factors. The teeth were obvious, but the venom wasn’t. Instead, people suggested that one of the ways that the slow moving monitor lizards were able to take down large prey was because their mouths contained so many bacteria, that the bitten prey animal got infected, quite quickly, and went down from the bacte........ Read more »
Bull, J., Jessop, T., & Whiteley, M. (2010) Deathly Drool: Evolutionary and Ecological Basis of Septic Bacteria in Komodo Dragon Mouths. PLoS ONE, 5(6). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011097
This is the first blogpost in a continuing series on “sensible evolution‘: how our senses evolved and shape the way we see the world. We perceive everything that we can see and feel as ‘real’, but we know that our human senses only capture a tiny part of the natural world. There are [...]... Read more »
Zhao, H., Zhou, Y., Pinto, C., Charles-Dominique, P., Galindo-Gonzalez, J., Zhang, S., & Zhang, J. (2010) Evolution of the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 in bats. Molecular Biology and Evolution. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msq152
As a group, dinosaurs were certainly well-ornamented animals. Horns, spikes, crests, plates, sails, clubs and other strange structures marked the bodies of many dinosaurs, but figuring out why these dinosaurs had these structures in the first place has often been difficult to figure out. Numerous hypotheses for different structures have been proposed over the years. [...]... Read more »
Padian, K., & Horner, J. (2010) The evolution of ‘bizarre structures’ in dinosaurs: biomechanics, sexual selection, social selection or species recognition?. Journal of Zoology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2010.00719.x
Three-dimensional models of hominoid skulls used in the study - (a) Hylobates lar; (b) Pongo pygmaeus; (c) Pan troglodytes; (d) Gorilla gorilla; (e) Australopithecus africanus; (f ) Paranthropus boisei; (g) Homo sapiens. They have been scaled to the same surface area, and the colors denote areas of stress (blue = minimal stress, pink = high stress). From Wroe et al, 2010.
It is all too easy to think of human evolution in linear terms. From our 21st century vantage point we can look back thro........ Read more »
Inside the human body are millions of miniature machines, the gatekeepers of the electrical impulses that keep our hearts beating and our minds thinking. They’re called ion channels; portals that allow small ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride, to pass in or out of cells. A simple responsibility, with a complex and crucial [...]... Read more »
Khalili-Araghi F, Jogini V, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Tajkhorshid E, Roux B, & Schulten K. (2010) Calculation of the gating charge for the Kv1.2 voltage-activated potassium channel. Biophysical journal, 98(10), 2189-98. PMID: 20483327
In this video, Science in Seconds looks at the world's first picture of a molecule, taken by IBM researchers in 2009 and published in Science Magazine.... Read more »
Gross, L., Mohn, F., Moll, N., Liljeroth, P., & Meyer, G. (2009) The Chemical Structure of a Molecule Resolved by Atomic Force Microscopy. Science, 325(5944), 1110-1114. DOI: 10.1126/science.1176210
TcR interacting with artificial membrane1
Why does autoimmune disease (sometimes) follow viral infection?2
It’s a pretty well-known phenomenon, but a definite answer isn’t yet known — and of course there may not be a single answer, there may be multiple causes. We know that many autoimmune diseases seem to be triggered by some sort of infection [...]... Read more »
McGargill MA, Mayerova D, Stefanski HE, Koehn B, Parke EA, Jameson SC, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, & Hogquist KA. (2002) A spontaneous CD8 T cell-dependent autoimmune disease to an antigen expressed under the human keratin 14 promoter. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 169(4), 2141-7. PMID: 12165543
Ji, Q., Perchellet, A., & Goverman, J. (2010) Viral infection triggers central nervous system autoimmunity via activation of CD8 T cells expressing dual TCRs. Nature Immunology, 11(7), 628-634. DOI: 10.1038/ni.1888
Jeremy Gunawardena pointed me to this terrific paper that results from a collaboration between Bruce Walker’s and Arup Chakraborty’s groups (Košmrlj et al. Effects of thymic selection of the T-cell repertoire on HLA class I-associated control of HIV infection. Nature 465 350-4. PMID: 20445539). On reading it, I realized that I had heard Arup present the work at the ICSB 2009 conference; for me, it was one of the highlights of the meeting.... Read more »
Kosmrlj A, Read EL, Qi Y, Allen TM, Altfeld M, Deeks SG, Pereyra F, Carrington M, Walker BD, & Chakraborty AK. (2010) Effects of thymic selection of the T-cell repertoire on HLA class I-associated control of HIV infection. Nature, 465(7296), 350-4. PMID: 20445539
Roll up, roll up, ladies and gentlemen, Impact Factor Boxing is here again. As with last year (2009), these metrics are already a year out of date. But this doesn’t stop many people from writing about impact factors and it’s been an interesting year  for the metrics used by many to judge value of [...]... Read more »
Rizkallah, J., & Sin, D. (2010) Integrative Approach to Quality Assessment of Medical Journals Using Impact Factor, Eigenfactor, and Article Influence Scores. PLoS ONE, 5(4). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010204
Why were the older people less affected by the new flu?
The elderly, especially those older than 65 years, that is, born before 1944, constitute the part of the population less affected by H1N1. It was suggested and later confirmed by CDC that it is about the prior immunity to the virus. These people probably have [...]... Read more »
Manicassamy, B., Medina, R., Hai, R., Tsibane, T., Stertz, S., Nistal-Villán, E., Palese, P., Basler, C., & García-Sastre, A. (2010) Protection of Mice against Lethal Challenge with 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus by 1918-Like and Classical Swine H1N1 Based Vaccines. PLoS Pathogens, 6(1). DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000745
A restoration of the tiny trilobite Ctenopyge ceciliae. From Schoenemann et al, 2010.
The first time I can remember seeing a trilobite, it wasn't in a museum case or a book about prehistoric animals. It was on card 39 of the gratuitously gory Dinosaurs Attack! card series, a horrific vignette depicting four of the invertebrates crawling over the bloodied face of their hapless victim. (No indication was given as to how the "flesh-eating worms", as the card identified them, had subdued the man........ Read more »
Fisheries don’t necessarily go after the species highest in the food web first, a new study says.
Fishermen are thought to initially target top predators and then move lower in the food web, perhaps because the higher-ranking species bring in more money. But after analyzing records dating back to the 1950s, researchers couldn’t find a […] Read More »... Read more »
Sethi, S.A., Branch, T.A., & R. Watson. (2010) Global fishery development patterns are driven by profit but not trophic level. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. info:/10.1073/pnas.1003236107
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