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  • September 16, 2014
  • 02:50 AM
  • 16 views

The schizophrenias (plural)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

A micropost if you will, to draw your attention to the paper by Javier Arnedo and colleagues [1] mentioning the concept of 'the schizophrenias' (plural). Some media coverage of this paper can be found here and here. The crux of the paper is that although currently unified by a diagnostic label, schizophrenia seems to be comprised of various conditions: "caused by a moderate number of separate genotypic networks associated with several distinct clinical syndromes"."... dogs and cats living t........ Read more »

Javier Arnedo, Dragan M. Svrakic, Coral del Val, Rocío Romero-Zaliz, Helena Hernández-Cuervo, Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia Consortium, Ayman H. Fanous, Michele T. Pato, Carlos N. Pato, Gabriel A. de Erausquin.... (2014) Uncovering the Hidden Risk Architecture of the Schizophrenias: Confirmation in Three Independent Genome-Wide Association Studies. The American Journal of Psychiatry. info:/doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14040435

  • September 15, 2014
  • 03:45 PM
  • 31 views

SARS-CoV Nucleocapsid protein and Mitochondria: a personal story

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

The SARS-CoV N protein has been reported to induce Mitochondria dependent apoptosis is some cell lines. Here results are reported from a study from 2004 which was never published, suggesting that SARS-CoV might induce mitochondrial fusion rather than fission. ... Read more »

Moshynskyy I, Viswanathan S, Vasilenko N, Lobanov V, Petric M, Babiuk LA, & Zakhartchouk AN. (2007) Intracellular localization of the SARS coronavirus protein 9b: evidence of active export from the nucleus. Virus research, 127(1), 116-21. PMID: 17448558  

Zhang L, Wei L, Jiang D, Wang J, Cong X, & Fei R. (2007) SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein induced apoptosis of COS-1 mediated by the mitochondrial pathway. Artificial cells, blood substitutes, and immobilization biotechnology, 35(2), 237-53. PMID: 17453707  

Wlodkowic D, Skommer J, & Darzynkiewicz Z. (2012) Cytometry of apoptosis. Historical perspective and new advances. Experimental oncology, 34(3), 255-62. PMID: 23070010  

  • September 15, 2014
  • 12:58 PM
  • 42 views

The Genetic Roots of Schizophrenia

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

I have a friend who lost an eye — not in a war zone like you might suspect given my background — but to his brother. Yes, you read that correctly, his brother tried to kill him and in the process he lost his eye. I’ve told this story before, but whenever new schizophrenia research comes out I feel the need to tell it again. While he has forgiven his brother (partly because not long after, he was diagnosed as schizophrenic), he will not be able to see him again until he is released from pri........ Read more »

avier Arnedo, M.S.; Dragan M. Svrakic, M.D., Ph.D.; Coral del Val, Ph.D.; Rocío Romero-Zaliz, Ph.D.; Helena Hernández-Cuervo, M.D.; Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia Consortium; Ayman H. Fanous, M.D.; Michele T. Pato, M.D.; Carlos N. Pato, M.D., Ph.D. (2014) Uncovering the Hidden Risk Architecture of the Schizophrenias: Confirmation in Three Independent Genome-Wide Association Studies. The American Journal of Psychiatry. info:/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14040435

  • September 15, 2014
  • 12:06 PM
  • 23 views

Poop Transplants Let Pack Rats Eat Poison

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish

Can’t eat poison without dying? Maybe your gut microbes are to blame. Rodents in the Mojave Desert have evolved to eat toxic creosote bushes with the help of specialized gut bacteria. Although scientists had long suspected that bacteria might be key to the rats’ power, they proved it by feeding the rodents antibiotics and ground-up […]The post Poop Transplants Let Pack Rats Eat Poison appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »

Kohl KD, Weiss RB, Cox J, Dale C, & Denise Dearing M. (2014) Gut microbes of mammalian herbivores facilitate intake of plant toxins. Ecology letters, 17(10), 1238-46. PMID: 25040855  

  • September 15, 2014
  • 08:00 AM
  • 35 views

Sweating Is The Pits

by Mark E. Lasbury in The 'Scope

New research is delving into the possible negative aspects of antiperspirants and deodorants. A 2014 study indicates that bacterial fauna is altered by the use of antiperspirants and can lead to overgrowth of bacteria that actually produce more foul smelling chemicals. On a more important note, research is showing that aluminum from antiperspirants may contribute to breast cancer growth, including promotion of estrogen hormone production, altered iron metabolism, and increased oxygen radical for........ Read more »

Callewaert C, Hutapea P, Van de Wiele T, & Boon N. (2014) Deodorants and antiperspirants affect the axillary bacterial community. Archives of dermatological research. PMID: 25077920  

  • September 15, 2014
  • 05:57 AM
  • 4 views

Turritopsis Dohrnii - Is It Really Immortal?

by beredim in Strange Animals

The "Immortal" JellyfishCredit: Peter Schuchert/The Hydrozoa DirectoryKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: CnidariaClass: HydrozoaOrder: AnthoathecataFamily: OceaniidaeGenus: TurritopsisSpecies: Turritopsis dohrnii (formerly classified as T. nutricula.)Common Name: The immortal jellyfishMost of the animals featured on the site are chosen based on their unusual looks. However, this not the case with Turritopsis dohrnii, which seemingly has no notable morphological characteristics. On the outside, i........ Read more »

  • September 15, 2014
  • 04:47 AM
  • 35 views

Zinc and copper and autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The paper by Li and colleagues [1] looking at serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels in a group of participants diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the source material for today's post. Highlighting how "mean serum Zn levels and Zn/Cu ratio were significantly lower in children with ASD compared with normal cases... whereas serum Cu levels were significantly higher" the continued focus on the metallome in autism carries on at a pace. I should at this point out that I'm not in........ Read more »

  • September 14, 2014
  • 02:24 PM
  • 47 views

Biospleen Helps Clean Blood to Prevent Sepsis

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

When a patient has sepsis Things can go downhill fast. A life-threatening condition in which bacteria or fungi multiply in a patient's blood -- sepsis is often too fast for antibiotics to help. But that's all about to change with the introduction of a new device -- inspired by the human spleen -- that may radically transform the way doctors treat sepsis.... Read more »

Kang JH, Super M, Yung CW, Cooper RM, Domansky K, Graveline AR, Mammoto T, Berthet JB, Tobin H, Cartwright MJ.... (2014) An extracorporeal blood-cleansing device for sepsis therapy. Nature medicine. PMID: 25216635  

  • September 14, 2014
  • 01:00 AM
  • 30 views

Telepathy is Almost Here

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

Telepathy is under works; it's just super clunky right now. Non-invasive technology enables brain-to-brain communication by converting words into binary and from binary into pulses of light and back.... Read more »

Grau C, Ginhoux R, Riera A, Nguyen TL, Chauvat H, Berg M, Amengual JL, Pascual-Leone A, & Ruffini G. (2014) Conscious Brain-to-Brain Communication in Humans Using Non-Invasive Technologies. PloS one, 9(8). PMID: 25137064  

  • September 13, 2014
  • 01:13 PM
  • 59 views

Need a Kidney? Lab Grown Kidneys Coming Soon!

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Stem cells offered the promise of having a patents own organ grown to replace a failing or damaged one. Unfortunately the road to that future has been paved with seemingly insurmountable challenges. Thankfully now we are one step closer, researchers have addressed a major challenge in the quest to build replacement kidneys in the lab. Working with human-sized pig kidneys, the scientists developed the most successful method to date to keep blood vessels in the new organs open and flowing with blo........ Read more »

In Kap Ko,, Mehran Abolbashari,, Jennifer Huling,, Cheil Kim,, Sayed-Hadi Mirmalek-Sani,, Mahmoudreza Moradi,, Giuseppe Orlando,, John D. Jackson,, Tamer Aboushwareb,, Shay Soker,.... (2014) Enhanced re-endothelialization of acellular kidney scaffolds for whole organ engineering via antibody conjugation of vasculatures. Technology . info:/10.1142/S2339547814500228

  • September 12, 2014
  • 03:44 PM
  • 63 views

Inflammation of the Brain and Memory Problems

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Neurological disorders typically involve memory issues. Most of the problems are attributed to plaques that build up in the brain (which are typically prions), yet some causes are unknown. New research however sheds some light on at least one cause of memory problems. As it turns out brain inflammation can rapidly disrupt our ability to retrieve complex memories of similar but distinct experiences.... Read more »

  • September 12, 2014
  • 11:47 AM
  • 57 views

Insulin, growth hormone and risk of schizophrenia?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Overall, the present findings suggest that metabolic and hormonal disturbances such as effects on insulin and growth hormone may represent a vulnerability factor to develop mental disorders". That was the conclusion reported by van Beveren and colleagues [1] (open-access) looking at "disruption of insulin and growth factor signaling pathways as an increased risk factor for schizophrenia"."Years ago you served my father in the Clone Wars"Drawing on data derived from participants taking part in&n........ Read more »

  • September 12, 2014
  • 09:15 AM
  • 58 views

The Friday Five for 09/12/2014

by Bill Sullivan in The 'Scope

Get caught up quick on the hottest science news from this week!... Read more »

Denoeud, F., Carretero-Paulet, L., Dereeper, A., Droc, G., Guyot, R., Pietrella, M., Zheng, C., Alberti, A., Anthony, F., Aprea, G.... (2014) The coffee genome provides insight into the convergent evolution of caffeine biosynthesis. Science, 345(6201), 1181-1184. DOI: 10.1126/science.1255274  

  • September 12, 2014
  • 04:38 AM
  • 58 views

Survivorship is an increasingly important component of cancer care

by Lizzie Perdeaux in BHD Research Blog

A cancer survivor is defined as anyone who is living with cancer, or whose cancer has gone into remission. Traditionally cancer care has concentrated on diagnosing and treating the disease, and comparatively little support has been given to patients once … Continue reading →... Read more »

  • September 11, 2014
  • 03:28 PM
  • 69 views

September 11, 2014

by Erin Campbell in HighMag Blog

As your therapist likely tells you, understanding where you came from is key to accepting where you are now. Take that therapist’s task and multiply it by several million—you now understand the tough job ahead of developmental biologists trying to track cell lineages in complex organisms. Today’s colorful image is from a paper describing a new computational framework for reconstructing cell lineages. The successful tracking of cell position, division, and movement in a developing or........ Read more »

Amat, F., Lemon, W., Mossing, D., McDole, K., Wan, Y., Branson, K., Myers, E., & Keller, P. (2014) Fast, accurate reconstruction of cell lineages from large-scale fluorescence microscopy data. Nature Methods, 11(9), 951-958. DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.3036  

  • September 11, 2014
  • 02:58 PM
  • 71 views

SARS-CoV: formation of the RTC and mitophagy; role of p6 and orf9b

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

Whilst the nature of the RTC and the role of the CoV non-structural proteins as well the potential role of these proteins in the ER stress response have been discussed in detail before, the role of p6 has been not been discussed. p6 not only induces the formation of membranous vesicles but also recruits nsp-8 to nsp-5, the main viral RNA Polymerase, and induces a ER stress response.
Also the role of SARS-orf9b in the induction of mitophagy is discussed.... Read more »

Otera H, Ishihara N, & Mihara K. (2013) New insights into the function and regulation of mitochondrial fission. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1833(5), 1256-68. PMID: 23434681  

Kumar P, Gunalan V, Liu B, Chow VT, Druce J, Birch C, Catton M, Fielding BC, Tan YJ, & Lal SK. (2007) The nonstructural protein 8 (nsp8) of the SARS coronavirus interacts with its ORF6 accessory protein. Virology, 366(2), 293-303. PMID: 17532020  

Cruz JL, Sola I, Becares M, Alberca B, Plana J, Enjuanes L, & Zuñiga S. (2011) Coronavirus gene 7 counteracts host defenses and modulates virus virulence. PLoS pathogens, 7(6). PMID: 21695242  

Subissi L, Posthuma CC, Collet A, Zevenhoven-Dobbe JC, Gorbalenya AE, Decroly E, Snijder EJ, Canard B, & Imbert I. (2014) One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 25197083  

Moshynskyy I, Viswanathan S, Vasilenko N, Lobanov V, Petric M, Babiuk LA, & Zakhartchouk AN. (2007) Intracellular localization of the SARS coronavirus protein 9b: evidence of active export from the nucleus. Virus research, 127(1), 116-21. PMID: 17448558  

  • September 11, 2014
  • 12:45 PM
  • 82 views

The Origami Brain and a new marker for Schizophrenia

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Anyone who has seen pictures or models of the human brain (like the one above) is aware that the outside layer, or cortex, of the brain is folded in an intricate pattern of “hills”, called gyri, and “valleys”, called sulci which give the brain it’s distinctive look. It turns out that the patterns of cortical folding are largely consistent across healthy humans, broadly speaking. However, disturbances in cortical folding patterns suggest deeper disturbances in brain structure and functi........ Read more »

Nanda P, Tandon N, Mathew IT, Giakoumatos CI, Abhishekh HA, Clementz BA, Pearlson GD, Sweeney J, Tamminga CA, & Keshavan MS. (2014) Local gyrification index in probands with psychotic disorders and their first-degree relatives. Biological psychiatry, 76(6), 447-55. PMID: 24369266  

  • September 11, 2014
  • 09:55 AM
  • 87 views

Treating autism in the first year of life

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I had been waiting y'know. Waiting a while for the paper by Sally Rogers and colleagues [1] to finally appear quite a few days after the media headlines about 'reducing', 'reversing' and even 'eliminating' the signs and symptoms of autism in early infancy had appeared. Personally, I prefer the New Scientist headline: 'Early autism intervention speeds infant development' given the text of the paper. I should perhaps also add the words 'for some' to that sentence as you will hopefully see...I........ Read more »

S. J. Rogers, L. Vismara, A. L. Wagner, C. McCormick, G. Young, & S. Ozonoff. (2014) Autism Treatment in the First Year of Life: A Pilot Study of Infant Start, a Parent-Implemented Intervention for Symptomatic Infants. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. info:/10.1007/s10803-014-2202-y

  • September 11, 2014
  • 09:52 AM
  • 75 views

Stop Worrying, Good-Looking Dudes: Your Sperm Is Fine

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish

You may have seen headlines over the past week proclaiming that handsome men have lower-quality sperm. If this made you panic because you happen to be a great-looking guy, you can stop. (If you’re an un-handsome man who’s been gloating—sorry.) This scientific study did say a few interesting things about Spaniards, Colombians, and cheekbones. But […]The post Stop Worrying, Good-Looking Dudes: Your Sperm Is Fine appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »

Soler C, Kekäläinen J, Núñez M, Sancho M, Alvarez JG, Núñez J, Yaber I, & Gutiérrez R. (2014) Male facial attractiveness and masculinity may provide sex- and culture-independent cues to semen quality. Journal of evolutionary biology, 27(9), 1930-8. PMID: 25056484  

  • September 11, 2014
  • 04:42 AM
  • 73 views

Omega-3 fatty acids rescues Fragile X phenotypes in Fmr1-Ko mice

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"These results demonstrate that n-3 PUFAs dietary supplementation, although not a panacea, has a considerable therapeutic value for FXS [Fragile X syndrome] and potentially for ASD [autism spectrum disorder], suggesting a major mediating role of neuroinflammatory mechanisms".A view @ Wikipedia That was the conclusion reached by Susanna Pietropaolo and colleagues [1] who "evaluated the impact of n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome ........ Read more »

Pietropaolo S, Goubran MG, Joffre C, Aubert A, Lemaire-Mayo V, Crusio WE, & Layé S. (2014) Dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids rescues fragile X phenotypes in Fmr1-Ko mice. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 119-129. PMID: 25080404  

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