Chronic primary insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by delayed sleep onset, reduced total sleep duration and fatigue on morning awakening.In addition, by definition chronic primary insomnia cannot be due to a primary medical or psychiatric disorder. Some patients with chronic primary insomnia also demonstrate subjective and objective impairment in concentration and memory.Eun Yeon Joo and colleagues from South Korea recently published an analysis of brain structural features in 27 su........ Read more »
Joo EY, Noh HJ, Kim JS, Koo DL, Kim D, Hwang KJ, Kim JY, Kim ST, Kim MR, & Hong SB. (2013) Brain Gray Matter Deficits in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia. Sleep, 36(7), 999-1007. PMID: 23814336
Obesity is (no longer) a problem restrained to wealthy nations. Not a single developing nations has managed to eradicate hunger without shifting to problems of obesity. Hunger may, funny enough, even be one of the factors contributing to obesity.... Read more »
Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, de Onis M, Ezzati M, Grantham-McGregor S, Katz J, Martorell R.... (2013) Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet, 382(9890), 427-51. PMID: 23746772
The paper by Phillips and colleagues  looking at the prevalence of 'unhealthy weight' in relation to developmentally-defined conditions including autism brought me to writing this update post on the topic of obesity and autism. As you might glean from that previous sentence, obesity and over-weightness(?) has been talked about before on this blog (see here and see here for example). My recent discussion in relation to findings of elevated plasma leptin in cases of autism (see here) ........ Read more »
Phillips KL, Schieve LA, Visser S, Boulet S, Sharma AJ, Kogan MD, Boyle CA, & Yeargin-Allsopp M. (2014) Prevalence and Impact of Unhealthy Weight in a National Sample of US Adolescents with Autism and Other Learning and Behavioral Disabilities. Matern Child Health J. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-014-1442-y
Blastocystis is a parasite. But what makes a parasite, and are all parasites 'bad'?... Read more »
Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Blackwelder WC, Nasrin D, Farag TH, Panchalingam S, Wu Y, Sow SO, Sur D, Breiman RF.... (2013) Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study. Lancet, 382(9888), 209-22. PMID: 23680352
Veira DM. (1986) The role of ciliate protozoa in nutrition of the ruminant. Journal of animal science, 63(5), 1547-60. PMID: 3098727
Another case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was confirmed in the Middle East on 12th March: a 68 years old man fell ill in the UAE on 1st March, was hospitalised on 3rd March and is now recovering. He had no contact with any known case but he does own a farm where he has contact with animals, including camels. The other two latest cases occurred in late February in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV causes severe acute respiratory illness. The first case was a Saudi national. Th........ Read more »
Tarnjit Khera. (2014) New virus (MERS-CoV) cases increasing. Scitkk.wrodpress.com. info:other/
So: "After controlling for ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic factors, the strongest predictor of ASD [autism spectrum disorders] was the rate of male congenital malformations of the reproductive system, used as an approximate measurement for exposure to teratogens, based on extensive epidemiological evidence".That was one of the conclusions reached by the study by Andrey Rzhetsky and colleagues  (open-access) which looked at spatial incidence patterns of autism and........ Read more »
Rzhetsky, A., Bagley, S., Wang, K., Lyttle, C., Cook, E., Altman, R., & Gibbons, R. (2014) Environmental and State-Level Regulatory Factors Affect the Incidence of Autism and Intellectual Disability. PLoS Computational Biology, 10(3). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003518
Gaining weight is one of the most feared consequences to stopping smoking. So firstly, good on you for kicking the cigarettes. The majority of people will gain some weight after stopping smoking. On average, ex-smokers put on a couple of […]The post I gained two stone in weight since stopping smoking 10 months ago – why? appeared first on Guru Magazine.... Read more »
Aubin, H., Farley, A., Lycett, D., Lahmek, P., & Aveyard, P. (2012) Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis. BMJ, 345(jul10 2). DOI: 10.1136/bmj.e4439
Parsons AC, Shraim M, Inglis J, Aveyard P, & Hajek P. (2009) Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation. Cochraine Collaboration. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006219.pub2
This is the second in series of posts examining recent research in sleep and the brain.Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is a complex sleep problem seen primarily in older adults.REM, or dream sleep, typically occurs with atonia. Atonia is the temporary state of muscle paralysis. This prohibits muscular activity or acting out during dream states.With REM sleep behavior disorder, atonia is not present with REM sleep resulting in motor restlessness, agitation and occasio........ Read more »
Iranzo A, Fernández-Arcos A, Tolosa E, Serradell M, Molinuevo JL, Valldeoriola F, Gelpi E, Vilaseca I, Sánchez-Valle R, Lladó A.... (2014) Neurodegenerative Disorder Risk in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Study in 174 Patients. PloS one, 9(2). PMID: 24587002
“Two canine scientists, Julie Hecht and Mia Cobb, met briefly at a conference in Barcelona in late July 2012. They share a passion for canine science, good communication, social media and fun.” So reads the 'About' page at Do You Believe in Dog?. After a brief hello at the 3rd Canine Science Forum in Barcelona, we decided to embark on an adventure as digital pen pals, taking turns blogging on topics related to our own research, that of other research groups and general dog science themes.&n........ Read more »
Cobb Mia, Branson Nick, & McGreevy Paul. (2013) Advancing the welfare of Australia’s iconic working dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.054
Hecht J., & Horowitz A. (2013) Physical prompts to anthropomorphism of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.013
Racca A., Range F., Virányi Z., & Huber L. (2013) Discrimination of familiar human faces in domestic dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.071
Dreschel N.A., & Entendencia K. (2013) Stress during certification testing in prison drug detection dogs and their handlers. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.005
MMRV is the quadruple vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR; more here) and chicken pox (also known as varicella). Varicella vaccination (developed in Japan) has been used in Japan for twenty years and in the USA since 1995. In 2006, the varicella vaccination was combined with MMR to make MMRV. MMRV was licensed in 2005 and is a routine vaccination in many countries including the USA, Germany and Australia. The advantages of this are to reduce the number of injections and therefore........ Read more »
Tarnjit Khera. (2014) MMR’s successor – MMRV. Scitkk.WordPress.com. info:other/
Benefits Sprinting and Jumping: New Evidence I began distance running at the age of 12 and have kept with it for decades now. Running at a mellow pace has helped me unwind, de-stress and keep my sanity through turbulent times. Until I started CrossFit about five years ago. While I miss the runners high there […]The post New Evidence on the Benefits of Sprinting for Long-Term Health and Fitness appeared first on WODMasters.... Read more »
Gast U, Belavý DL, Armbrecht G, Kusy K, Lexy H, Rawer R, Rittweger J, Winwood K, Zieliński J, & Felsenberg D. (2013) Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 24(7), 2033-42. PMID: 23242430
Not so long ago I talked about the paper from Smith and colleagues  on autism and obstacles to medical [comorbidity] diagnosis and treatment (see here). Aside from the need for professionals to overcome the issue of "a lack of expressive speech" as an impediment to undertaking a thorough medical work-up when presented with a person with autism, an important theme of that paper was the requirement to see beyond autism as being the 'reason' for every single behaviour or issue that aff........ Read more »
Tudor ME, Walsh CE, Mulder EC, & Lerner MD. (2014) Pain as a predictor of sleep problems in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Autism : the international journal of research and practice. PMID: 24497628
Do we do too many 12 lead ECGs on patients who do not have chest pain?
This is something that some people worry about.
Save the electrodes!
Those poor little electrodes are being abused!
Are electrodes being abused?... Read more »
Glickman SW, Shofer FS, Wu MC, Scholer MJ, Ndubuizu A, Peterson ED, Granger CB, Cairns CB, & Glickman LT. (2012) Development and validation of a prioritization rule for obtaining an immediate 12-lead electrocardiogram in the emergency department to identify ST-elevation myocardial infarction. American heart journal, 163(3), 372-82. PMID: 22424007
Few areas of biomedical research have benefited more from next-gen sequencing than studies of rare inherited diseases. Rapid, inexpensive exome sequencing in individuals with rare, presumably-monogenic diseases has been hugely successful over the past few years. There’s been a lot of discussion in the NGS community about the analysis burden of the large-scale whole-genome sequencing […]... Read more »
Koboldt DC, Larson DE, Sullivan LS, Bowne SJ, Steinberg KM, Churchill JD, Buhr AC, Nutter N, Pierce EA, Blanton SH.... (2014) Exome-Based Mapping and Variant Prioritization for Inherited Mendelian Disorders. American journal of human genetics. PMID: 24560519
This month I will be focusing on sleep and the brain. The importance of sleep to normal and abnormal brain functioning is receiving increased research attention.A variety of sleep abnormalities have been described in major depression and bipolar affective disorder. Depression has been linked to delayed sleep onset, reduced time to first rapid eye movement (REM) period, reduced sleep efficiency and disruption of the circadian rhythm of sleep.Sleep physiology also varies throughout the lifesp........ Read more »
Robillard, R., Naismith, S., Smith, K., Rogers, N., White, D., Terpening, Z., Ip, T., Hermens, D., Whitwell, B., Scott, E.... (2014) Sleep-Wake Cycle in Young and Older Persons with a Lifetime History of Mood Disorders. PLoS ONE, 9(2). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087763
Today I'm highlighting the paper by Krystle Graham and colleagues  which talked about a possible association between the presence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in various types of psychosis. With my interest in all things biology-behaviour, remembering such posts as impulsivity and uric acid (see here), once again we have an example of how the two areas just might fit together.The bullfighter (deceased) @Manet @Wikipedia So, take several groups of adult........ Read more »
Prehistoric giant virus buried in the Siberian ice recovered from a scientific expedition. No, it is not the plot of “The Thing”, but the utter truth: a thirty- thousand- year old virus, whose dimensions are 50 times bigger than the ones of average virus from today, was found by Abergel and Claverie’s team in the Russian permafrost.... Read more »
Legendre M, Bartoli J, Shmakova L, Jeudy S, Labadie K, Adrait A, Lescot M, Poirot O, Bertaux L, Bruley C.... (2014) Thirty-thousand-year-old distant relative of giant icosahedral DNA viruses with a pandoravirus morphology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 24591590
Philippe N, Legendre M, Doutre G, Couté Y, Poirot O, Lescot M, Arslan D, Seltzer V, Bertaux L, Bruley C.... (2013) Pandoraviruses: amoeba viruses with genomes up to 2.5 Mb reaching that of parasitic eukaryotes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6143), 281-6. PMID: 23869018
That an early pregnancy is protective against breast cancer is something I've known for ten years now. I remember one of my professors, back when I started studying genetics, saying: "Having a baby at 16 may ruin your life but it sure protects you from breast cancer." Today we know a lot more about the cellular and genetic mechanisms that a first pregnancy triggers in the body. And yet how these mechanisms turn out to be protective against breast cancer is still a mystery. "The ovarian hormones,........ Read more »
Medina D. (2005) Mammary developmental fate and breast cancer risk. Endocrine-related cancer, 12(3), 483-95. PMID: 16172188
Meier-Abt F, & Bentires-Alj M. (2014) How pregnancy at early age protects against breast cancer. Trends in molecular medicine, 20(3), 143-153. PMID: 24355762
The paper by Michael Benrós and colleagues  talking about an "increased risk of subsequent autoimmune diseases in individuals with schizophrenia" caught my eye recently. Based on a trawl of the records of several thousands of people with "schizophrenia-like psychosis" or "individuals with autoimmune disease" derived from Danish nationwide registers (see here for some background), the authors were able to conclude that "Autoimmune diseases developed subsequently in 3.6% of people wi........ Read more »
Benrós ME, Pedersen MG, Rasmussen H, Eaton WW, Nordentoft M, & Mortensen PB. (2013) A Nationwide Study on the Risk of Autoimmune Diseases in Individuals With a Personal or a Family History of Schizophrenia and Related Psychosis. The American journal of psychiatry. PMID: 24129899
Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often develop cognitive deficits. The symptoms are very similar to Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. New research focuses on this link. ... Read more »
Pandharipande PP1, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Morandi A, Thompson JL, Pun BT, Brummel NE, Hughes CG, Vasilevskis EE, Shintani AK, Moons KG, Geevarghese SK, Canonico A, Hopkins RO, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW; BRAIN-ICU Study Investigators. (2014) Long-Term Cognitive Impairment after Critical Illness. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(2), 184-186. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1313886
Bohannon, R., Maljanian, R., & Ferullo, J. (2013) Mortality and readmission of the elderly one year after hospitalization for pneumonia. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 16(1), 22-25. DOI: 10.1007/BF03324527
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