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  • March 20, 2016
  • 04:32 PM
  • 251 views

A link between nightmares and suicidal behavior

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

A new study is the first to report that the relationship between nightmares and suicidal behaviors is partially mediated by a multi-step pathway via defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Results show that suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts were present in 62 percent of participants who experienced nightmares and only 20 percent of those without nightmares.

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  • March 20, 2016
  • 09:39 AM
  • 225 views

Neuropsychiatric Outcomes Of Traumatic Brain Injury

by Vivek Misra in Uberbrain Research Frontier

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, is a substantial head injury that results in damage to the brain. This damage can cause a wide spectrum of possible health outcomes. Factors that are likely to influence neuropsychiatric outcome in TBI can be classified as pre-injury, injury and post-injury factors. Injury-related factors include a) the type of physical injury
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The post Neuropsychiatric Outcomes Of Traumatic Brain Injury appeared first on UBRF: UberBrain R........ Read more »

  • March 19, 2016
  • 03:01 PM
  • 189 views

Forgetting, to learn

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

They say that once you’ve learned to ride a bicycle, you never forget how to do it. Unfortunately for students who hope this applies to studying, they might not like new research suggesting that while learning, the brain is actively trying to forget. While this may at first blush seem like a bad thing, it actually may be useful for those suffering from PTSD.

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Madroñal, N., Delgado-García, J., Fernández-Guizán, A., Chatterjee, J., Köhn, M., Mattucci, C., Jain, A., Tsetsenis, T., Illarionova, A., Grinevich, V.... (2016) Rapid erasure of hippocampal memory following inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells. Nature Communications, 10923. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10923  

  • March 19, 2016
  • 04:40 AM
  • 240 views

What can 'big data' tell us about suicide-related behaviours?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The findings reported by Yu-Wen Lin and colleagues [1] (open-access available here) examining the "characteristics and suicide methods of patients with suicide-related behaviors" and "influential factors for repeated suicide-related behaviors and death by suicide" might not make for 'great dinner-party conversation' but are nevertheless important.Drawing on data from one of the world's premier 'big data' research sources - the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) - ........ Read more »

  • March 18, 2016
  • 02:36 PM
  • 263 views

Using precision medicine to define the genetics of autoimmune disease

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Demonstrating the potential of precision medicine, an international study used next-generation DNA sequencing technology to identify more than 1,000 gene variants that affect susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Precision medicine is an emerging field that aims to deliver highly personalized health care by understanding how individual differences in genetics, environment, and lifestyle impact health and disease.

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Raj, P., Rai, E., Song, R., Khan, S., Wakeland, B., Viswanathan, K., Arana, C., Liang, C., Zhang, B., Dozmorov, I.... (2016) Regulatory polymorphisms modulate the expression of HLA class II molecules and promote autoimmunity. eLife. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.12089  

  • March 18, 2016
  • 03:48 AM
  • 253 views

Autism depression = more medical issues?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I wanted to draw your attention to the paper by Greenlee and colleagues [1] today, talking about how: (a) "Co-occurring depression is a particularly common problem in higher-functioning older children" with autism, and (b) "children with ASD [autism spectrum disorder] and a history of a depression diagnosis are more likely to also have co-occurring medical problems" at least in their cohort.Published as part of a supplement about autism in the journal Pediatrics (see here), the Greenle........ Read more »

  • March 17, 2016
  • 03:47 PM
  • 261 views

Preventing Alzheimer’s, with an implant

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Alzheimer's has been a losing battle, sure we can fight back with drugs, but that still just prolongs the inevitable. With that said we can all hope this research pans out, to something meaningful. In a cutting-edge treatment for Alzheimer's disease, EPFL scientists have developed an implantable capsule that can turn the patient's immune system against the disease. Even better, the implant is subdural, not intracranial.

... Read more »

  • March 17, 2016
  • 03:47 AM
  • 236 views

No unique patterns of gut issues in autism? Headline fail...

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"This study supports the observation that children with autism who have symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders have objective findings similar to children without autism. Neither non-invasive testing nor endoscopic findings identify gastrointestinal pathology specific to autism, but may be of benefit in identifying children with autism who have atypical symptoms."So concluded Rafail Kushak and colleagues [1] (them of "Lactase deficiency not associated with intestinal inflammation or injury is co........ Read more »

Kushak RI, Buie TM, Murray KF, Newburg DS, Chen C, Nestoridi E, & Winter HS. (2016) Evaluation of Intestinal Function in Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. PMID: 26913756  

  • March 16, 2016
  • 04:51 PM
  • 267 views

Viruses ‘piggyback’ on hosts success

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

In the microscopic life that thrives around coral reefs, researchers have discovered an interplay between viruses and microbes that defies conventional wisdom. As the density of microbes rises in an ecosystem, the number of viruses infecting those microbes rises with it. It has generally been assumed that this growing population of viruses, in turn, kills more and more microbes, keeping the microbial population in check. It’s a model known as “kill-the-winner” — the winners being the blo........ Read more »

Knowles, B., Silveira, C., Bailey, B., Barott, K., Cantu, V., Cobián-Güemes, A., Coutinho, F., Dinsdale, E., Felts, B., Furby, K.... (2016) Lytic to temperate switching of viral communities. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature17193  

  • March 16, 2016
  • 09:59 AM
  • 285 views

An open letter to all science lovers who want to defend science ... please don't.

by EE Giorgi in CHIMERAS

Last week I had an animated discussion on Facebook over an older post in which I describe some literature I dug out on possible (underline “possible”!) correlations with autism. True, my post is highly incomplete, but it was meant as a discussion starter to point at things that scientists have been looking at in an attempt to unravel what feels like a rise in autism. Is autism the new childhood plague of our modern society or has it always been around and we just became more aware of it? And........ Read more »

Kushak RI, Buie TM, Murray KF, Newburg DS, Chen C, Nestoridi E, & Winter HS. (2016) Evaluation of Intestinal Function in Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. PMID: 26913756  

Heijtz, R., Wang, S., Anuar, F., Qian, Y., Bjorkholm, B., Samuelsson, A., Hibberd, M., Forssberg, H., & Pettersson, S. (2011) Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 3047-3052. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1010529108  

Mulle, J., Sharp, W., & Cubells, J. (2013) The Gut Microbiome: A New Frontier in Autism Research. Current Psychiatry Reports, 15(2). DOI: 10.1007/s11920-012-0337-0  

  • March 16, 2016
  • 03:39 AM
  • 243 views

9% of those diagnosed with autism might have optimal outcome?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Although for many children, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability, a subset of children with ASD lose their diagnosis and show typical cognitive and adaptive abilities."Unfortunately, that sentence taken from the report by Emily Moulton and colleagues [1] including one Deborah Fein on the authorship list, is not likely to be taken well by some people. Indeed, the whole concept of 'optimal outcome' with autism in mind (see here) has sometimes been met with outright hostility de........ Read more »

  • March 15, 2016
  • 03:44 PM
  • 261 views

Where aging memories get stored in the brain

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Think back to when you were a child. Now instead, try to think of something that happened just a few minutes ago; would you believe that you are using different portions of the brain? When we remember events which occurred recently, the hippocampus is activated. This area in the temporal lobe of the brain is a hub for learning and memory. But what happens, if we try to remember things that took place years or decades ago?

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  • March 15, 2016
  • 08:38 AM
  • 28 views

Pre-Nephrectomy Kidney Volume Matters

by Cristy at Living Donor 101 in Living Donors Are People Too

Pre-nephrectomy (kidney removal) volume, otherwise known as parenchyma ,was measured in 75 patients who underwent the procedure from 2000-2010. “Over median follow-up of 36 months postsurgery, progression to Chronic Kidney Disease (defined as GFR less than 60) occurred in 42.6% of patients…Median time to reach CKD postnephrectomy is 12.7 (range 0.03–43.66) months for renal volume …
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The post Pre-Nephrectomy Kidney Volume Matters appeared first on Livin........ Read more »

  • March 15, 2016
  • 03:30 AM
  • 261 views

Measuring anxiety comorbid to autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Anxiety, whether reaching clinical thresholds or manifesting as something rather more subtle, is a common theme in autism research and practice these days. I've talked about it enough times on this blog (see here and see here for example) reflective of the growth in this peer-reviewed research area that has continued unabated.Recognition of just how 'disabling' anxiety can be for someone on the autism spectrum is fairly widely noted these days. Problems however, still remain in terms of (i) how ........ Read more »

Rodgers J, Wigham S, McConachie H, Freeston M, Honey E, & Parr JR. (2016) Development of the anxiety scale for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASC-ASD). Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research. PMID: 26887910  

  • March 14, 2016
  • 02:19 PM
  • 257 views

Decrypting a collagen’s role in schizophrenia

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

What would be worse than having bad joints? How about schizophrenia and bad joints? To be fair that isn’t what is suggested, but they may, in fact, be linked. A small peptide generated from a collagen protein may protect the brain from schizophrenia by promoting the formation of neuronal synapses and study may lead to new approaches to treating the mental disorder.

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Su, J., Chen, J., Lippold, K., Monavarfeshani, A., Carrillo, G., Jenkins, R., & Fox, M. (2016) Collagen-derived matricryptins promote inhibitory nerve terminal formation in the developing neocortex. The Journal of Cell Biology, 212(6), 721-736. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201509085  

  • March 14, 2016
  • 02:19 PM
  • 168 views

Decrypting a collagen’s role in schizophrenia

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

What would be worse than having bad joints? How about schizophrenia and bad joints? To be fair that isn’t what is suggested, but they may, in fact, be linked.  A small peptide generated from a collagen protein may protect the brain from schizophrenia by promoting the formation of neuronal synapses and study may lead to […]... Read more »

Su, J., Chen, J., Lippold, K., Monavarfeshani, A., Carrillo, G., Jenkins, R., & Fox, M. (2016) Collagen-derived matricryptins promote inhibitory nerve terminal formation in the developing neocortex. The Journal of Cell Biology, 212(6), 721-736. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201509085  

  • March 14, 2016
  • 01:59 PM
  • 238 views

How machines used to resurface ice rinks can also resurface your lungs

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

In a previous post, I discussed how the introduction of the automobile also introduced a bunch of new ways for people to hurt themselves. Similarly, an injury known as ice hockey lung didn't exist until a key advance was made in the world of ice sports: motorized ice resurfacing machines. Otherwise known as Zambonis (the same way Kleenex is a catch-all term for different brands of tissue paper), they were developed in the 1940s as a means of quickly and efficiently restoring ice sheets carved up........ Read more »

Brat K, Merta Z, Plutinsky M, Skrickova J, & Stanek M. (2013) Ice hockey lung - a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic. Canadian Respiratory Journal, 20(6), 100-103. PMID: 24032121  

  • March 14, 2016
  • 03:49 AM
  • 266 views

Methyl B12 for autism? Placebo-controlled results say maybe...

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Methyl B12 treatment improved clinician-rated symptoms of ASD [autism spectrum disorder] that were correlated with improvements in measures of methionine metabolism and cellular methylation capacity."Those were the very encouraging results published by Robert Hendren and colleagues [1] who can now update their ClinicalTrials.gov study entry (see here). Building on the ideas that: "Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported to have reduced ability to methylate DNA ........ Read more »

Hendren RL, James SJ, Widjaja F, Lawton B, Rosenblatt A, & Bent S. (2016) Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Methyl B12 for Children with Autism. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. PMID: 26889605  

  • March 13, 2016
  • 03:40 PM
  • 232 views

New learning procedure for neural networks

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Rustling leaves, a creaking branch: To a mouse, these sensory impressions may, at first, seem harmless — but not if a cat suddenly bursts out of the bush. If so, they were clues of impending life-threatening danger. Researcher Robert Gütig has now found how the brain can link sensory perceptions to events occurring after a delay.

... Read more »

  • March 12, 2016
  • 03:08 PM
  • 263 views

People with anxiety show fundamental differences in perception

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

People suffering from anxiety perceive the world in a fundamentally different way than others, according to a new study. The research may help explain why certain people are more prone to anxiety. The study shows that people diagnosed with anxiety are less able to distinguish between a neutral, “safe” stimulus (in this case, the sound of a tone) and one that had earlier been associated with gaining or losing money.

... Read more »

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