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  • February 15, 2017
  • 04:30 AM
  • 241 views

"Androgens were not associated with autistic traits at 12 months of age"

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

EARLI - the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation study - has been mentioned on this blog before (see here) with the aim of the initiative to "examine possible environmental risk factors for autism and study whether there is any interplay between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility."In this post I'm bringing the paper by Bo Park and colleagues [1] (open-access) to your attention and the observation(s) that umbilical cord blood levels of testosterone and other relate........ Read more »

Park, B., Lee, B., Burstyn, I., Tabb, L., Keelan, J., Whitehouse, A., Croen, L., Fallin, M., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Montgomery, O.... (2017) Umbilical cord blood androgen levels and ASD-related phenotypes at 12 and 36 months in an enriched risk cohort study. Molecular Autism, 8(1). DOI: 10.1186/s13229-017-0118-z  

  • February 14, 2017
  • 12:13 PM
  • 293 views

The Complexities of “The Love Hormone”

by Miss Behavior in The Scorpion and the Frog

New York street art. Photo inWikimedia Commons posted by Pedroalmovar.Oxytocin, commonly known as “the love hormone”, is a small chemical that is produced in the brain of mammals, but can both act as a neurotransmitter and enter the blood stream and act as a hormone. It has long been heralded for its role in both maternal and romantic love, but more recent research is showing us just how complicated the physiology of love can be.Oxytocin is released in mammalian mothers after birth. It promo........ Read more »

Shamay-Tsoory SG, & Abu-Akel A. (2016) The Social Salience Hypothesis of Oxytocin. Biological psychiatry, 79(3), 194-202. PMID: 26321019  

  • February 14, 2017
  • 03:27 AM
  • 245 views

Relative age and ADHD medication

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Youngest children in class 'more likely to be given ADHD drugs'" went the NHS Choices headline that led me to the short report produced by Martin Whitely and colleagues [1] (open-access).ADHD - attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder - is something of interest to this blog; not least the idea that relative age (age relative to peers in the same school year group) might be an important variable when it comes to at least some diagnoses of the condition (see here).The Whitely paper draws on ........ Read more »

Martin Whitely, Leanne Lester, John Phillimore, & Suzanne Robinson. (2017) Influence of birth month on the probability of Western Australian children being treated for ADHD. The Medical Journal of Australia. info:/

  • February 13, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 202 views

Simple Jury Persuasion: The “bad is black” effect 

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

It is hard to believe that more than two decades have passed since the controversial Time magazine cover featuring OJ Simpson with his skin intentionally darkened was distributed. It was published in 1994 and people were so upset that the magazine’s managing editor issued a public apology for publishing the cover photo. Today, we are […]... Read more »

Alter, A., Stern, C., Granot, Y., & Balcetis, E. (2016) The “Bad Is Black” Effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(12), 1653-1665. DOI: 10.1177/0146167216669123  

  • February 13, 2017
  • 04:28 AM
  • 254 views

Depression, SMILES and Modified Mediterranean diet (advice)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

SMILES in the title of this post refers to the SMILES trial - Supporting the Modification of lifestyle In Lowered Emotional States - and results recently published by Felice Jacka and colleagues [1] (open-access) pertinent to the idea that "dietary improvement" might be something to consider when a diagnosis of major depressive episode (MDE) is received.Having previously published their study protocol [2], researchers set about looking at whether under "single blind, randomised controlled" ........ Read more »

Jacka, F., O’Neil, A., Opie, R., Itsiopoulos, C., Cotton, S., Mohebbi, M., Castle, D., Dash, S., Mihalopoulos, C., Chatterton, M.... (2017) A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the ‘SMILES’ trial). BMC Medicine, 15(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12916-017-0791-y  

  • February 11, 2017
  • 04:43 AM
  • 241 views

Pregnancy exposure to SSRIs and offspring autism risk: debate continues

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"It remains unclear whether the association between first trimester SSRI [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor] exposure and child autism that was present in the case-control studies even after adjustment for MMI [maternal mental illness] is a true association or a product of residual confounding."So said the results of the systematic review and meta-analysis undertaken by Hilary Brown and colleagues [1] looking at a potentially important association between pregnancy use of a class ........ Read more »

  • February 10, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 186 views

Teaching AI to be prejudiced, the “bamboo ceiling”,  overcoming unconscious bias, snap judgments and racial fears

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

Time for another one of those combination posts on things much too good to overlook. This time we are almost all about various sorts of bias to keep you up to speed on the different ways we make (and teach) biased judgments. Bias is taught—even to artificial intelligence We hear a lot about how parents […]... Read more »

Azevedo, R., Garfinkel, S., Critchley, H., & Tsakiris, M. (2017) Cardiac afferent activity modulates the expression of racial stereotypes. Nature Communications, 13854. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13854  

  • February 10, 2017
  • 03:27 AM
  • 201 views

A few-foods diet for ADHD: a systematic review of meta-analyses of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"... the effect sizes of a few-foods diet are medium to large, justifying implementation of a diagnostic FFD [few-foods diet] in subgroups of children with ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder], thus offering innovative treatment opportunities for ADHD."So said the "Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses of Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials" published by Lidy Pelsser and colleagues [1] (open-access available here) looking at various dietary interventions that have ........ Read more »

  • February 9, 2017
  • 03:01 AM
  • 224 views

On dietary and nutritional therapies for ME/CFS

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

ME/CFS in case you don't already know refers to Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and, according to the findings reported by Nadia Campagnolo and colleagues [1], is in need of quite a bit more scientific investigation when it comes to the application of dietary changes and nutritional supplements to potentially alter the course of the condition(s).Surveying the peer-reviewed literature "from 1994 to May 2016" the authors looked for peer-reviewed studies where "CFS/ME........ Read more »

Campagnolo N, Johnston S, Collatz A, Staines D, & Marshall-Gradisnik S. (2017) Dietary and nutrition interventions for the therapeutic treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a systematic review. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association. PMID: 28111818  

  • February 8, 2017
  • 10:30 AM
  • 191 views

Timing and Attention Matter in Dog Training, New Study Shows

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Analysis of videos of dog training sessions show that getting the dog’s attention and good timing of rewards are linked to better results.A new study looks at the interactions between people and dogs whilst teaching ‘lie down’. The results show the importance of the timing of rewards and of getting the dog’s attention in order to be successful in dog training.The study is part of a wider research project at the University of Sydney into what they call “dogmanship.” I asked first auth........ Read more »

Payne, E., Bennett, P., & McGreevy, P. (2017) DogTube: An examination of dogmanship online. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 50-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2016.10.006  

  • February 8, 2017
  • 04:33 AM
  • 251 views

On atopic disease and ADHD: 'strong evidence' for an association

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"This current systematic review provides strong evidence that ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder] is associated with atopic diseases and that individuals have a 30% to 50% greater chance of developing ADHD compared to controls."So said the results of the systematic review and meta-analysis published by Jurjen van der Schans and colleagues [1] looking at the collected peer-reviewed science literature on how conditions such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis might increase t........ Read more »

  • February 7, 2017
  • 04:35 AM
  • 273 views

Psychiatric disorders among male juvenile detainees in South Korea

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Juvenile detainees evidence high rates of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities. Assessment of and intervention in psychiatric disorders, especially alcohol use disorder and comorbid alcohol use disorder with disruptive behavior disorders, may help prevent further offenses."So concluded Johanna Inhyang Kim and colleagues [1] (open-access) following their investigation into the prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric criteria in a sample of 173 male juvenile detainees aged between 15-19 years ol........ Read more »

  • February 6, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 229 views

Accepting the morally outrageous: Is this our new normal? 

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

Some interesting research is described in plain language over at the Vox website by Joshua Knobe (an academic from Yale). The article highlights a question we’ve been wondering about that may be important for all of us to consider over the next four years as we plan strategies for litigation. The question is this: Just […]... Read more »

Thomas F. Icard, Jonathan F. Kominsky, & Joshua Knobe. (2017) NORMALITY AND ACTUAL CAUSAL STRENGTH. Cognition. info:/

  • February 6, 2017
  • 04:41 AM
  • 252 views

Natural course of "chronic disabling fatigue" in adolescents

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"We use the term 'chronic disabling fatigue' (CDF) because CFS/ME [chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis] was not verified by clinical diagnosis."That was one of the important details included in the findings reported by Tom Norris and colleagues [1] (open-access) who "aimed to describe the epidemiology and natural course of CFS/ME in adolescents aged 13–18 years." Relying on data derived from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (so........ Read more »

Norris T, Collin SM, Tilling K, Nuevo R, Stansfeld SA, Sterne JA, Heron J, & Crawley E. (2017) Natural course of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in adolescents. Archives of disease in childhood. PMID: 28104625  

  • February 4, 2017
  • 04:27 AM
  • 286 views

ADHD, obesity and bariatric surgery?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"The findings suggest that a considerable number of patients before and after bariatric surgery screened positive for ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]. It can be hypothesized that some core ADHD symptoms improve after surgery."Bariatric surgery, where several surgical options are available to aid weight loss in those who present with 'dangerous' obesity, was the topic of the paper by Nielsen and colleagues [1] (open-access available here) who set out to compare "pre- and........ Read more »

  • February 3, 2017
  • 03:03 AM
  • 283 views

"Schizophrenia confers a high endogenous risk for diabetes"

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Schizophrenia confers a high endogenous risk for diabetes, and the risk is further increased by both first-generation and second-generation antipsychotics."So concluded Anto Rajkumar and colleagues [1] who relied on participant data in the thousands derived from several of those very helpful Scandinavian population registries (this time in Denmark) to add some further science to the idea that psychiatric diagnoses like schizophrenia seem to carry an elevated risk for all-manner of somatic ........ Read more »

  • February 2, 2017
  • 03:25 AM
  • 522 views

Hyperuricemia present in both medicated and unmedicated kids with autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I was intrigued to read the findings reported by Natchaya Vanwong and colleagues [1] talking about the presence of hyperuricemia - an excess of uric acid in the blood - in their cohort of children and young adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Intrigued not only because the authors discuss how the use of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone might *correlate* with elevations of uric acid but also how: "Hyperuricemia was present in 44.70% of risperidone-naïve patients w........ Read more »

  • February 1, 2017
  • 12:00 PM
  • 104 views

New volume of MANUSCRITO brings novel contributions to a wide variety of topics in philosophy

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective | Press Releases

MANUSCRITO (Vol. 39.1) brings some new original contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics and philosophical logic. It contains articles by specialists from Latin America and Europe on a variety of issues currently discussed in the literature, and represents a substantial contribution to the contemporary philosophical debate. … Read More →... Read more »

  • February 1, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 517 views

Simple Jury Persuasion: A psychology vaccine for climate  change disinformation

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

Disinformation is everywhere you turn these days, so we need good tools to debunk those “alternative facts”. Last year we wrote about a strategy to combat distrust of science by using the concept of the “gateway belief”. While that paper received criticism from a well-known law professor, over at the Cultural Cognition blog, the same […]... Read more »

van der Linden, S., Leiserowitz, A., Rosenthal, S., & Maibach, E. (2017) Inoculating the Public against Misinformation about Climate Change. Global Challenges, 1600008. DOI: 10.1002/gch2.201600008  

  • February 1, 2017
  • 03:21 AM
  • 523 views

Autism and a 'clear' reduction of behavioural severity in cases diagnosed

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"This study provides the first clear evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of individuals diagnosed with Autistic Disorder during a period of stability in diagnostic criteria."So said the study findings reported by Andrew Whitehouse and colleagues [1] (a man not afraid to make waves when it comes to thinking about autism or about approaches to intervention) looking at "whether there were changes over time in the qualitative and quantitative phenotype of individuals wh........ Read more »

Whitehouse AJ, Cooper MN, Bebbington K, Alvares G, Lin A, Wray J, & Glasson EJ. (2017) Evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of autistic disorder diagnoses. Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research. PMID: 28102641  

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