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  • July 2, 2015
  • 06:50 PM
  • 3 views

You are here: Home › Injury › Foot Strike Pattern and Injury Rates Foot Strike Pattern and Injury Rates

by Craig Payne in Running Research Junkie

You are here: Home › Injury › Foot Strike Pattern and Injury Rates
Foot Strike Pattern and Injury Rates... Read more »

  • July 2, 2015
  • 12:57 PM
  • 9 views

Freezing single atoms to absolute zero with microwaves brings quantum technology closer

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Physicists at the University of Sussex have found a way of using everyday technology found in kitchen microwaves and mobile telephones to bring quantum physics closer to helping solve enormous scientific problems that the most powerful of today’s supercomputers cannot even begin to embark upon.... Read more »

Weidt, S., Randall, J., Webster, S., Standing, E., Rodriguez, A., Webb, A., Lekitsch, B., & Hensinger, W. (2015) Ground-State Cooling of a Trapped Ion Using Long-Wavelength Radiation. Physical Review Letters, 115(1). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.013002  

  • July 2, 2015
  • 11:57 AM
  • 7 views

Digesting bread and pasta can release biologically active molecules

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Biologically active molecules released by digesting bread and pasta can survive digestion and potentially pass through the gut lining, suggests new research. The study reveals the molecules released when real samples of bread and pasta are digested, providing new information for research into gluten sensitivity.... Read more »

  • July 2, 2015
  • 09:00 AM
  • 9 views

Why Should You Care How Bacteria Fight Viruses?

by Bill Sullivan in The 'Scope

Research into how bacteria fight viruses has spurred a revolution in genetic engineering referred to as "CRISPR". CRISPR provides unprecedented ways to easily modify the genome of any living creature, including humans.... Read more »

Garneau, J., Dupuis, M., Villion, M., Romero, D., Barrangou, R., Boyaval, P., Fremaux, C., Horvath, P., Magadán, A., & Moineau, S. (2010) The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA. Nature, 468(7320), 67-71. DOI: 10.1038/nature09523  

Horie, M., Honda, T., Suzuki, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Daito, T., Oshida, T., Ikuta, K., Jern, P., Gojobori, T., Coffin, J.... (2010) Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes. Nature, 463(7277), 84-87. DOI: 10.1038/nature08695  

Baltimore, D., Berg, P., Botchan, M., Carroll, D., Charo, R., Church, G., Corn, J., Daley, G., Doudna, J., Fenner, M.... (2015) A prudent path forward for genomic engineering and germline gene modification. Science, 348(6230), 36-38. DOI: 10.1126/science.aab1028  

  • July 2, 2015
  • 08:00 AM
  • 7 views

Want Better Group Performance? Try a Standing Meeting

by Jeremiah Stanghini in Jeremiah Stanghini

In keeping with the theme of “standing” being better for us from earlier this week, I thought I’d tackle another journal article discussing the merits of standing. This time, the research included participants well-beyond the 2nd and 3rd grade, but still used students … Continue reading →... Read more »

  • July 2, 2015
  • 02:34 AM
  • 20 views

Acute bipolar depression and immune alterations

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Individuals with acute bipolar depression show immune alterations. Some of the alterations are similar to those found in acute mania."That was the bottom line reported by Faith Dickerson and colleagues [1] following their analysis of blood samples provided by "82 individuals with acute bipolar depression, 147 with acute mania, and 280 controls." Looking for the presence of various antibodies to "human herpesviruses, gliadin, Toxoplasma gondii, and endogenous retroviruses as well as for C-reactive protein (CRP) and pentraxin-3" in said samples, researchers reported a few potentially important findings.So: "The levels of CRP and IgG antibodies to an endogenous retrovirus, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), were significantly elevated in the bipolar depressed group." Further: "Levels of pentraxin-3 were reduced in both psychiatric groups." Researchers also reported that for 32 individuals who were hospitalised (and I assume treated) for bipolar depression, they "showed a significant decrease in the levels of MPMV antibodies, but not a change in the other markers."Looking through the list of antigens included for analysis, without looking at the authorship list, I could have told you that the authors Faith Dickerson and/or Robert Yolken were involved in this study based on what has been discussed before on this blog (see here and see here for example). The work coming out of Johns Hopkins has been particularly interesting with their focus on "the role of infectious and inflammatory processes in complex psychiatric disease such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism." Their most recent work on pentraxin-3 looks very interesting indeed (see here) and complements their most recent results.The finding of elevations in the levels of CRP in the "bipolar depressed group" fits in well with the idea of inflammation being somehow involved in psychiatry (see here) and seemingly crossing diagnostic labels (see here). One might reasonable ask whether the research voices are indeed getting stronger for the potential usefulness of 'treating inflammation' when it comes to something like depression (see here) bearing in mind no clinical or medical advice is given or intended.Finally, is that "endogenous retrovirus" finding reported by Dickerson et al. Regular readers of this blog might already know that I'm an avid [amateur] follower of the idea that all those fossil viruses that lurk in our genomes might be some much more than just junk DNA. With schizophrenia in mind (see here), with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in mind (see here), with autism in mind (see here), even with chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in mind (see here), I've covered the topic a few times on this blog. Although never coming across MPMV before, this is not the first time that antibodies to non-human primate viruses have been talked about with psychiatric / behavioural conditions in mind [2]. Indeed a previous paper from Dickerson and colleagues [3] even went as far as suggesting that as part of suite of inflammatory markers, the presence and elevation of MPMV antibodies is likely derived "from the activation of homologous endogenous retroviruses and to be a reflection of immune activation." Similar sentiments seem to carry over to the most recent results too.Music: Doves - There Goes The Fear.----------[1] Dickerson F. et al. Immune alterations in acute bipolar depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015 Jun 9.[2] Lillehoj EP. et al. Serum antibodies reactive with non-human primate retroviruses identified in acute onset schizophrenia. J Neurovirol. 2000 Dec;6(6):492-7.[3] Dickerson F. et al. A combined marker of inflammation in individuals with mania. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 3;8(9):e73520.----------Dickerson F, Katsafanas E, Schweinfurth LA, Savage CL, Stallings C, Origoni A, Khushalani S, Lillehoj E, & Yolken R (2015). Immune alterations in acute bipolar depression. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica PMID: 26061032... Read more »

Dickerson F, Katsafanas E, Schweinfurth LA, Savage CL, Stallings C, Origoni A, Khushalani S, Lillehoj E, & Yolken R. (2015) Immune alterations in acute bipolar depression. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. PMID: 26061032  

  • July 1, 2015
  • 11:59 PM
  • 23 views

Comparison of running injuries between shod and barefoot

by Craig Payne in Running Research Junkie

Comparison of running injuries between shod and barefoot ... Read more »

  • July 1, 2015
  • 02:19 PM
  • 33 views

New epigenetic mechanism revealed in brain cells

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

For decades, researchers in the genetics field have theorized that the protein spools around which DNA is wound, histones, remain constant in the brain, never changing after development in the womb. Now, researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have discovered that histones are steadily replaced in brain cells throughout life – a process which helps to switch genes on and off.... Read more »

Maze, I., Wenderski, W., Noh, K., Bagot, R., Tzavaras, N., Purushothaman, I., Elsässer, S., Guo, Y., Ionete, C., Hurd, Y.... (2015) Critical Role of Histone Turnover in Neuronal Transcription and Plasticity. Neuron, 87(1), 77-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.06.014  

  • July 1, 2015
  • 02:16 PM
  • 24 views

Ethics in research: how to improve the integrity of scientists in their work

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective

Scientific activity as a social enterprise must maintain its credibility. The Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines are presented as a recent and innovative initiative for scientific journals, and as one of the ways to guard this social value. … Read More →... Read more »

Alberts, B., Cicerone, R., Fienberg, S., Kamb, A., McNutt, M., Nerem, R., Schekman, R., Shiffrin, R., Stodden, V., Suresh, S.... (2015) Self-correction in science at work. Science, 348(6242), 1420-1422. DOI: 10.1126/science.aab3847  

Nosek, B., Alter, G., Banks, G., Borsboom, D., Bowman, S., Breckler, S., Buck, S., Chambers, C., Chin, G., Christensen, G.... (2015) Promoting an open research culture. Science, 348(6242), 1422-1425. DOI: 10.1126/science.aab2374  

  • July 1, 2015
  • 09:39 AM
  • 20 views

Video Tip of the Week: MorphoGraphX, morphogenesis in 4D

by Mary in OpenHelix

This week’s Video Tip of the Week covers a different aspect of bioinformatics than some of our other tips. But having been trained as a cell biologist, I do consider imaging software as an important part of the crucial software ecosystem. Also, since it’s a holiday week and traffic may be light in the US, […]... Read more »

Barbier de Reuille, P., Routier-Kierzkowska, A., Kierzkowski, D., Bassel, G., Schüpbach, T., Tauriello, G., Bajpai, N., Strauss, S., Weber, A., Kiss, A.... (2015) MorphoGraphX: A platform for quantifying morphogenesis in 4D. eLife. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.05864  

  • July 1, 2015
  • 08:30 AM
  • 25 views

Thinking Asymmetrically About Hormones

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Your endocrine glands are stimulated or suppressed by hormones. They in turn dump hormones into the blood. Blood goes everywhere equally. So why is your left adrenal gland bigger than your right? And why is the size difference larger in domesticated foxes as opposed to wild foxes? For that matter, why is the size of the right lobe of your thyroid gland depend on which hand you use to write!?... Read more »

Trut LN, Prasolova LA, Kharlamova AV, & Plyusnina IZ. (2002) Directional left-sided asymmetry of adrenals in experimentally domesticated animals. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, 133(5), 506-9. PMID: 12420075  

Hojaij, F., Vanderlei, F., Plopper, C., Rodrigues, C., Jácomo, A., Cernea, C., Oliveira, L., Marchi, L., & Brandão, L. (2011) Parathyroid gland anatomical distribution and relation to anthropometric and demographic parameters: a cadaveric study. Anatomical Science International, 86(4), 204-212. DOI: 10.1007/s12565-011-0111-0  

  • July 1, 2015
  • 06:24 AM
  • 32 views

Offspring autism risk and advancing parental age (differences)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Parental age at offspring conception/birth in relation to offspring autism risk has been a recurrent theme in autism research circles for quite a few years now. I've covered it more than once on this blog (see here for example) and the various suggestions that advancing parental age in particular, might elevate the risk of offspring autism.Set in this context, the paper by Sven Sandin and colleagues [1] (open-access) (a name not unfamiliar to this blog) adds to the research evidence based on their analysis of some 5.7 million children born between 1985 - 2004 resident in one of five countries (Denmark, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Western Australia). Including data on some 30,000 children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD): "Parental ages, sex and birth year were obtained from birth or civil registers."After quite a bit of statistical modelling and controlling for various potentially confounding variables, several findings were reported pertinent to the authors' data being "the strongest evidence to date supporting the hypothesis that advanced parental ages at the time of birth are independently associated with risk for ASD in the offspring." Outside of "no support for any modification by the sex of the child" researchers also noted a "combined parental age effect" whereby there "was a joint effect of maternal and paternal age with increasing risk of ASD for couples with increasing differences in parental ages."A few of the finer details of this study have been covered elsewhere (see here). I'll draw your attention to one or two statistics unearthed during the study:"relative to fathers aged 20–29 years, fathers 50 years or older had a statistically significantly increased risk for offspring with ASD (RR=1.66 95% CI:1.49–1.85)","Relative to mothers aged 20–29 years, mothers younger than 20 years had a statistically significantly increased risk for offspring with ASD (RR=1.18 95% CI:1.08–1.29)" and the "lowest risk corresponded to couples that generated the majority of births, specifically, 29–39-year-old fathers and 25–35-year-old mothers." Those estimates of relative risk (RR) statistics translate into an estimated 66% increased risk for offspring autism if a dad was over 50 years old compared with a dad in their 20s, an 18% increased risk for offspring autism for teen mums compared to 20-something mums and the lowest statistical risk of offspring autism being reported when dads conceive in their 30s coupled with a mid-20 to mid-30 year old mum. The authors also note that "Similar patterns of association, but with slightly higher RRs for the highest parental ages, were evident for AD [autistic disorder]" so completing the message about older parental ages at conception and differing parental ages being relevant across the autism spectrum.Accepting that this was a huge study in terms of participant numbers and spanning different geographical locations, the authors rightly offer a few words of caution about their methods and data. So: "we lack information about potentially confounding variables such as SES [socio-economic status] and parental psychiatric history" is something to keep in mind [2]. Further: "We cannot rule out the possibility that other factors associated with parental age (for example, length of marriage or partnership, obstetric complications, gestational age and birth weight) have an important role in explaining our results" and "We did not have individual level information on co-morbid ID [intellectual disability] in ASD cases." I'd also suggest that given the growing emphasis on autism or ASD not existing in some sort of diagnostic vacuum (see here) one might reasonably ask whether other comorbidity outside of ID might also play a role in risk estimates.As to the possible mechanism(s) of effect, well, the authors go through the usual older parents - older sperm and eggs mantra although perhaps bypassing an emerging area outside of just de novo mutations based on the role of epigenetic mechanisms (see here). They do suggest that the 'difference in parental age' factor might suggest "that the increase in risk is not attributable to advancing parental age per se, and that the risk increase cannot be explained solely by an accumulation of point mutations or other genomic alterations in the parents" but say little more on the basis of their collected data.I might be wrong but I also didn't seem too much in the way of discussion of how parental nutrition might impact on offspring autism risk as per the proposed factor from other work by authors on the Sandin paper in relation to the inter-pregnancy interval (IPI) and autism risk (see here and see here). Although the idea that parental age might affect autism offspring risk, I'd be minded to suggest that this is only the first stage in a journey towards elucidating the particular mechanisms of any effect.Music: The Pixies - Gigantic.----------[1] Sandin S. et al. Autism risk associated with parental age and with increasing difference in age between the parents. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Jun 9.[2] Lehti V. et al. Maternal socio-economic status based on occupation and autism spectrum disorders: A national case-control study. Nord J Psychiatry. 2015 Mar 3:1-8.----------Sandin S, Schendel D, Magnusson P, Hultman C, Surén P, Susser E, Grønborg T, Gissler M, Gunnes N, Gross R, Henning M, Bresnahan M, Sourander A, Hornig M, Carter K, Francis R, Parner E, Leonard H, Rosanoff M, Stoltenberg C, & Reichenberg A (2015). Autism risk associated with parental age and with increasing difference in age between the parents. Molecular psychiatry PMID: 26055426... Read more »

Sandin S, Schendel D, Magnusson P, Hultman C, Surén P, Susser E, Grønborg T, Gissler M, Gunnes N, Gross R.... (2015) Autism risk associated with parental age and with increasing difference in age between the parents. Molecular psychiatry. PMID: 26055426  

  • July 1, 2015
  • 01:43 AM
  • 56 views

Technologies and Generations

by Aurametrix team in Health Technologies

Children no longer obey their parents; every man wants to write a book and the end of the world is evidently approaching. So said a clay tablet inscribed almost 5 thousand years ago. But the world still stands, although we do go through golden and dark ages and societies rise and fall. Technology's golden age is now. or so we hope. How are current generations influenced by it and how will they shape the future world? Even as they age, Baby Boomers embrace emerging technologies such as smartphones and social networking. They will be the driving and demanding force behind innovation in healthcare. In the past, they drove economy by spending and borrowing, boosting housing and stock prices, increasing demand for products and services. Then the bubble burst. America's neglected middle child, Generation X is now the quiet driving force behind enterprise, media and information consumption. Xers endured lots of destruction, but were able to adapt and sparked a renaissance of entrepreneurship. They bring to the table a significant amount of buying power, but are less eager to spend money. Nielsen poll suggests they prefer a good deal over a social statement with their purchase.Millennial Generation, alternatively dubbed the Net Generation, Generation Y (or Why?), Echo-boomers, Nexters, and Digital Natives is now the largest generation in U.S history. Fueled by immigration, they outgrew the outsized Baby Boomer population and continue to grow.  Raised on a steady diet of video games, in a world where almost everything can be done with an app, fanned by economic slowdown, they are choosing to live differently and embrace the sharing economy. Since the second world war, purchases of new cars and suburban houses have propelled economic recoveries. Millennials may have lost interest in both, spending on smartphones instead. "The cheapest generation" burdened by student loans is renting instead of buying. They are demanding better integration of technology into public services, prefer healthy, natural, socially and environmentally conscious products.Perhaps auto brands and home builders just need to leverage mobile and environmental sustainability to attract this generation? Manufacturers do think so trying to turn cars into "giant docking stations with wheels". Tesla is one example of a brand adapting to millennials - and it's the top automotive stock among this generation. What about smart residences? Companies are betting on the Internet of Things - embedding objects we interact with in daily lives with electronics, software, sensors and connectivity. One-in-four Millennials (23%) already installed at least one of these products in their homes, compared to 12% of the total population. But building a true "smart home" - like the one owned by the Jetson's  -  integrating and managing multiple devices, and dealing with their eminent malfunctions needs a a lot of patience. Perhaps companies like IOTAS - creating smart homes for today's renters  - have taken the right first step? In the coming years, current generations will serve as a testbed for emerging technology concepts. Millennials will continue to drive the growth in the Internet of Things, connected cars and wearables markets. Generation Z will inherit technology rigorously honed through human testing. What will be their signature product and signature means of communication? We'll know soon enough.No doubt, we live in interesting timesJoin our conference "The Rise of the Millenials – Emerging Disruptive Trends". It will take place on September 19th 2015, at the Intel Auditorium in Santa Clara. REFERENCESPutre L (2013). The march of the Millenials. Your hospital staff in 2025: the same, only different. Hospitals & health networks / AHA, 87 (9) PMID: 24260968The “Not so Young” Millennial Consumer http://www.ijac.org.uk/images/frontImages/gallery/Vol._3_No._5/4.pdf“Americans and their gadgets” (2010) ... Read more »

Costanza, D., Badger, J., Fraser, R., Severt, J., & Gade, P. (2012) Generational Differences in Work-Related Attitudes: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(4), 375-394. DOI: 10.1007/s10869-012-9259-4  

Becton, J., Walker, H., & Jones-Farmer, A. (2014) Generational differences in workplace behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(3), 175-189. DOI: 10.1111/jasp.12208  

  • July 1, 2015
  • 12:05 AM
  • 34 views

The Power of the Mind May not be as Well Utilized as it could be

by Kyle Harris in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Of 1283 survey respondents, only 27% of athletes reported using mental skills such as goal setting, positive self-talk, imagery, and relaxation. Of the 249 respondents who used mental skills 72% reported they felt it helped expedite their recovery process.... Read more »

Arvinen-Barrow M, Clement D, Hamson-Utley JJ, Zakrajsek RA, Lee SM, Kamphoff C, Lintunen T, Hemmings B, & Martin SB. (2015) Athletes' use of mental skills during sport injury rehabilitation. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 24(2), 189-97. PMID: 25996227  

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