Dark matter is a substance that makes up nearly all mass in the universe, but decades after we discovered it, all we have are indirect measurements which show us that it’s there in very large amounts, forming galactic halos, but ultimately, little else. It doesn’t seem to interact with any of the stuff that makes stars, dust, and planets, it emits or reflects no radiation, and this utter lack of interesting properties we could study [...]... Read more »
Harvey, D., Massey, R., Kitching, T., Taylor, A., & Tittley, E. (2015) The nongravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters. Science, 347(6229), 1462-1465. DOI: 10.1126/science.1261381
Massey, R., Williams, L., Smit, R., Swinbank, M., Kitching, T., Harvey, D., Jauzac, M., Israel, H., Clowe, D., Edge, A.... (2015) The behaviour of dark matter associated with four bright cluster galaxies in the 10 kpc core of Abell 3827. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 449(4), 3393-3406. DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv467
While mass media was busy misquoting Stephen Hawking and arguing about black holes, astrophysicists have been hard at work trying to solve still unanswered questions about them. Now a team has not only proven that a supermassive black hole exists in a place where it isn’t supposed to be, but in doing so have opened a new door to what things were like in the early universe.... Read more »
Thomas J. Whalen, Ryan C. Hickox, Amy E. Reines, Jenny E. Greene, Gregory R. Sivakoff, Kelsey E. Johnson, David M. Alexander, & Andy D. Goulding. (2015) Variable Hard X-ray Emission from the Candidate Accreting Black Hole in Dwarf Galaxy Henize 2-10. The Astrophysical journal . arXiv: 1504.03331v1
Coal jobs have decreased dramatically in the past seven years, but are renewable energy and natural gas jobs compensating? New policy work reveals the geographical patterns in job changes that do not bode well for coal-producing states.... Read more »
Haerer, D., & Pratson, L. (2015) Employment trends in the U.S. Electricity Sector, 2008–2012. Energy Policy, 85-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2015.03.006
Little research to date has looked into the organic chemicals from fracking fluid that get into surrounding groundwater - here's how science can help!... Read more »
Ferrer, I., & Thurman, E. (2015) Chemical constituents and analytical approaches for hydraulic fracturing waters. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 18-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.teac.2015.01.003
Light is an extremely useful tool for quantum communication, but it has one major disadvantage: it usually travels at the speed of light and cannot be kept in place. A team of scientists at the Vienna University of Technology has now demonstrated that this problem can be solved – not only in strange, unusual quantum systems, but in the glass fiber networks we are already using today.... Read more »
Sayrin, C., Clausen, C., Albrecht, B., Schneeweiss, P., & Rauschenbeutel, A. (2015) Storage of fiber-guided light in a nanofiber-trapped ensemble of cold atoms. Optica, 2(4), 353. DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.2.000353
We are expanding, well more accurately the universe is expanding. However researchers have found certain types of supernovae, or exploding stars, are more diverse than previously thought. The results have implications for big cosmological questions, such as how fast the universe has been expanding since the Big Bang. Most importantly, the findings hint at the possibility that the acceleration of the expansion of the universe might not be quite as fast as textbooks say.... Read more »
Milne, P., Foley, R., Brown, P., & Narayan, G. (2015) THE CHANGING FRACTIONS OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVA NUV–OPTICAL SUBCLASSES WITH REDSHIFT. The Astrophysical Journal, 803(1), 20. DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/803/1/20
A magnon is a quantised spin wave, i.e. a collective excitation of the spin angular momentum that is associated with electrons in a crystal structure. ...
The post The heat is magnon at magnetic/non-magnetic interfaces appeared first on Spin and Tonic.
... Read more »
Scott A. Bender and Yaroslav Tserkovnyak. (2015) Interfacial spin and heat transfer between metals and magnetic insulators. Physical Review B, 140402. info:/
Star Trek deflectors absorbed or deflected energy beams, but would they work against bullets or asteroids? Scientists are on working on armors and plasma systems that can stop projectiles. In some cases we use explosions to stop explosions. In others, tanks are turned into electrical pulse generators that zap incoming rockets. But the most amazing is the wall of exploding plasma that will be the first true defensive energy shield.... Read more »
Yoo, Y., Zheng, H., Kim, Y., Rhee, J., Kang, J., Kim, K., Cheong, H., Kim, Y., & Lee, Y. (2014) Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell. Applied Physics Letters, 105(4), 41902. DOI: 10.1063/1.4885095
Grześkiewicz, B., Sierakowski, A., Marczewski, J., Pałka, N., & Wolarz, E. (2014) Polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber of selective response in terahertz frequency range. Journal of Optics, 16(10), 105104. DOI: 10.1088/2040-8978/16/10/105104
Notwithstanding LHC has seen the particle, the Higgs sector of the Standard Model has some serious problems. This fact yielded more than one headache to physicists. One of these difficulties is called technically “triviality“. The scalar field theory, that is so well defined classically, does not exist as a quantum field theory unless is non-interacting. […]... Read more »
Aizenman, M. (1981) Proof of the Triviality of Field Theory and Some Mean-Field Features of Ising Models for . Physical Review Letters, 47(12), 886-886. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.47.886
Igor M. Suslov. (2010) Asymptotic Behavior of the \Beta Function in the Φ^4 Theory: A Scheme Without Complex Parameters. J.Exp.Theor.Phys.111:450-465,2010. arXiv: 1010.4317v1
I. L. Bogolubsky, E. -M. Ilgenfritz, M. Müller-Preussker, & A. Sternbeck. (2009) Lattice gluodynamics computation of Landau-gauge Green's functions in the deep infrared. Phys.Lett.B676:69-73,2009. arXiv: 0901.0736v3
In electronics, a drift current is one where the motion of charge carriers is dictated by an applied electric field. In contrast, a diffusive current...
The post Drifting towards spintronic polarimeters appeared first on Spin and Tonic.
... Read more »
Nádvorník, L., Haigh, J., Olejník, K., Irvine, A., Novák, V., Jungwirth, T., & Wunderlich, J. (2015) Efficient conversion of light to charge and spin in Hall-bar microdevices. Physical Review B, 91(12). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.125205
Deflector shields allowed Star Trek and other sci-fi franchises to have long space battles. Without them, one good strike and everyone was dead – that wouldn’t lend itself to sequels.
We don’t need shields for space battles yet, but we do need them to get to Mars. Cosmic radiation will kill or injure every astronaut unless we can deflect the radiation away from the spacecraft. We’re just about to build real deflectors, and our teachers are the magnetic fields we find ........ Read more »
Bamford, R., Kellett, B., Bradford, J., Todd, T., Benton, M., Stafford-Allen, R., Alves, E., Silva, L., Collingwood, C., Crawford, I.... (2014) An exploration of the effectiveness of artificial mini-magnetospheres as a potential solar storm shelter for long term human space missions. Acta Astronautica, 105(2), 385-394. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2014.10.012
Bamford, R., Gibson, K., Thornton, A., Bradford, J., Bingham, R., Gargate, L., Silva, L., Fonseca, R., Hapgood, M., Norberg, C.... (2008) The interaction of a flowing plasma with a dipole magnetic field: measurements and modelling of a diamagnetic cavity relevant to spacecraft protection. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 50(12), 124025. DOI: 10.1088/0741-3335/50/12/124025
Walsh, B., Foster, J., Erickson, P., & Sibeck, D. (2014) Simultaneous Ground- and Space-Based Observations of the Plasmaspheric Plume and Reconnection. Science, 343(6175), 1122-1125. DOI: 10.1126/science.1247212
New satellite measurements have given unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution to Antarctice melting. The data indicates the Western shelf is melting faster than thought and the Eastern shelf is no longer gaining thickness. Important information to predict future sea level rises!... Read more »
Paolo, F., Fricker, H., & Padman, L. (2015) Volume loss from Antarctic ice shelves is accelerating. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa0940
Electric vehicles are touted as environmentally friendly, but they actually pollute more than conventional vehicles during manufacturing. However, a new report argues that, because electric vehicles are cooler, they can reduce heat and temperature increases in urban environments, leading to a net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.... Read more »
Li C, Cao Y, Zhang M, Wang J, Liu J, Shi H, & Geng Y. (2015) Hidden benefits of electric vehicles for addressing climate change. Scientific reports, 9213. PMID: 25790439
Travel to the Amazon and flick an ant off a leaf, and you might be surprised what you see. Certain rainforest ant species can control their falls and glide back onto the trunks of the trees they came from. Unlike Superman, though, they're only flying to rescue themselves.
An ant is light enough that a drop to the forest floor might not hurt it. But the other animals cruising the ground for snacks will cause trouble for that ant soon enough. That's why many rainforest ants have evolved to ... Read more »
Munk Y, Yanoviak SP, Koehl MA, & Dudley R. (2015) The descent of ant: field-measured performance of gliding ants. The Journal of experimental biology. PMID: 25788722
A-Heusler there matey Heusler materials are becoming increasingly interesting for use in spintronics. These materials have X2YZ stoichiometry (where Y is a magnetic ion) and...
The post Heusler alloys: A hot topic appeared first on Spin and Tonic.
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Kento Yamasaki1, Soichiro Oki1, Shinya Yamada1, Takeshi Kanashima1, and Kohei Hamaya1. (2015) Spin-related thermoelectric conversion in lateral spin-valve devices with single-crystalline Co2FeSi electrodes . Applied Physics Express, 43003. info:/
I can’t stand it when I get dust in my eye. Can you imagine having a neural implant in your eye? Star Trek’s Geordi LaForge had implanted electrodes that, along with his visor, let him see. Visual neural prostheses are no longer a thing of science fiction, making the blind see is science fact. The only difference is that he saw in all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. But there’s no reason we can’t do that as well. ... Read more »
Wang, J., Wu, X., Lu, Y., Wu, H., Kan, H., & Chai, X. (2014) Face recognition in simulated prosthetic vision: face detection-based image processing strategies. Journal of Neural Engineering, 11(4), 46009. DOI: 10.1088/1741-2560/11/4/046009
Nirenberg, S., & Pandarinath, C. (2012) Retinal prosthetic strategy with the capacity to restore normal vision. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(37), 15012-15017. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1207035109
Stingl, K., Bartz-Schmidt, K., Gekeler, F., Kusnyerik, A., Sachs, H., & Zrenner, E. (2013) Functional Outcome in Subretinal Electronic Implants Depends on Foveal Eccentricity. Investigative Ophthalmology , 54(12), 7658-7665. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.13-12835
I am back after the announcement by CERN of the restart of LHC. On May this year we will have also the first collisions. This is great news and we hope for the best and the best here is just the breaking of the Standard Model. The Higgs in the title is not Professor Higgs […]... Read more »
Marco Frasca. (2009) Exact solutions of classical scalar field equations. J.Nonlin.Math.Phys.18:291-297,2011. arXiv: 0907.4053v2
Marco Frasca. (2013) Scalar field theory in the strong self-interaction limit. Eur. Phys. J. C (2014) 74:2929. arXiv: 1306.6530v5
SUMMARY: To meet humanity’s growing energy demands, scientists are taking lessons from plants, which perfected the process of capturing the sun’s rays and transforming that into starch. Might scientists be able to adapt the photosynthetic process pioneered by plants and adapt it to meet human demands? ... Read more »
Porter G. (1950) Flash Photolysis and Spectroscopy. A New Method for the Study of Free Radical Reactions. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 200(1061), 284-300. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1950.0018
Porter G. (1966) Studies of Triplet Chlorophyll by Microbeam Flash Photolysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 295(1440), 1-12. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1966.0222
Porter G. (1978) The Bakerian Lecture, 1977: In Vitro Models for Photosynthesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 362(1710), 281-303. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1978.0134
Tyndall J. (1861) The Bakerian Lecture: On the Absorption and Radiation of Heat by Gases and Vapours, and on the Physical Connexion of Radiation, Absorption, and Conduction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1-36. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1861.0001
Cogdell R. J., P. I. Molina, & L. Cronin. (2013) The use and misuse of photosynthesis in the quest for novel methods to harness solar energy to make fuel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 371(1996), 20110603-20110603. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2011.0603
As touched upon in last week’s Pick of the Week, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) may be important for spin transfer torque MRAM (STT-MRAM) as it...
The post Interface time: Finding the source of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy appeared first on Spin and Tonic.
... Read more »
Kim, M., Kim, S., Ko, J., & Hong, J. (2015) Contribution of individual interfaces in the MgO/Co/Pd trilayer to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy upon annealing. Applied Physics Letters, 106(10), 102404. DOI: 10.1063/1.4914497
Tractor beams pulling space ships are things of science fiction, but tractor beams pulling small objects on Earth are science fact. Beams usually push things away with their force, but we have learned to manipulate them so that they push things back to the source – we can do it with water, sound and even laser light.... Read more »
Shvedov, V., Davoyan, A., Hnatovsky, C., Engheta, N., & Krolikowski, W. (2014) A long-range polarization-controlled optical tractor beam. Nature Photonics, 8(11), 846-850. DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.242
Mo Li, W. H. P. Pernice, & H. X. Tang. (2009) Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided lightwaves. Nature Photonics. arXiv: 0903.5117v1
Punzmann, H., Francois, N., Xia, H., Falkovich, G., & Shats, M. (2014) Generation and reversal of surface flows by propagating waves. Nature Physics, 10(9), 658-663. DOI: 10.1038/nphys3041
Ruffner DB, & Grier DG. (2012) Optical conveyors: a class of active tractor beams. Physical review letters, 109(16), 163903. PMID: 23215079
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