Translating the information encoded in mRNAs into proteins is one of the most basic processes in biology. The mechanism requires a machinery (i.e. ribosomes) and components (mRNA template, charged tRNAs, regulatory factors, energy) that are shared by all organisms on … Continue reading →... Read more »
Yan X, Hoek TA, Vale RD, & Tanenbaum ME. (2016) Dynamics of Translation of Single mRNA Molecules In Vivo. Cell, 165(4), 976-89. PMID: 27153498
Wang C, Han B, Zhou R, & Zhuang X. (2016) Real-Time Imaging of Translation on Single mRNA Transcripts in Live Cells. Cell, 165(4), 990-1001. PMID: 27153499
Morisaki, T., Lyon, K., DeLuca, K., DeLuca, J., English, B., Zhang, Z., Lavis, L., Grimm, J., Viswanathan, S., Looger, L.... (2016) Real-time quantification of single RNA translation dynamics in living cells. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0899
Wu, B., Eliscovich, C., Yoon, Y., & Singer, R. (2016) Translation dynamics of single mRNAs in live cells and neurons. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1084
"Cow's milk protein intolerance is a common problem in young people with chronic fatigue syndrome, and is a treatable contributor to their symptoms."So said the paper by Peter Rowe and colleagues  who looked prospectively for signs of cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI) in "55 adolescents and young adults with chronic fatigue syndrome" over the course of 2 years. Defining CMPI using 4 factors: "(1) no evidence of immediate or anaphylactic reactions to milk, (2) at least 2 of the following 3........ Read more »
Rowe, P., Marden, C., Jasion, S., Cranston, E., Flaherty, M., & Kelly, K. (2016) Cow's Milk Protein Intolerance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Acta Paediatrica. DOI: 10.1111/apa.13476
Neuroamanda explains a recent study that showed how top-down signals during NREM sleep affect memory consolidation in mice.... Read more »
Miyamoto, D., Hirai, D., Fung, C., Inutsuka, A., Odagawa, M., Suzuki, T., Boehringer, R., Adaikkan, C., Matsubara, C., Matsuki, N.... (2016) Top-down cortical input during NREM sleep consolidates perceptual memory. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0902
Countries that implement government-mandated vaccinations for chickenpox see a sharp drop in the number of Google searches for the common childhood disease afterward, demonstrating that immunization significantly reduces seasonal outbreaks. That's one of the findings from a new study that analyzed thousands of Google searches for "chickenpox."
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Bakker, K. M.,, Martinez-Bakker, M., Helm, B., & Stevenson, T. J. (2016) Digital epidemiology reveals global childhood disease seasonality and the effects of immunization . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. info:/
Upon the induction of DNA damage, complex signaling pathways are activated that regulate the ability of cells to detect and repair the damage since both single and double strand DNA damage pose significant risk to cell survival and transmission of unrepaired DNA damage to progeny is associated not only with aging and cancer but also with neurodegenerative diseases. During the DNA damage response (DDR) ds and ss DNA breaks are recognised by ATM, ATR and DNA-PK kinases, which in turn activate sign........ Read more »
Kang TH, Park DY, Kim W, & Kim KT. (2008) VRK1 phosphorylates CREB and mediates CCND1 expression. Journal of cell science, 121(Pt 18), 3035-41. PMID: 18713830
Lopez-Sanchez, I., Sanz-Garcia, M., & Lazo, P. (2008) Plk3 Interacts with and Specifically Phosphorylates VRK1 in Ser342, a Downstream Target in a Pathway That Induces Golgi Fragmentation. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 29(5), 1189-1201. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.01341-08
Gonzaga-Jauregui C, Lotze T, Jamal L, Penney S, Campbell IM, Pehlivan D, Hunter JV, Woodbury SL, Raymond G, Adesina AM.... (2013) Mutations in VRK1 associated with complex motor and sensory axonal neuropathy plus microcephaly. JAMA neurology, 70(12), 1491-8. PMID: 24126608
Kang TH, Park DY, Choi YH, Kim KJ, Yoon HS, & Kim KT. (2007) Mitotic histone H3 phosphorylation by vaccinia-related kinase 1 in mammalian cells. Molecular and cellular biology, 27(24), 8533-46. PMID: 17938195
Salzano M, Sanz-García M, Monsalve DM, Moura DS, & Lazo PA. (2015) VRK1 chromatin kinase phosphorylates H2AX and is required for foci formation induced by DNA damage. Epigenetics, 10(5), 373-83. PMID: 25923214
Datan E, Roy SG, Germain G, Zali N, McLean JE, Golshan G, Harbajan S, Lockshin RA, & Zakeri Z. (2016) Dengue-induced autophagy, virus replication and protection from cell death require ER stress (PERK) pathway activation. Cell death . PMID: 26938301
Metz P, Chiramel A, Chatel-Chaix L, Alvisi G, Bankhead P, Mora-Rodriguez R, Long G, Hamacher-Brady A, Brady NR, & Bartenschlager R. (2015) Dengue Virus Inhibition of Autophagic Flux and Dependency of Viral Replication on Proteasomal Degradation of the Autophagy Receptor p62. Journal of virology, 89(15), 8026-41. PMID: 26018155
Joo, J., Wang, B., Frankel, E., Ge, L., Xu, L., Iyengar, R., Li-Harms, X., Wright, C., Shaw, T., Lindsten, T.... (2016) The Noncanonical Role of ULK/ATG1 in ER-to-Golgi Trafficking Is Essential for Cellular Homeostasis. Molecular Cell, 62(4), 491-506. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2016.04.020
Eastern chimpanzees don't want to be judged. Image by Ikiwaner at Wikimedia.com.Whether they have one true love for life, multiple partners, or are free-loving, animals have many different mating systems. We have different scientific terms for these different mating systems, and most of these terms have very specific meanings. An animal is socially monogamous when it has one exclusive mating relationship, but maybe has sex with others outside of that relationship. It is sexually monogamous when ........ Read more »
Bacteria tend to smell. A classic example is the geosmin-producing Streptomyces species responsible for the nice earthy scent of freshly dug up soil. In general, though, bacteria have unpleasant odours. Just think of cheese, armpits, and poop. Lots of bacteria in or on all of those things. Some of the stinkiest bacteria are ones capable of infecting us. The distinctiveness of their disgusting bouquets may provide a means of identifying them. Hippocrates apparently diagnosed tuberculosis (caused ........ Read more »
Rao K, Berland D, Young C, Walk ST, & Newton DW. (2013) The nose knows not: Poor predictive value of stool sample odor for detection of Clostridium difficile. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 56(4), 615-616. PMID: 23166192
"This study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to organic pollutants may play a significant role in the behavioral presentation of autism."Accepting that correlation is not the same as causation, the results published by Andrew Boggess and colleagues  (open-access here) make for some blogging fodder today and the idea that serum levels of various compounds headed under the description of organic pollutants (persistent or otherwise) might show some important connecti........ Read more »
Boggess A, Faber S, Kern J, & Kingston HM. (2016) Mean serum-level of common organic pollutants is predictive of behavioral severity in children with autism spectrum disorders. Scientific reports, 26185. PMID: 27174041
A team of scientists have shown that the brains of patients with schizophrenia have the capacity to reorganize and fight the illness. This is the first time that imaging data has been used to show that our brains may have the ability to reverse the effects of schizophrenia.
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Guo, S., Palaniyappan, L., Liddle, P., & Feng, J. (2016) Dynamic cerebral reorganization in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia: a MRI-derived cortical thickness study. Psychological Medicine, 1-14. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291716000994
It's another research mash-up today as I bring to your attention two papers talking about potential correlates associated with psychosis and/or psychotic symptoms.First up are the findings reported by Joanne Newbury and colleagues  (open-access here) who observed that urban residency and certain factors associated with urban residency might link into a higher risk of childhood psychotic symptoms. A second paper by Tomasz Pawełczyk and colleagues  provides some further food for thought and........ Read more »
Pawełczyk, T., Trafalska, E., Kotlicka-Antczak, M., & Pawełczyk, A. (2016) The association between polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption and the transition to psychosis in ultra-high risk individuals. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA), 30-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.plefa.2016.03.010
Newbury J, Arseneault L, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Odgers CL, & Fisher HL. (2016) Why are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study. Schizophrenia bulletin. PMID: 27153864
Not all habits are bad. Some are even necessary. It's a good thing, for example, that we can find our way home on "autopilot" or wash our hands without having to ponder every step. But inability to switch from acting habitually to acting in a deliberate way can underlie addiction and obsessive compulsive disorders.
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Christina M. Gremel,, Jessica H. Chancey,, Brady K. Atwood,, Guoxiang Luo,, Rachael Neve,, Charu Ramakrishnan,, Karl Deisseroth,, David M. Lovinger, & Rui M. Costa. (2016) Endocannabinoid Modulation of Orbitostriatal Circuits Gates Habit Formation. Neuron. info:/10.1016/j.neuron.2016.04.043
Dynamic positioning of lysosomes in the cytoplasm plays an important role in their function and is, in part, regulated by cellular nutrient status. The FLCN/FNIP complex is known to be active on the lysosome surface, where it interacts with Rag GTPases, supports the nutrient‐dependent recruitment and activation of mTORC1, and regulates the localisation of lysosome associated transcription factors (Petit et al., 2013; Tsun et al., 2013). New research from Starling et al. (2016) now shows that f........ Read more »
Starling GP, Yip YY, Sanger A, Morton PE, Eden ER, & Dodding MP. (2016) Folliculin directs the formation of a Rab34-RILP complex to control the nutrient-dependent dynamic distribution of lysosomes. EMBO reports. PMID: 27113757
I know that I'm probably starting to sound like a broken record on the topic of wandering (elopement) and autism on this blog (see here and see here and see here) but I am yet again going to briefly talk about peer-reviewed research in this area simply because it's just too damned important not to.This time around the results from Catherine Rice and colleagues  are the source of my musings and the conclusion that: "wandering among children with ASD [autism spectrum disorder], regard........ Read more »
Rice, C., Zablotsky, B., Avila, R., Colpe, L., Schieve, L., Pringle, B., & Blumberg, S. (2016) Reported Wandering Behavior among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Intellectual Disability. The Journal of Pediatrics. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.03.047
I discuss how global warming may affect the reproductive success of male lions.... Read more »
West PM, & Packer C. (2002) Sexual selection, temperature, and the lion's mane. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5585), 1339-43. PMID: 12193785
by Piter Kehoma Boll Males and females are defined by their gametes. Males have tiny, usually mobile gametes, while females have very large gametes that usually do not move. This means that females produce less gametes, but put a lot … Continue reading →... Read more »
Córdoba-Aguilar, A., Vrech, D., Rivas, M., Nava-Bolaños, A., González-Tokman, D., & González-Soriano, E. (2014) Allometry of Male Grasping Apparatus in Odonates Does Not Suggest Physical Coercion of Females. Journal of Insect Behavior, 28(1), 15-25. DOI: 10.1007/s10905-014-9477-x
If you feel brave enough, today I will direct your reading attention to the paper by Michael Williams and colleagues  detailing the application of a particularly important genome editing technique called CRISPR-Cas9  to autism-related science.Titled: "A Retroviral CRISPR-Cas9 System for Cellular Autism-Associated Phenotype Discovery in Developing Neurons" the Williams paper probably won't win any awards for plain English but don't be fooled about just how important this pape........ Read more »
Williams MR, Fricano-Kugler CJ, Getz SA, Skelton PD, Lee J, Rizzuto CP, Geller JS, Li M, & Luikart BW. (2016) A Retroviral CRISPR-Cas9 System for Cellular Autism-Associated Phenotype Discovery in Developing Neurons. Scientific reports, 25611. PMID: 27161796
The fight against aging Ever since the ancient Sumerians, men has sought eternal life. We still do. Anti-aging science has become quite an industry. As we dive deeper and deeper into our biological foundations, we’re learning more and more about how and why we age. A lot of mysteries remain, but there’s still talk about […]... Read more »
There are many tools at NCBI, with a huge range of functions. Literature, sequence data, variations, protein structure, chemicals and bioassays, and more. It’s hard to keep track of what’s available. Their video tutorials are helping me to be aware of new tools, and new features within existing tools. For this week’s Tip of the […]... Read more »
Kapustin, Y., Souvorov, A., Tatusova, T., & Lipman, D. (2008) Splign: algorithms for computing spliced alignments with identification of paralogs. Biology Direct, 3(1), 20. DOI: 10.1186/1745-6150-3-20
NCBI staff. (2016) Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Nucleic Acids Research, 44(D1). DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkv1290
Just like some people have a tendency to go overboard, so do some immune systems. Here’s all the ways that your immune system can get it wrong and leave you with allergies – and how some allergies can save your life.... Read more »
Calboli FC, Cox DG, Buring JE, Gaziano JM, Ma J, Stampfer M, Willett WC, Tworoger SS, Hunter DJ, Camargo CA Jr, Michaud DS. (2011) Prediagnostic plasma IgE levels and risk of adult glioma in four prospective cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. . DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djr361
Joseph A Jackson, Ida M Friberg, Luke Bolch, Ann Lowe, Catriona Ralli, Philip D Harris, Jerzy M Behnke, Janette E Bradley. (2009) Immunomodulatory parasites and toll-like receptor-mediated tumour necrosis factor alpha responsiveness in wild mammals. BMC Biology. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-7-16
Some behaviours associated with a diagnosis of autism don't make for great dinner table discussion. Self-injurious behaviours (SIBs), as exemplified by head banging, hair pulling and eye gouging must rank as some of the more distressing facets of [some] autism insofar as their potential effect on the person and also the people around them.These and other types of behaviour commonly headed under the category of so-called 'challenging behaviours' have tended not to be too evident when it come........ Read more »
Richards, C., Moss, J., Nelson, L., & Oliver, C. (2016) Persistence of self-injurious behaviour in autism spectrum disorder over 3 years: a prospective cohort study of risk markers. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 8(1). DOI: 10.1186/s11689-016-9153-x
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