The move of the Australian government to measure the impact of university research on society introduces many new challenges that were not previously relevant when evaluation focused solely on academic merit. … Read More →... Read more »
Gunn, A., & Mintrom, M. (2016) Higher Education Policy Change in Europe: Academic Research Funding and the Impact Agenda. European Education, 48(4), 241-257. DOI: 10.1080/10564934.2016.1237703
Morris ZS, Wooding S, & Grant J. (2011) The answer is 17 years, what is the question: understanding time lags in translational research. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 104(12), 510-20. PMID: 22179294
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
You may have seen our blog post where we talk about research that informs us in patent work to either allow jurors to examine a disputed invention up close or to simply have them view it from a distance. Which strategy we recommend you use all depends on the evidence and your specific case. Today, […]... Read more »
"Rates of ASD [autism spectrum disorder] and ASD traits are elevated in a psychosis population."The paper by Debbie Kincaid and colleagues  provides yet more [short] blogging material pertinent to the increasing interest in how psychosis may be yet another comorbidity over-represented when it comes to autism (see here) and vice-versa. I know this is another topic that has to be treated with some caution in terms of concepts like stigma but more discussions - science discussions - are needed to ensure that appropriate screening, diagnosis and also management is available to those who might need it.A systematic review was the name of the research game for Kincaid et al as seven studies "reporting prevalence rates of Autistic-like Traits (ALTs) and ASD in populations with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder" were included. The results weren't exactly precise in terms of what was reported as anywhere between 9-61% of those diagnosed with psychosis presented with those ALTs and between 1-52% of those with psychosis were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The authors however are correct when they point out that the "prevalence rates of ALTs and ASD in psychosis populations are much higher than in the general population." Quite a bit higher if one looks at the top end of those prevalence stats.I'll leave it at that for now.---------- Kincaid DL. et al. What is the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and ASD traits in psychosis? A systematic review. Psychiatry Research. 2017. Jan 6.----------Kincaid, D., Doris, M., Shannon, C., & Mulholland, C. (2017). What is the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and ASD traits in psychosis? A systematic review Psychiatry Research DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.017... Read more »
Kincaid, D., Doris, M., Shannon, C., & Mulholland, C. (2017) What is the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and ASD traits in psychosis? A systematic review. Psychiatry Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.017
This post critiques a study that attempted to test predictions of differential-K theory about racial differences in sexuality using data from a Durex condom survey. Better, more scientific data addresses this topic, and fails to confirm the predictions of this theory.... Read more »
Dutton, E., van der Linden, D., & Lynn, R. (2016) Population differences in androgen levels: A test of the Differential K theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 289-295. info:/
The author of a study on population differences in androgens claimed that his findings support Lynn's claims about racial differences in penis length. Close analysis of the statistics used shows these conclusions are invalid.... Read more »
Dutton, E., van der Linden, D., & Lynn, R. (2016) Population differences in androgen levels: A test of the Differential K theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 289-295. info:/
The bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, is thought to be discovered as a contaminant in radiation-sterilized cans in 1960s. The name of the bacterium comes from the Ancient Greek, i.e. deinos and kokkos meaning “terrible grain/berry”, and the Latin language, i.e. radius and durare, meaning “radiation surviving”. The bacterium is also known as Conan the Bacterium.
Deinococcus radiodurans is a comparatively larger bacterium having spherical shape. It is a red-pigmented bacterium that does not cause diseases. The bacterium also possesses a highly efficient DNA repair system that is thought to be responsible for the unbelievable survival strategies.
It is considered as the toughest bacterium in the world as it is highly resistant to radiations, i.e. it can resist thousand times more radiation as compared to a normal person. The bacterium also has a strong ability to survive in conditions of cold, vacuum, dehydration, and acid. Therefore, it is also known as polyextremophile.
Deinococcus radiodurans in a dish (Source: science.nasa.gov)
Deinococcus radiodurans in a dish (Source: science.nasa.gov)
Deinococcus radiodurans has also been used by scientists for the consumption and digestion of solvents as well as heavy metals. It is also thought to have an ability to store information that can survive even after huge catastrophes.
Data stored in multiplying bacteria – https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3243-data-stored-in-multiplying-bacteria/
Genome News Network – http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/07_02/deinococcus.shtml
The Possible Mechanisms Involved in the Protection Strategies against Radiation-Induced Cellular Damage by Carnitines – http://file.scirp.org/Html/1-2101023_53873.htm
Krisko, A., & Radman, M. (2013). Biology of Extreme Radiation Resistance: The Way of Deinococcus radiodurans Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 5 (7) DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a012765
Meet Conan the Bacterium – https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/1999/ast14dec99_1... Read more »
Krisko, A., & Radman, M. (2013) Biology of Extreme Radiation Resistance: The Way of Deinococcus radiodurans. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 5(7). DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a012765
Brain activation during challenges to political vs. non-political beliefs (Figure modified from Kaplan et al., 2016).
Lately I've been despairing about the state of America.
I'm not sure how denying access to affordable health care, opposing scientific facts like global warming and the benefits of vaccines, alienating our allies, banning Muslims, building a wall, endorsing torture, and
... Read more »
Feinberg, M., & Willer, R. (2015) From Gulf to Bridge: When Do Moral Arguments Facilitate Political Influence?. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(12), 1665-1681. DOI: 10.1177/0146167215607842
Kaplan, J., Gimbel, S., & Harris, S. (2016) Neural correlates of maintaining one’s political beliefs in the face of counterevidence. Scientific Reports, 39589. DOI: 10.1038/srep39589
A remarkable and troubling new paper: Addressing reverse inference in psychiatric neuroimaging: Meta-analyses of task-related brain activation in common mental disorders
Icahn School of Medicine researchers Emma Sprooten and colleagues carried out an ambitious task: to pull together the results of every fMRI study which has compared task-related brain activation in people with a mental illness and healthy controls.
Sprooten et al.'s analysis included 537 studies with a total of 21,427 ... Read more »
Sprooten E, Rasgon A, Goodman M, Carlin A, Leibu E, Lee WH, & Frangou S. (2017) Addressing reverse inference in psychiatric neuroimaging: Meta-analyses of task-related brain activation in common mental disorders. Human Brain Mapping. PMID: 28067006
"As compared with 54 typically developing controls, we found no evidence of differences in the blood profile of immune mediators supportive of active systemic inflammation mechanisms in participants with autism."That was the unexpected research bottom-line published by Carlos Pardo and colleagues  (open-access) examining whether various immune-related chemicals - "cytokines, chemokines, or growth factors in serum and cerebrospinal fluid" - might be linked to autism following longitudinal assessment. By longitudinal I mean that: "Up to four serum samples and up to two CSF samples were obtained from participants, at intervals ranging from 9–24 months, and stored until simultaneous laboratory analysis.""Participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of autism" we are told, the aim of which was 'to learn more about autism and its subtypes'. Indeed, some of the research attached to this cohort has been previously discussed on this blog (see here) and for example, the suggestion that the horror that is a gluten- and/or casein-free diet used in the context of autism might not be as horrible as many people might think . This time around serum samples were available for over 100 children diagnosed with autism and some 54 not-autism controls. Sixty-seven of the children with autism also provided a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample taken via a lumbar puncture. The authors note: "Ethical constraints prevented lumbar punctures in the TYP [control] group" so make of that what you will.Bearing in mind that no participants had a history of immunodeficiency or autoimmune disorder (important concepts to some autism) but that "Food, environmental, and seasonal allergies were present in a minority of participants, but were more common in AUT [participants with autism]" the results are interesting. First, when comparing results based on the analysis of CSF samples and serum samples researchers noted that there were "striking differences in the expression of selected cytokines, immune-related growth factors, and chemokines in the CSF compartment compared to the circulating bloodstream compartment." So basically what goes on in serum might not necessarily be the same as that going on in CSF in a biochemical sense.Next and as per the title and headline of this post: "we found no evidence for major differences in the expression of circulating cytokines and chemokines between children with autism and typically developing controls." This contrasts with quite a bit of other research in the area of immune-related compounds and autism (see here for example) but one has to be a little careful with the wording here, specifically the term 'major differences'. I say that because the authors do report that EGF - epidermal growth factor - did come out as 'different' between the groups (greater in the autism group) for example. EGF has been mentioned before in the context of autism but levels of the stuff have tended to be lower in autism not higher (see here). Puzzling.This is important work not least because of the cautions highlighted by the authors: "about the lack of relationship between central and peripheral immune markers, signaling that caution should be taken when interpreting the available studies implicating current immune dysfunction in the phenomenology of ASD [autism spectrum disorder], as few have included direct measures of CNS [central nervous system] status." Bearing in mind that there were no CFS comparison samples from controls included in this study (quite a big research flaw by all accounts) it is something else to suggest that if one really wants to see what is going on with immune function and autism, one needs to be looking to a far more invasive sample media. That some of this research group have some 'form' when it comes to the immune system potentially being linked to autism  and even more invasive tissue types is also worth noting as further investigations are very carefully merited...The immune system and autism continues to intrigue.---------- Pardo CA. et al. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid immune mediators in children with autistic disorder: a longitudinal study. Molecular Autism. 2017. 8: 1. Graf-Myles J. et al. Dietary adequacy of children with autism compared with controls and the impact of restricted diet. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2013 Sep;34(7):449-59. Vargas DL. et al. Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism. Ann Neurol. 2005 Jan;57(1):67-81.----------Pardo, C., Farmer, C., Thurm, A., Shebl, F., Ilieva, J., Kalra, S., & Swedo, S. (2017). Serum and cerebrospinal fluid immune mediators in children with autistic disorder: a longitudinal study Molecular Autism, 8 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s13229-016-0115-7... Read more »
Pardo, C., Farmer, C., Thurm, A., Shebl, F., Ilieva, J., Kalra, S., & Swedo, S. (2017) Serum and cerebrospinal fluid immune mediators in children with autistic disorder: a longitudinal study. Molecular Autism, 8(1). DOI: 10.1186/s13229-016-0115-7
It is still so early in 2017 and yet, it is time for another installation of tidbits, miscellany, odds and ends, and accumulated wisdom with which you can amaze your friends and impress family members. And that we don’t want to just toss disrespectfully into recycling when it could bring so much joy to your […]... Read more »
Motro D, & Ellis AP. (2016) Boys, Don't Cry: Gender and Reactions to Negative Performance Feedback. The Journal of Applied Psychology. PMID: 27808525
Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a rare disorder caused by mutations in FLCN and associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. It has been shown that FLCN-interacting protein 1 and 2 (FNIP1 and FNIP2) double knockout mice, like the FLCN knockout mice, develop renal carcinoma (Hasumi et al., 2015). However, the molecular mechanisms linking FNIP and FLCN remain unknown. In their new study, Nagashima et al. (2016) show that FNIP2 undergoes proteasome-dependent degradation via β-TRCP and Casein Kinase 1 (CK1)-directed ubiquitination in a nutrition-dependent manner. Degradation of FNIP2 leads to lysosomal dissociation of FLCN and association of mTOR, which promotes the proliferation of renal cancer cells.... Read more »
Nagashima K, Fukushima H, Shimizu K, Yamada A, Hidaka M, Hasumi H, Ikebe T, Fukumoto S, Okabe K, & Inuzuka H. (2016) Nutrient-induced FNIP degradation by SCFβ-TRCP regulates FLCN complex localization and promotes renal cancer progression. Oncotarget. PMID: 28039480
by Piter Kehoma Boll A fascinating group of animals that has not yet joined the Friday Fellows are the sponges. Different from all other animals, sponges have a unique body structure that behaves more like a plant or fungus. They … Continue reading →... Read more »
Hendler, G. (1984) The Association of Ophiothrix lineata and Callyspongia vaginalis: A Brittlestar-Sponge Cleaning Symbiosis?. Marine Ecology, 5(1), 9-27. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0485.1984.tb00304.x
Hoppe, W. (1988) Growth, regeneration and predation in three species of large coral reef sponges. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 117-125. DOI: 10.3354/meps050117
"Our data suggest that exercise is more effective than control at reducing anxiety symptoms."So said the meta-analysis published by Brendan Stubbs and colleagues  who surveyed the peer-reviewed literature "investigating the benefits of exercise compared to usual treatment or control conditions in people with an anxiety and/or stress-related disorders." From the 6 randomised, controlled trials found "from inception until December 2015" exercise (various types of exercise regime) did seem to have something of an effect on anxiety symptoms in adults compared to control conditions.I'm not going to labour too much on these findings because they really speak for themselves bearing in mind control conditions may not be the same as pitting exercise against something rather more proactive when it comes to tackling anxiety. Allied to the idea that exercise is basically medicine when it comes to various psychological/psychiatric labels as well as more somatic ones (see here) and is one of the more cost-effective interventions proposed (and typically side-effect free), the questions that remain are: (a) what are the mechanisms of effect? and (b) are there specific types of exercise that might be more suited to specific diagnostic labels? At least one of those questions has been touched upon in other papers  whereby low to moderate intensity exercise seems to be the way forward for at least some forms of anxiety. I assume that means activities such as walking, swimming and non-competitive cycling might be something to consider for example. A quick trawl of some of the other literature in this area also suggest that activities such as yoga might be useful for trait anxiety when attached to other diagnoses  but please, do not read this as medical or clinical advice in any intended form. Speak to your medical physician if you're unsure.Finally, given my previous discussions on how various types of anxiety disorder seem to be over-represented among many parts of the autism spectrum (see here for example), I can't help but wonder whether the chatter about behavioural outcomes following exercise with autism in mind (see here) might also come into play here. If for example, one accepts that anxiety can not only be an utterly disabling state to exist in but might also 'interact' with more 'core' presentation of autism (see here), future studies may be minded to look at how exercise might impact on both autistic and anxiety-related traits for the benefit of the individual...And finally, for the 'weekend [exercise] warriors' out there, some good news...---------- Stubbs B. et al. An examination of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for people with anxiety and stress-related disorders: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research. 2017. Jan 6. Takács J. & Stauder A. The role of regular physical activity in the prevention and intervention of symptoms of anxiety and anxiety disorders. Psychiatr Hung. 2016;31(4):327-337. Buffart LM. et al. Physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga in cancer patients and survivors, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Cancer. 2012 Nov 27;12:559.----------Stubbs, B., Vancampfort, D., Rosenbaum, S., Firth, J., Cosco, T., Veronese, N., Salum, G., & Schuch, F. (2017). An examination of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for people with anxiety and stress-related disorders: A meta-analysis Psychiatry Research DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.12.020... Read more »
Stubbs, B., Vancampfort, D., Rosenbaum, S., Firth, J., Cosco, T., Veronese, N., Salum, G., & Schuch, F. (2017) An examination of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for people with anxiety and stress-related disorders: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.12.020
"However, patients admitted on five day/number combinations were 20-30% more likely to survive at 13 years. These findings could be explained by subgroup analysis inflation of the type I error, although supernatural causes merit further investigation."
No. Supernatural causes do not merit further investigation, at least, not based on anything in this paper.
The authors used Friday the 13th as their "normal" date for comparison with every other date, but the outcomes from Friday the 13th are not the true statistical mean. The outcomes on Friday the 13th were just chosen because of the superstition being investigated. Friday the 13th is so close to the statistical mean that this mistake is easy to make.... Read more »
Protty, M., Jaafar, M., Hannoodee, S., & Freeman, P. (2016) Acute coronary syndrome on Friday the 13th: a case for re-organising services?. The Medical Journal of Australia, 205(11), 523-525. DOI: 10.5694/mja16.00870
"Fifteen studies suggest a higher prevalence rate of ASDs [autism spectrum disorder] among children of immigrants in comparison to native children."Those fifteen studies formed a large part of the seventeen studies included in the review by Rafal Kawa and colleagues  who set out to look at the collected peer-reviewed literature on the topic of the "prevalence and risk for ASD in Europe among immigrants and ethnic minorities." Carried out as part of a European Union (EU) initiative titled 'Enhancing the Scientific Study of Early Autism' the Kawa review was a sort of first step to looking at whether the racial/ethnic disparities noted in autism rates in the United States for example, might also hold true for Europe. Evidently they did.This is a topic covered before on this blog (see here for example) and so the results come as little surprise. One does have to be slightly cautious about how such data is interpreted, particularly in light of recent European history but outside of any politics there are some intriguing scientific questions posed by such data and some potentially important 'connections' with other independent datasets that could benefit autism research more generally (see here and see here). Given also some emerging research suggesting that autism may not be the only diagnostic label where risk is heightened according to immigrant status (see here), there are some further studies to be undertaken on this topic, in these days of overlapping labels (see here).---------- Kawa R. et al. European studies on prevalence and risk of autism spectrum disorders according to immigrant status-a review. Eur J Public Health. 2016 Dec 24. pii: ckw206.----------Kawa R, Saemundsen E, Lóa Jónsdóttir S, Hellendoorn A, Lemcke S, Canal-Bedia R, García-Primo P, & Moilanen I (2016). European studies on prevalence and risk of autism spectrum disorders according to immigrant status-a review. European journal of public health PMID: 28013245... Read more »
Kawa R, Saemundsen E, Lóa Jónsdóttir S, Hellendoorn A, Lemcke S, Canal-Bedia R, García-Primo P, & Moilanen I. (2016) European studies on prevalence and risk of autism spectrum disorders according to immigrant status-a review. European journal of public health. PMID: 28013245
An updated approach to animal welfare includes opportunities for positive experiences for our companion (and other) animals. “…the overall objective is to provide opportunities for animals to ‘thrive’, not simply ‘survive’” (Mellor, 2016)The Five FreedomsAnimal welfare is traditionally defined by the Five Freedoms. These areFreedom from hunger and thirstFreedom from discomfortFreedom from pain, injury and diseaseFreedom to express normal behaviourFreedom from fear and distressYou can see the original list on the – now archived – page of the UK’s Farm Animal Welfare Council and the Council’s 2009 report on farm animal welfare in Great Britain.You will also find them listed on many SPCA and humane society websites, including by the BC SPCA and the ASPCA, because the Five Freedoms frame how they look after the animals in their care.The Five Freedoms have defined animal welfare internationally, not just for farmed animals but also for our companion animals. Each of the Freedoms has a corresponding Provision that enables the Freedom to be met. For example, ‘freedom from hunger and thirst’ has the provision “by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour.”Updating the Five FreedomsYou might have already noticed that most of the Freedoms are ‘freedom from’ something unpleasant. Research by Professor David Mellor (Massey University) suggests improvements that include positive welfare as well.There are two main disadvantages to the Five Freedoms approach, according to Mellor (2016).The first is that some people have taken them to mean something that is an absolute, rather than an ideal. This is despite the fact the FAWC says “These freedoms define ideal states rather than standards for acceptable welfare.”Mellor says that some people even see them as ‘rights’ for the animals. However, he says, some of these are biological drives – if animals did not feel thirst, they would never drink, for example. So we can’t expect that an animal would never feel thirst; it’s more that they should never get too thirsty, because water should be available to them when they do feel thirst.The second disadvantage is that the approach focusses on problems. Mellor says it’s because that is what was important at the time, and that the Five Freedoms have been very successful.However, now we are more aware of the idea of providing positive experiences, and so they should be incorporated into our model of good animal welfare.The Five Provisions and Welfare AimsThe updated set of Five Provisions/Welfare Aims incorporates positive experiences as well as minimizing negative ones. It is designed to be easily understood and memorable, just like the original Five Freedoms.Reproduced from Mellor (2016) under Creative Commons licenceProfessor David Mellor told me in an email,“An animal’s welfare refers to what it experiences. Experiences can be negative or positive. An early idea was that animals should be kept free of conditions inside and outside their bodies that lead to negative experiences. We now know that some internal conditions and related negative experiences are needed to keep animals alive. For example, breathlessness helps to regulate breathing, thirst ensures that animals drink enough water, hunger gets them to eat enough food, and pain drives them to avoid or withdraw from things that cause injuries. So we cannot eliminate these experiences, but we can avoid extremes of them. Thus, good care can ensure that such negative experiences stay at low levels, but are still available to get the animals to behave in particular ways that help to keep them alive. Regarding hunger, you should be careful not to overfeed your pet."Other negative experiences are due to an animal’s external circumstances. These may arise when animals are kept alone in a small, featureless area with little to do, or when they feel threatened in various ways. Loneliness, depression, boredom, fear and anxiety are examples of these experiences. Fortunately, if the animals are given congenial company, plenty of space, a variety of things to do and feel safe and secure, these negative experiences can be replaced by positive feelings of comfort, pleasure, interest, confidence and a sense of control."The aims of animal care should therefore be both to keep the negative experiences generated within the body at low levels, and to replace various other negative experiences by providing comfortable, congenial, interesting and safe surroundings."The Five Provisions/Welfare Aims approach helps us to do this. The Provisions guide the way we care for animals by ensuring they have good nutrition, good environment, good health, appropriate behaviour and positive mental experiences. The Welfare Aims linked to the provisions direct our attention to the experiences we want to reduce to low levels and to the other experiences we want to encourage.”The Five Provisions/Welfare Aims are consistent with the Five Domains Model of animal welfare that is an update to the Five Freedoms. The Five Domains are nutrition, environment, health, behavior, and mental state, and you will notice that the names of the Five Provisions map onto these domains.Illustrating the Five Domains ModelA paper by Kat Littlewood and David Mellor provides an example of how the new approach works. They take a fictional scenario of a working farm dog called Jess who gets injured. They walk the reader through the dog’s welfare at six different stages in her life. The scenario was chosen so that it does not present an ideal, and both positive and negative aspects of welfare are assessed. It is the first use of the new Five Domains model. The paper follows Jess from her initial working role herding sheep on a farm, through a traumatic injury caused by getting stuck on a barbed wire fence, subsequent emergency veterinary care, having to have a front leg amputated, six weeks recovery time in a new home, and then her subsequent life as a tripod pet dog.At each stage, Littlewood and Mellor illustrate... Read more »
Littlewood, K., & Mellor, D. (2016) Changes in the Welfare of an Injured Working Farm Dog Assessed Using the Five Domains Model. Animals, 6(9), 58. DOI: 10.3390/ani6090058
Mellor DJ. (2016) Moving beyond the "Five Freedoms" by Updating the "Five Provisions" and Introducing Aligned "Animal Welfare Aims". Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 6(10). PMID: 27669313
The placenta is a unique organ as it is an extra-embryonic tissue primarily regulated by the fetal genome and shared between mother and fetus. However, it is a transient organ that is only needed throughout pregnancy and gestation and then is discarded after delivery. The essential role of the placenta in pregnancy is unquestionable but, surprisingly, as highlighted by the NIH NICHD Human Placenta Project (https://www.nichd.nih.gov/research/HPP/Pages/default.aspx), it is the human organ we know least about. Due to its unique features, the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate placental gene expression may not be under the same constraints as for other organs. We have recently reviewed the literature on DNA methylation in the placenta1 and highlighted the fact that this tissue is the most hypomethylated in the body when compared to other healthy tissues.2, 3 However, the reasons for this relative DNA hypomethylation are unknown. We do know that DNA methylation within the placenta increases across gestation.3-5 In addition, DNA methylation patterns in the placenta are characterized by large partially methylated domains in which the genes in these domains are repressed.6... Read more »
Mayne BT, Leemaqz SY, Smith AK, Breen J, Roberts CT, & Bianco-Miotto T. (2016) Accelerated placental aging in early onset preeclampsia pregnancies identified by DNA methylation. Epigenomics. PMID: 27894195
Bianco-Miotto T, Mayne BT, Buckberry S, Breen J, Rodriguez Lopez CM, & Roberts CT. (2016) Recent progress towards understanding the role of DNA methylation in human placental development. Reproduction (Cambridge, England), 152(1). PMID: 27026712
Ehrlich M, Gama-Sosa MA, Huang LH, Midgett RM, Kuo KC, McCune RA, & Gehrke C. (1982) Amount and distribution of 5-methylcytosine in human DNA from different types of tissues of cells. Nucleic acids research, 10(8), 2709-21. PMID: 7079182
Fuke C, Shimabukuro M, Petronis A, Sugimoto J, Oda T, Miura K, Miyazaki T, Ogura C, Okazaki Y, & Jinno Y. (2004) Age related changes in 5-methylcytosine content in human peripheral leukocytes and placentas: an HPLC-based study. Annals of human genetics, 68(Pt 3), 196-204. PMID: 15180700
Novakovic B, Yuen RK, Gordon L, Penaherrera MS, Sharkey A, Moffett A, Craig JM, Robinson WP, & Saffery R. (2011) Evidence for widespread changes in promoter methylation profile in human placenta in response to increasing gestational age and environmental/stochastic factors. BMC genomics, 529. PMID: 22032438
Price EM, Cotton AM, Peñaherrera MS, McFadden DE, Kobor MS, & Robinson W. (2012) Different measures of "genome-wide" DNA methylation exhibit unique properties in placental and somatic tissues. Epigenetics, 7(6), 652-63. PMID: 22531475
Schroeder DI, Blair JD, Lott P, Yu HO, Hong D, Crary F, Ashwood P, Walker C, Korf I, Robinson WP.... (2013) The human placenta methylome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(15), 6037-42. PMID: 23530188
Fogarty NM, Burton GJ, & Ferguson-Smith AC. (2015) Different epigenetic states define syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast nuclei in the trophoblast of the human placenta. Placenta, 36(8), 796-802. PMID: 26008948
Marioni RE, Shah S, McRae AF, Chen BH, Colicino E, Harris SE, Gibson J, Henders AK, Redmond P, Cox SR.... (2015) DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life. Genome biology, 25. PMID: 25633388
Two new papers outline urge scientists to make research more reproducible.
First off, Russ Poldrack and colleagues writing in Nature Reviews Neuroscience discuss how to achieve transparent and reproducible neuroimaging research. Neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, are enormously powerful tools for neuroscientists but, Poldrack et al. say, they are at risk of "a ‘perfect storm’ of irreproducible results". because the "high dimensionality of fMRI data, the relatively low power of mos... Read more »
Poldrack RA, Baker CI, Durnez J, Gorgolewski KJ, Matthews PM, Munafò MR, Nichols TE, Poline JB, Vul E, & Yarkoni T. (2017) Scanning the horizon: towards transparent and reproducible neuroimaging research. Nature reviews. Neuroscience. PMID: 28053326
Marcus R. Munafò, Brian A. Nosek, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Katherine S. Button,, Christopher D. Chambers, Nathalie Percie du Sert, Uri Simonsohn, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers,, & Jennifer J. Ware and John P. A. Ioannidis. (2017) A manifesto for reproducible science. Nat Hum Behav. info:/
There is limited evidence that poor movement quality is associated with a greater risk of lower extremity injury in athletic and military/first-responder populations.... Read more »
Whittaker JL, Booysen N, de la Motte S, Dennett L, Lewis CL, Wilson D, McKay C, Warner M, Padua D, Emery CA.... (2016) Predicting sport and occupational lower extremity injury risk through movement quality screening: a systematic review. British journal of sports medicine. PMID: 27935483
The quote making up the title of this post comes from the case report described by Albino J Oliveira-Maia and colleagues  talking yet again about how coeliac disease - the archetypal autoimmune condition where dietary gluten is the baddie - may have effects well beyond just the physical.Describing the experiences of a woman who was admitted to a psychiatry inpatient unit on the basis of "suicidal behaviours" who also "developed an agitated catatonic state", a mix of "antidepressants, anxiolytics, antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy" seemingly did very little to her state at/during admission we are told. Further, some diagnostic work-up beyond just her psychiatric features "allowed for the diagnosis of coeliac disease" and instigation of a gluten-free diet - the primary management option for coeliac disease - seemed to have something of a 'significant' effect on her psychiatric well-being as per that opening quote.Am I particularly surprised by all of this? No. Regular readers will know that I've previously talked about gluten and psychiatry quite a few times on this blog (see here and see here for example) and there is other research out there in the peer-reviewed domain pertinent to discussions . Without trying to over-generalise a case report to anything further, there are a number of notable peer-reviewed papers that have suggested that diet can affect psychiatry and this addition merely adds to the haul.If I did perhaps have to go into further detail on how something like suicidal behaviours might link into gluten and coeliac disease (CD) I would perhaps draw your attention to how gluten does seem to be a 'mood affector' when it comes to at least some cases of CD (see here) and the link between something like depression and suicidality. I'm sure however that this is not the final word on any such link and please, don't generalise with any sweeping suggestions about how all depression is somehow caused solely by gluten. Depression is a very complicated entity.More research is of course indicated but I do wonder how many more case reports on previously unidentified coeliac disease (or non-coeliac gluten sensitivity even?) and similar psychiatric symptoms there may be out there? Time for more screening of vulnerable populations perhaps...---------- Oliveira-Maia AJ. et al. Case of coeliac disease presenting in the psychiatry ward. BMJ Case Rep. 2016 Dec 21;2016. pii: bcr2016216825. Ludvigsson JF. et al. Increased suicide risk in coeliac disease--a Swedish nationwide cohort study. Dig Liver Dis. 2011 Aug;43(8):616-22.----------Oliveira-Maia AJ, Andrade I, & Barahona-Corrêa JB (2016). Case of coeliac disease presenting in the psychiatry ward. BMJ case reports, 2016 PMID: 28003229... Read more »
Oliveira-Maia AJ, Andrade I, & Barahona-Corrêa JB. (2016) Case of coeliac disease presenting in the psychiatry ward. BMJ case reports. PMID: 28003229
Do you write about peer-reviewed research in your blog? Use ResearchBlogging.org to make it easy for your readers — and others from around the world — to find your serious posts about academic research.
If you don't have a blog, you can still use our site to learn about fascinating developments in cutting-edge research from around the world.
Research Blogging is powered by SMG Technology.
To learn more, visit seedmediagroup.com.