It all starts with a mosquito bite. When a hungry mosquito pierces someone’s skin to gorge herself, she also pumps …Continue reading →... Read more »
Miotto O, Almagro-Garcia J, Manske M, Macinnis B, Campino S, Rockett KA, Amaratunga C, Lim P, Suon S, Sreng S.... (2013) Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia. Nature genetics, 45(6), 648-55. PMID: 23624527
We love gadgets in EMS.
Dr. Bryan Bledsoe tells us that if we paint it orange and put a star of life on it, we can sell any product for a lot more money.
How much would you pay to not improve outcomes?
$50,000.00?... Read more »
Rubertsson S, Lindgren E, Smekal D, Östlund O, Silfverstolpe J, Lichtveld RA, Boomars R, Ahlstedt B, Skoog G, Kastberg R.... (2014) Mechanical chest compressions and simultaneous defibrillation vs conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the LINC randomized trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 311(1), 53-61. PMID: 24240611
At the time of writing this post, the media is awash with two stories with an autism research slant to them. So we have the paper by Brian D’Onofrio and colleagues  talking about older, sorry, advancing paternal age and the risk of various conditions for offspring, including autism, and the paper by Sébastien Jacquemont and colleagues  on a female protective model for autism. Y'know these are serious pieces of research when the good old BBC (Auntie) puts it........ Read more »
Adler BA, Wink LK, Early M, Shaffer R, Minshawi N, McDougle CJ, & Erickson CA. (2014) Drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in autism spectrum disorders: A chart review study. Autism : the international journal of research and practice. PMID: 24571823
The RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by a genetic mutation in the Ras signaling pathway and associated mitogen-activated protein kinases that control the cell cycle, differentiation and senescence. These diseases encompass a diverse set of clinical syndromes including neurofibromatosis type 1 and Noonan syndrome. Although the pathophysiological manifestations of these conditions are diverse, they share some common phenotypic features. The prevalence of pulmonary hyperten........ Read more »
Krishna S. Vyas, Jacqueline A. Noonan. (2014) Pulmonary Hypertension in the RASopathies. Journal of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, 2(1), 1-6. info:/2: 101
Individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are at higher risk for obesity.This risk may be related to physical inactivity, diet or the weight gain commonly associated with psychotropic drug use.Few clinical trials for weight loss have targeted individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). This population may pose specific challenges in recruitment, adherence and outcome.Gail Daumit and colleagues recently published a randomized clinical trial of behavioral weight loss in a cohort with S........ Read more »
Daumit GL, Dickerson FB, Wang NY, Dalcin A, Jerome GJ, Anderson CA, Young DR, Frick KD, Yu A, Gennusa JV 3rd.... (2013) A behavioral weight-loss intervention in persons with serious mental illness. The New England journal of medicine, 368(17), 1594-602. PMID: 23517118
Scientists have uncovered a host of pathological consequences in liver- and mitochondrial-pathways in the absence of Bmal1. These studies lend further credence to Bmal1 being important for rhythms of metabolism. These critters are certainly no star athletes. ... Read more »
Peek CB, Affinati AH, Ramsey KM, Kuo HY, Yu W, Sena LA, Ilkayeva O, Marcheva B, Kobayashi Y, Omura C.... (2013) Circadian clock NAD cycle drives mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6158), 1243417. PMID: 24051248
Creatine. A molecular gem that you’ve probably heard of in the context of exercise and working out in the gym. Creatine is used as a supplement by gym-goers and sporty folk when they want to get more out of their workout. It comes from both endogenous and exogenous sources, being produced in the liver and coming from dietary meat and fish.
It’s a compound which can give a runner that extra bit of explosive energy or a weight-lifter a little more strength. This nitrogenous organic........ Read more »
Bemben MG, & Lamont HS. (2005) Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: recent findings. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 35(2), 107-25. PMID: 15707376
Cooper R, Naclerio F, Allgrove J, & Jimenez A. (2012) Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1), 33. PMID: 22817979
The "sunshine vitamin" that is vitamin D has cropped up quite a few times on this blog for all manner of reasons. The suggestion of a link (whatever that means) between vitamin D and the autism spectrum conditions has received the lion's share of coverage, be that in relation to measured levels of vitamin D (see here and see here) or more speculatively, the possible impact of something like deficiency of vitamin D to symptoms or physiology (see here and see here). I've also not been adverse to t........ Read more »
Grant WB, & Cannell JJ. (2013) Autism prevalence in the United States with respect to solar UV-B doses: An ecological study. Dermato-endocrinology, 5(1), 159-64. PMID: 24494049
America has a problem. Some people are spouting the lie that vaccines can cause autism and other people are believing them. This has led to some unfortunate false-equivalence when the issue is discussed, and wouldn’t you know it, that false equivalence makes people less likely to believe the truth. Sometimes there’s no false equivalence; people […]... Read more »
Nyhan, B., Reifler, J., Richey, S., & Freed, G.L. (2014) Effective Messages in Vaccine Promotion: A Randomized Trial. Pediatrics. info:/
The February issue of This Month In Blastocystis Research is mostly about Blastocystis proteases and their potential clinical significance. ... Read more »
Serrano-Luna J, Cervantes-Sandoval I, Tsutsumi V, & Shibayama M. (2007) A biochemical comparison of proteases from pathogenic naegleria fowleri and non-pathogenic Naegleria gruberi. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 54(5), 411-7. PMID: 17910685
Abdel-Hameed DM, & Hassanin OM. (2011) Proteaese activity of Blastocystis hominis subtype3 in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Parasitology research, 109(2), 321-7. PMID: 21279383
Denoeud F, Roussel M, Noel B, Wawrzyniak I, Da Silva C, Diogon M, Viscogliosi E, Brochier-Armanet C, Couloux A, Poulain J.... (2011) Genome sequence of the stramenopile Blastocystis, a human anaerobic parasite. Genome biology, 12(3). PMID: 21439036
McGonigle L, Mousley A, Marks NJ, Brennan GP, Dalton JP, Spithill TW, Day TA, & Maule AG. (2008) The silencing of cysteine proteases in Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles using RNA interference reduces gut penetration. International journal for parasitology, 38(2), 149-55. PMID: 18048044
Mirza H, & Tan KS. (2009) Blastocystis exhibits inter- and intra-subtype variation in cysteine protease activity. Parasitology research, 104(2), 355-61. PMID: 18846388
Que X, & Reed S L. (2000) Cysteine Proteinases and the Pathogenesis of Amebiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 13(2), 196-206. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.13.2.196-206.2000
Poirier P, Wawrzyniak I, Vivarès CP, Delbac F, & El Alaoui H. (2012) New insights into Blastocystis spp.: a potential link with irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS pathogens, 8(3). PMID: 22438803
Olivo-Diaz A, Romero-Valdovinos M, Gudiño-Ramirez A, Reyes-Gordillo J, Jimenez-Gonzalez DE, Ramirez-Miranda ME, Martinez-Flores WA, Martinez-Hernandez F, Flisser A, & Maravilla P. (2012) Findings related to IL-8 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms in a Mexican patient population with irritable bowel syndrome infected with Blastocystis. Parasitology research, 111(1), 487-91. PMID: 22287022
Puthia MK, Sio SW, Lu J, & Tan KS. (2006) Blastocystis ratti induces contact-independent apoptosis, F-actin rearrangement, and barrier function disruption in IEC-6 cells. Infection and immunity, 74(7), 4114-23. PMID: 16790785
Puthia MK, Vaithilingam A, Lu J, & Tan KS. (2005) Degradation of human secretory immunoglobulin A by Blastocystis. Parasitology research, 97(5), 386-9. PMID: 16151742
Rajamanikam A, & Govind SK. (2013) Amoebic forms of Blastocystis spp. - evidence for a pathogenic role. Parasites , 6(1), 295. PMID: 24499467
Wawrzyniak I, Texier C, Poirier P, Viscogliosi E, Tan KS, Delbac F, & El Alaoui H. (2012) Characterization of two cysteine proteases secreted by Blastocystis ST7, a human intestinal parasite. Parasitology international, 61(3), 437-42. PMID: 22402106
You might remember back in 2008 reading about how scientists had made a breakthrough in regenerative medicine by engineering a human trachea. Since then people have been wondering if the same principles could be applied to more complex body parts. The answer? Yes. Scientists in Texas have grown functioning lungs by using damaged ones as a scaffold to grow new tissue.... Read more »
Nichols JE, Niles JA, & Cortiella J. (2012) Production and utilization of acellular lung scaffolds in tissue engineering. Journal of cellular biochemistry, 113(7), 2185-92. PMID: 22573544
I start with a quote from the paper by Po-Hsin Tsai and colleagues : "This prospective study indicated a temporal relation between asthma and subsequent ASD [autism spectrum disorder] diagnosis, supporting the immune hypothesis of ASD pathogenesis". Based on a familiar collaboration residing in Taiwan (see here and see here for some discussions on previous data), yet more evidence is emerging of a correlation between immune function, physiology and behavioural / developmental c........ Read more »
Po-Hsin Tsai, Mu-Hong Chen, Tung-Ping Su, Ying-Sheue Chen, Ju-Wei Hsu, Kai-Lin Huang, Wen-Han Chang, Tzeng-Ji Chen, & Ya-Mei Bai. (2014) Increased risk of autism spectrum disorder among early life asthma patients: An 8-year nationwide population-based prospective study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. DOI: 10.1016/j.rasd.2013.12.022
New research is describing the ways that arthropods use gustatory receptors. Drosophila use a muscular reflex to extend or retract the proboscis, based on the sweet or bitter taste they experience. In silica studies are showing that female behaviors are driving gene duplication and evolution of taste receptor genes, while specific taste receptors are responsible for male female interactions in fruit fly courtship rituals.
... Read more »
Choi EA, Park HY, Yoo HS, & Choi YH. (2013) Anti-inflammatory effects of egg white combined with chalcanthite in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia through the inhibition of NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. International journal of molecular medicine, 31(1), 154-62. PMID: 23128312
Briscoe AD, Macias-Muñoz A, Kozak KM, Walters JR, Yuan F, Jamie GA, Martin SH, Dasmahapatra KK, Ferguson LC, Mallet J.... (2013) Female behaviour drives expression and evolution of gustatory receptors in butterflies. PLoS genetics, 9(7). PMID: 23950722
Koch SI, Groh K, Vogel H, Hansson BS, Kleineidam CJ, & Grosse-Wilde E. (2013) Caste-specific expression patterns of immune response and chemosensory related genes in the leaf-cutting ant, Atta vollenweideri. PloS one, 8(11). PMID: 24260580
Thistle R, Cameron P, Ghorayshi A, Dennison L, & Scott K. (2012) Contact chemoreceptors mediate male-male repulsion and male-female attraction during Drosophila courtship. Cell, 149(5), 1140-51. PMID: 22632976
Poor old paracetamol (acetaminophen if you wish).Tablets (before tablets again) @ WikipediaFirst it was the Brandlistuen correlation  suggesting that sustained exposure in-utero may impact on childhood developmental outcome (see here for my take). Now another swipe has been taken at this pharmaceutical stalwart of pain relief / fever reduction with the publication of results by Zeyan Liew and colleagues  suggesting that: "Maternal acetaminophen use during preg........ Read more »
Zeyan Liew, Beate Ritz, Cristina Rebordosa, Pei-Chen Lee, & Jørn Olsen. (2014) Acetaminophen Use During Pregnancy, Behavioral Problems, and Hyperkinetic Disorders. JAMA Pediatrics. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4914
The teenage ability to sleep past noon is one of the great joys of adolescence. It’s also one of the great headaches of parenthood. On weekends parents are up bright and early, but try as they might, they can’t get their teenage children to make use of the morning hours. A simple explanation for why […]... Read more »
Wrzus, C., Wagner, G.G., & Riediger, M. (2014) Feeling Good When Sleeping In? Day-To-Day Associations Between Sleep Duration and Affective Well-Being Differ From Youth to Old Ag. Emotion. DOI: 10.1037/a0035349
This consultancy was granted by the Caribbean Health Research Council (CHRC) to assess the state of the literature on possible links between HIV spread and prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse and trade in the region. The methodology was that of a thematic search of existing literature in databases and books or journal publications. Online materials and UN agency reports of relevance were also consulted. Regular meetings were held with CHRC staff to review progress and edit drafts while staff of........ Read more »
Biko Agozino. (2013) Drug and Alcohol Consumption and Trade and HIV in the Caribbean: A Review of the Literature. Journal of HIV/AIDS , 1(2), 1-12. info:/Vol 1: 203
Agozino Biko . (2014) Drug and Alcohol Consumption and Trade and HIV in the Caribbean: A Review of the Literature. JOURNAL OF HIV/AIDS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 2(1), 1-7. DOI: 202
by amikulak in Daily Observations
Millions of people are affected by self-injury, especially adolescents and young adults. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been the focus of numerous studies and, yet, there is still a lot to […]... Read more »
Bentley, K.H., Nock, M.K., & Barlow, D.H. (2014) The Four-Function Model of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Key Directions for Future Research. Clinical Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/2167702613514563
I have previously examined outcomes for MRI changes known as brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHI).WMHIs are noted in a minority of adults and are not completely understood. The changes are considered subclinical in nature, meaning they do not reach a threshold for medical significance.However, these subclinical WMHI are linked to higher rates of premature cognitive decline. Absence of WMHI is seen by some as one marker of brain health.Jyrki Virtanen and colleagues from Finl........ Read more »
Virtanen JK, Siscovick DS, Lemaitre RN, Longstreth WT, Spiegelman D, Rimm EB, King IB, & Mozaffarian D. (2013) Circulating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Journal of the American Heart Association, 2(5). PMID: 24113325
Promising Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) research is done about the involvement of anti-CarP antibodies. These antibodies seem to be an important cause of RA. Moreover, they are associated with more severe joint destruction in RA patients.... Read more »
Cutolo M. (2009) Androgens in rheumatoid arthritis: when are they effectors?. Arthritis Research . DOI: 10.1186/ar2804
Karie S., Gandjbakhch F., Launay-Vacher V., Rozenberg S., Mai Ba C.U., Bourggeois P. and Deray G. (2008) Kidney disease in RA patients: prevalence and implication on RA-related drugs management: the MATRIX study. Rheumatology. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/ken239
6. Peters M.J.L., Symmons D.P.M., McCarey D., Dijkmans B.A.C., Nicola P., Kvien T.K., McInnes I.B., Haentzschel H., Gonzalez-Gay M.A., Provan S., Semb A., Sidiropoulos P., Kitas G., Smulders Y.M., Soubrier M., Szekanecz Z., Sattar N. and Nurmohamed M.T. (2010) EULAR evidence-based recommendations for cardiovascular risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory arthritis. . Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. DOI: 10.1136/ard.2009.113696
Quirke AM, Fisher BA, Kinloch AJ, & Venables PJ. (2011) Citrullination of autoantigens: upstream of TNFα in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. FEBS letters, 585(23), 3681-8. PMID: 21704035
Wang Z, Nicholls SJ, Rodriguez ER, Kummu O, Hörkkö S, Barnard J, Reynolds WF, Topol EJ, DiDonato JA, & Hazen SL. (2007) Protein carbamylation links inflammation, smoking, uremia and atherogenesis. Nature medicine, 13(10), 1176-84. PMID: 17828273
Mydel P, Wang Z, Brisslert M, Hellvard A, Dahlberg LE, Hazen SL, & Bokarewa M. (2010) Carbamylation-dependent activation of T cells: a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 184(12), 6882-90. PMID: 20488785
Turunen S, Koivula MK, Risteli L, & Risteli J. (2010) Anticitrulline antibodies can be caused by homocitrulline-containing proteins in rabbits. Arthritis and rheumatism, 62(11), 3345-52. PMID: 20617522
As I might have already intimated, whilst I'm all in favour of the very early identification of autism and the potential effects this might bring to a child in terms of something like benefiting from early intervention, I'm not overly enthused by the collected evidence which has been amassed so far in this area despite some promising data.Under my umbrellas @ Wikipedia Most people with some knowledge of autism will know that it is an extremely heterogeneous condition, with presentation........ Read more »
Samango-Sprouse CA, Stapleton EJ, Aliabadi F, Graw R, Vickers R, Haskell K, Sadeghin T, Jameson R, Parmele CL, & Gropman AL. (2014) Identification of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder and developmental language delay prior to 12 months. Autism : the international journal of research and practice. PMID: 24550549
Stenberg N, Bresnahan M, Gunnes N, Hirtz D, Hornig M, Lie KK, Lipkin WI, Lord C, Magnus P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T.... (2014) Identifying Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at 18 Months in a General Population Sample. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. DOI: 10.1111/ppe.12114
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