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  • May 22, 2017
  • 05:30 AM
  • 413 views

Should Athletic Trainers Add Anxiety Surveys to Preseason Baseline Testing?

by Jane McDevitt in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

An athlete with anxiety symptoms during preseason was more likely to get injured during a season than an athlete without symptoms.... Read more »

  • May 21, 2017
  • 11:50 AM
  • 337 views

Predictive Processing: the role of confidence and precision

by Sergio Graziosi in Writing my own user manual - Sergio Graziosi's Blog

This is the second post in a series inspired by Andy Clark’s book “Surfing Uncertainty“. In the previous post I’ve mentioned that an important concept in the Predictive Processing (PP) framework is the role of confidence. Confidence (in a prediction)…Read more ›... Read more »

Kanai R, Komura Y, Shipp S, & Friston K. (2015) Cerebral hierarchies: predictive processing, precision and the pulvinar. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 370(1668). PMID: 25823866  

  • May 21, 2017
  • 08:55 AM
  • 352 views

A Survey of Our Secret Lives

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

What kinds of secrets does the average person keep? In a new paper, Columbia University researchers Michael L. Slepian and colleagues carried out a survey of secrets.



Slepian et al. developed a 'Common Secrets Questionnaire' (CSQ) and gave it to 600 participants recruited anonymously online. Participants were asked whether they'd ever had various secrets, at any point in their lives. The results are a monument to all our sins:

It turns out that extra-relational thoughts - meaning "thou... Read more »

Slepian, M., Chun, J., & Mason, M. (2017) The Experience of Secrecy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/pspa0000085  

  • May 20, 2017
  • 07:12 AM
  • 403 views

Gastrin-releasing peptide and autism continued

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Yet another 'continued' or 'part 2' short post for you today, building on some previous - very preliminary research - talking about the use of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and autism (see here).The authors included on the paper by Josemar Marchezan and colleagues [1] are familiar ones to this part of the autism research landscape as per the other occasions that members of this group have looked at / talked about GRP and autism in the peer-reviewed domain.GRP is all about a compound that 'does........ Read more »

Marchezan, J., Becker, M., Schwartsmann, G., Ohlweiler, L., Roesler, R., Renck, L., Gonçalves, M., Ranzan, J., & Riesgo, R. (2017) A Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial of Gastrin-Releasing Peptide in Childhood Autism. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 1. DOI: 10.1097/WNF.0000000000000213  

  • May 19, 2017
  • 05:26 AM
  • 371 views

Injury risk and ADHD: part 2

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Consider this short post a sort of follow-on to a previous entry on this blog concerning the elevated risk of injury following a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The paper in question today is that by Wu-Chien Chien and colleagues [1] who yet again [2], brought the quite significant scientific weight of the "National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan" to bear on this topic.In this latest paper, Chien et al relied on data from a 'subset' of the main in........ Read more »

  • May 18, 2017
  • 05:40 AM
  • 391 views

On vaccinated and un-vaccinated homeschooled children: the disappearing-reappearing-disappearing-reappearing studies

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I originally began writing this post in the last week of November 2016 following first sight of the study abstract by Anthony Mawson and colleagues [1] and their journey into a topic that has had its fair share of discussion/argument* (*delete as appropriate) with autism in mind down the years: are vaccines or immunisation patterns potentially linked to [some] autism?As it happened, this post was shelved for some time because (a) only an abstract appeared despite a publication date accompan........ Read more »

Anthony R Mawson, Brian D Ray, Azad R Bhuiyan, & Binu Jacob. (2017) Pilot comparative study on the health of vaccinated and unvaccinated 6- to 12-year-old U.S. children. Journal of Translational Science. info:/10.15761/JTS.1000186

  • May 17, 2017
  • 08:02 AM
  • 322 views

Those who only kill children are neuro-psychologically different from other murderers

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

Of course it isn’t a surprise that they are gravely disturbed, but who knew it was neuropsychological?  This is an article from researchers at Northwestern University and looks very specifically at similarities and differences in the neuropsychological test scores of those who killed only children and those who killed some adults as well as children. […]... Read more »

Azores-Gococo, N., Brook, M., Teralandur, S., & Hanlon, R. (2017) Killing A Child. Criminal Justice and Behavior., 2147483647. DOI: 10.1177/0093854817699437  

  • May 17, 2017
  • 03:48 AM
  • 330 views

EEG abnormalities and "high functioning" autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I'm not a great fan of the term 'functioning' when it comes to autism (see here) hence the quote marks around high-functioning in the title of this post. Yes, I understand the message that it's trying to convey and that we don't have viable alternatives at the moment. It just however seems a little sweeping in terms of 'generalised' describing and labelling of people...No mind. Today I'd like to bring the paper by Özdem Ertürk Çetin and colleagues [1] to your attention and the observatio........ Read more »

  • May 16, 2017
  • 06:02 AM
  • 368 views

IMFAR, the autism numbers game and 12% showing 'optimal outcome'

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

A post recently published on the Spectrum website led to my blogging entry today, and the observation that: 'Alternative screen finds high autism prevalence in U.S. state'.Discussing results delivered at IMFAR 2017 the research in question was that presented by Laura Carpenter and colleagues [1] (someone with quite a track record in autism research). This was a conference presentation and seemingly not yet peer-reviewed publication, so one needs to be a little cautious about making big clai........ Read more »

Carpenter LA, Boan AD, Wahlquist AE, Cohen A, Charles J, Jenner W, & Bradley CC. (2016) Screening and direct assessment methodology to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders. Annals of epidemiology, 26(6), 395-400. PMID: 27230493  

  • May 15, 2017
  • 05:33 AM
  • 372 views

Intestinal dysbiosis, irritable bowel syndrome and ME/CFS

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I don't want to spend too much time talking about yet another paper from the research tag-team that is Hornig & Lipkin [1] (open-access) on the topic of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). But this latest addition to their research repertoire (see here) is deserving of several comments.Not least are the observations made by the authors - including one Brent Williams who some might remember from autism research history (see here) and Jose Montoya who has als........ Read more »

Nagy-Szakal D, Williams BL, Mishra N, Che X, Lee B, Bateman L, Klimas NG, Komaroff AL, Levine S, Montoya JG.... (2017) Fecal metagenomic profiles in subgroups of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. Microbiome, 5(1), 44. PMID: 28441964  

  • May 15, 2017
  • 01:29 AM
  • 190 views

Looking for Empathy in All the Wrong Places: Bizarre Cases of Factitious Disorder

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

art by Zdzisław Beksiński Factitious disorder is a rare psychiatric condition where an individual deliberately induces or fabricates an ailment because of a desire to fulfill the role of a sick person. This differs from garden variety malingering, where an individual feigns illness for secondary gain (drug seeking, financial gain, avoidance of work, etc.). The primary goal in factitious disorder is to garner attention and sympathy from caregivers and medical staff.The psychiatric handbook DSM-........ Read more »

Porter, T., & Feldman, M. (2011) A Case of Factitious Pedophilia. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56(5), 1380-1382. DOI: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01804.x  

Thompson CR, & Beckson M. (2004) A case of factitious homicidal ideation. The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 32(3), 277-81. PMID: 15515916  

  • May 13, 2017
  • 05:42 AM
  • 395 views

Welcoming zonulin into autism research

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I was VERY happy to read the paper published by Erman Esnafoglu and colleagues [1] suggesting that: "zonulin, which regulates intestinal permeability, plays a role in the development of symptoms of ASD [autism spectrum disorder]."Zonulin - something that "can be used as a biomarker of impaired gut barrier function for several autoimmune, neurodegenerative, and tumoral diseases" [2] - is a compound that I've been interested in for a while on this and other blogs (see here). The primary ........ Read more »

Esnafoglu, E., Cırrık, S., Ayyıldız, S., Erdil, A., Ertürk, E., Daglı, A., & Noyan, T. (2017) Increased Serum Zonulin Levels as an Intestinal Permeability Marker in Autistic Subjects. The Journal of Pediatrics. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.04.004  

  • May 12, 2017
  • 04:02 AM
  • 410 views

Physical exercise as a nootropic of choice

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Nootropic, defined as a 'smart drug' or cognitive enhancer, is generally taken to mean a substance/compound/medicine that has some positive effect(s) on aspects of cognition. I've talked about the possibility that various compounds might fit this bill on this blog (see here for example) but today I'm discussing another quite important potential nootropic: exercise.It was the paper by Joseph Michael Northery and colleagues [1] (open-access) that added exercise to the nootropic categoris........ Read more »

  • May 11, 2017
  • 04:08 AM
  • 401 views

Could an "ill-state" associated with anorexia nervosa mimic the symptoms of autism?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The question posed in the title of this post 'Could an "ill-state" associated with anorexia nervosa mimic the symptoms of autism?' stems from the findings reported by Heather Westwood and colleagues [1] (open-access).They continued a research theme looking at the potential 'overlap' when it comes to autism and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN) (see here). Notably, researchers questioned whether the finding that some 50% of their cohort "scored above the clinical cut-off on the ........ Read more »

  • May 10, 2017
  • 05:30 AM
  • 363 views

Eating Disorders Persist Over Entire Season

by Nicole Cattano in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Female athletes with an eating disorder will most likely continue to have the eating disorder throughout their competitive season.... Read more »

  • May 10, 2017
  • 03:35 AM
  • 400 views

Conviction for violence and autism: comorbidity counts

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I tread carefully when discussing the results published by Ragini Heeramun and colleagues [1] on the topic of "whether autism is associated with convictions for violent crimes" and "the associated risk and protective factors." Carefully because, as I've indicated on other occasions (see here), people commit crimes not labels, and sweeping generalisations about labels, specific types of crime and/or the concept of 'dangerousness' tend to do very little to help anyone in the long term.St........ Read more »

Heeramun, R., Magnusson, C., Gumpert, C., Granath, S., Lundberg, M., Dalman, C., & Rai, D. (2017) Autism and Convictions for Violent Crimes: Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden. Journal of the American Academy of Child . DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2017.03.011  

  • May 9, 2017
  • 05:24 AM
  • 329 views

"Medical Conditions in the First Years of Life Associated with Future Diagnosis of ASD"

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I rank the paper by Stacey Alexeeff and colleagues [1] (open-access available here) as being in the 'pretty important' category when it comes to hierarchy in autism research. Not only because of their use of data derived from Kaiser Permanente (KP) (quite a large US healthcare provider that has some autism research history) including some "3911 ASD [autism spectrum disorder] cases and 38,609 controls" but also because some of the findings reiterate what is already 'known' abo........ Read more »

Alexeeff SE, Yau V, Qian Y, Davignon M, Lynch F, Crawford P, Davis R, & Croen LA. (2017) Medical Conditions in the First Years of Life Associated with Future Diagnosis of ASD in Children. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. PMID: 28434058  

  • May 8, 2017
  • 04:04 AM
  • 289 views

Vitamin D genes and autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Vitamin D deficiency is a putative environmental risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)."And..."We provide straightforward genetic evidences for the first time that VDRGs [vitamin D-related genes] with a strong degree of DNM [de novo mutations] burden in ASD and DNMs of VDRGs could be involved in the mechanism underlying in ASD pathogenesis."That was the research bottom line reported on by Jinchen Li and colleagues [1] examining an important part of the whole 'vitami........ Read more »

Li J, Wang L, Yu P, Shi L, Zhang K, Sun ZS, & Xia K. (2017) Vitamin D-related genes are subjected to significant de novo mutation burdens in autism spectrum disorder. American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. PMID: 28407358  

  • May 6, 2017
  • 02:04 PM
  • 407 views

Partisan Review: “Surfing Uncertainty”, by Andy Clark.

by Sergio Graziosi in Writing my own user manual - Sergio Graziosi's Blog

Sometimes it happens that reading a book ignites a seemingly unstoppable whirlpool of ideas. The book in question is “Surfing Uncertainty: Prediction, Action, and the Embodied Mind” by Andy Clark. Why is this a partisan review? Because Clark himself had…Read more ›... Read more »

  • May 6, 2017
  • 06:03 AM
  • 307 views

Congenital heart disease and autism and ADHD: Taiwan wades in

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"The incidence rates of perinatal comorbidities, EDD [early developmental disorders], ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder], and ASD [autism spectrum disorder] were higher in the CHD [congenital heart disease] group than in the control group."So said the findings reported by Pei-Chen Tsao and colleagues [1] investigating an issue that has cropped up more than once on this blog in relation to the developmental/behavioural correlates possibly associated with........ Read more »

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