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  • February 22, 2017
  • 07:03 AM
  • 79 views

SciELO Preprints on the way

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective

The main objective of SciELO Preprints is to speeding up the availability of research results and will contribute to an organized flow of potentially acceptable preprints by SciELO journals, in line with the advances and growing importance of preprints publication internationally. The cooperative construction of the SciELO Preprints modus operandi will encompass the promotion and debate of the preprints concept, the definition of governance and operations structures and the operational implementation. It is expected to be fully operational by mid-2018. … Read More →... Read more »

Berg, J., Bhalla, N., Bourne, P., Chalfie, M., Drubin, D., Fraser, J., Greider, C., Hendricks, M., Jones, C., Kiley, R.... (2016) Preprints for the life sciences. Science, 352(6288), 899-901. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9133  

Ginsparg, P. (2016) Preprint Déjà Vu. The EMBO Journal, 35(24), 2620-2625. DOI: 10.15252/embj.201695531  

Pulverer, B. (2016) Preparing for Preprints. The EMBO Journal, 35(24), 2617-2619. DOI: 10.15252/embj.201670030  

Vale, R. (2015) Accelerating scientific publication in biology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(44), 13439-13446. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1511912112  

  • February 22, 2017
  • 04:01 AM
  • 80 views

Do twitter or facebook activity influence scientific impact?

by Richard Kunert in Brain's Idea

Are scientists smart when they promote their work on social media? Isn’t this a waste of time, time which could better be spent in the lab running experiments? No. An analysis of all available articles published by PLoS journals suggests otherwise. My own twitter activity might best be thought of as learning about science (in […]... Read more »

Peoples BK, Midway SR, Sackett D, Lynch A, & Cooney PB. (2016) Twitter Predicts Citation Rates of Ecological Research. PloS one, 11(11). PMID: 27835703  

  • February 21, 2017
  • 09:02 AM
  • 103 views

Who Can Swim Further: A Race to the Depths and Back (A Guest Post)

by Miss Behavior in The Scorpion and the Frog

By Jefferson LeThe blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is the largest mammal on the planet. Image byNMFS Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NOAA) available at Wikimedia Commons.Helloooooo! My name is Bailey and I am a 25 meter long blue whale, the largest living mammal on Earth! My friend Finley, a 21 meter long fin whale comes in second for largest in size. We had an interesting adventure recently where we were followed by humans. While Finley and I were foraging for food, I overheard the humans talking about investigating our diving behavior when we hunt and not hunt. With that, I will tell you what these foreigners did to investigate our behavior and also what happens when we dive. A chart of whales of different sizes. Image by Smithsonian Institute.To record our dives, the humans travelled to Mexican waters to attach recorders onto our mid-backs using a crossbow. Now, it didn’t hurt much due to my thick blubber. These devices recorded depth of how far we dived, time of dives, and our location. These recorders eventually came off between 5 to 13 hours later. Finley and I were not the only test subjects. Other members of our species were also tagged. After all the data on the devices were collected, the humans finally left our waters and did statistical analyses on our diving behavior. The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) rarely exposes its fluke when it prepares to diveto the abyss. Image by Aqqa Rosing-Asvid at Wikimedia Commons.Now, before we talk about what the humans found, I want to share with you the whale secret to a great dive. In case that you ever find yourself in the ocean or your local pool, you can try it! The nose for Finley and I are called blowholes, which are found on top of our heads. This tract is separated from our digestive tract so we do not have to worry about having food go down our blowhole. When I am about to dive, instead of gulping in lots of oxygen, I exhale out as much as I can. This causes my lungs to collapse and flexible walls in my chest allow even more compression. Also, tiny structures in my lungs called alveoli collapse which halts any gas exchange. All of the decrease in lung space decreases buoyancy so I can descend down to the depths. As I descend, my heart rate lessens to reduce energy used during the dive. The oxygen that I had obtained before the dive is stored in my blood and muscle tissue. Since the deep depths are really cold, blood flow is temporarily halted at the thinner areas of my body, like flippers, and some organs to keep the main body going. When I ascend back up, I gradually increase space in my lungs and my alveoli regain full function to allow gas exchange. If you were to ascend too quickly, you could get shallow water blackout or even worse, the “bends” (where nitrogen bubbles in your blood) and I heard it is painful. After ascending is complete, I can release my blowhole open and take in fresh oxygen again. I was secretly told what the results to the humans’ experiments were. They found out that fin and blue whales dove deeper when hunting on shallow dives when not hunting. It makes sense! Why spend so much energy diving when not hunting? Also, they noted that our lunge feeding frequency was different. Lunge feeding is where we propel ourselves towards our prey with our mouth open and grab as much food as we can into our mouth. Blue whales lunged about 2.5 times more than fin whales! That’s a point for the blue! However, the record dive depth came from a fin whale. Hmm… I wonder if Finley broke that record. Did you find my secret and what the humans found interesting? I surely did. I never thought about how I dive and how I behave as it is practically in my blood! Well, the next time you are at a deep pool, try those secrets I spilled to you. It might be fun! Then again, you might be thinking, how does a whale communicate with a human and understand scientific data? That is a secret you may never know… Literature Cited:Croll DA, Acevedo-Gutiérrez A, Tershy BR, & Urbán-Ramírez J (2001). The diving behavior of blue and fin whales: is dive duration shorter than expected based on oxygen stores? Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology, 129 (4), 797-809 PMID: 11440866Hill, R. W., G. A., Wyse, M. Anderson. (2008). Animal Physiology. 2:641-660 ... Read more »

Croll DA, Acevedo-Gutiérrez A, Tershy BR, & Urbán-Ramírez J. (2001) The diving behavior of blue and fin whales: is dive duration shorter than expected based on oxygen stores?. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular , 129(4), 797-809. PMID: 11440866  

  • February 14, 2017
  • 12:13 PM
  • 188 views

The Complexities of “The Love Hormone”

by Miss Behavior in The Scorpion and the Frog

New York street art. Photo inWikimedia Commons posted by Pedroalmovar.Oxytocin, commonly known as “the love hormone”, is a small chemical that is produced in the brain of mammals, but can both act as a neurotransmitter and enter the blood stream and act as a hormone. It has long been heralded for its role in both maternal and romantic love, but more recent research is showing us just how complicated the physiology of love can be.Oxytocin is released in mammalian mothers after birth. It promotes nursing and bonding between a mother and her young. As children grow, oxytocin is involved in how both mothers and fathers “baby-talk” and mirror their children. It is involved in pro-social behaviors in both young and adults: trust, generosity, cooperation, hugging, and empathy. And of course, oxytocin promotes positive communication and pair bonding in romantic couples. Countless studies have found these relationships between affiliation and oxytocin in many mammalian species, giving oxytocin its commonly used nickname “the love hormone”.But more recent studies show that it’s not so simple.In a number of recent studies, people have been given oxytocin nasal sprays and tested for various behavioral effects in different contexts… and the context really seems to matter. Oxytocin increases trust, generosity, cooperation, and empathy towards people we already know and like. But it decreases trust, generosity, cooperation, and empathy towards strangers. When we play games with strangers, oxytocin makes us more jealous when we lose and it makes us gloat more when we win. It also seems to enhance many attributes relating to ethnocentrism: It increases our ability to read facially-expressed emotions in people of our own race while making it harder to read facial expressions of people of a different race. When forced to choose between being nice to a stranger of our own race versus a stranger of another race, oxytocin makes us more likely to choose the person of our own race. In studies of both people and rodents, oxytocin decreases aggression towards our families and friends, but increases aggression towards strangers.Oxytocin is not the universal love hormone we once understood it to be. It helps us direct our positive support towards our “in-groups” (our family and friends) and defend them from our “out-groups” (individuals we don’t know). It is a delicate balance: Too little of it can cause social impairment and make it difficult to connect with loved-ones; Too much of it can increase our anxiety towards strangers and racist tendencies. And to make things more complicated, each of us has a slightly different oxytocin system: sex, gender, social history, history of childhood trauma or neglect, psychiatric illnesses and genetic variations all have profound effects on the oxytocin system.There is much we don’t know about the role of oxytocin and love. But they are a good fit, because both, it seems, are complicated.Want to know more? Check these out:Shamay-Tsoory SG, & Abu-Akel A (2016). The Social Salience Hypothesis of Oxytocin. Biological psychiatry, 79 (3), 194-202 PMID: 26321019 Zik JB, & Roberts DL (2015). The many faces of oxytocin: implications for psychiatry. Psychiatry research, 226 (1), 31-7 PMID: 25619431 ... Read more »

Shamay-Tsoory SG, & Abu-Akel A. (2016) The Social Salience Hypothesis of Oxytocin. Biological psychiatry, 79(3), 194-202. PMID: 26321019  

  • February 13, 2017
  • 08:09 AM
  • 146 views

What is the possible effect of clown interaction on vital signs and nonverbal communication of hospitalized children?

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective | Press Releases

Researchers at the Faculdade de Medicina de Jundiaí [Jundiaí School of Medicine], in the city of Jundiaí (State of São Paulo, Brazil) and Universidade Guarulhos [Guarulhos University], in the city of Guarulhos (State of São Paulo, Brazil), published a study that shows the positive and beneficial effects of the interaction of hospitalized children with clowns using as indicators nonverbal communication and vital signs of these children. … Read More →... Read more »

Alcântara, P., Wogel, A., Rossi, M., Neves, I., Sabates, A., & Puggina, A. (2016) Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children. Revista Paulista de Pediatria (English Edition), 34(4), 432-438. DOI: 10.1016/j.rppede.2016.02.011  

  • February 10, 2017
  • 12:15 PM
  • 151 views

Scientific reliability and the role of theory

by Multiple Authors in EPPI-Centre blog

The replication crisis, publication bias, p-hacking, harking, bad incentives, undesirable pressures and probably other factors all contribute to diminish the trustworthiness of published research, with obvious implications for research synthesis. Sergio Graziosi asks whether demanding simple theoretical clarity might be part of the solution.
... Read more »

Kerr NL. (1998) HARKing: hypothesizing after the results are known. Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc, 2(3), 196-217. PMID: 15647155  

Head ML, Holman L, Lanfear R, Kahn AT, & Jennions MD. (2015) The extent and consequences of p-hacking in science. PLoS biology, 13(3). PMID: 25768323  

Munafò, M., Nosek, B., Bishop, D., Button, K., Chambers, C., Percie du Sert, N., Simonsohn, U., Wagenmakers, E., Ware, J., & Ioannidis, J. (2017) A manifesto for reproducible science. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(1), 21. DOI: 10.1038/s41562-016-0021  

  • February 8, 2017
  • 02:05 PM
  • 167 views

Assessment of reproducibility in research results leads to more questions than answers

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective

The ‘Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology’ initiative that has the purpose of assessing the reproducibility of preclinical research in Oncology was launched in 2013 as the result of a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange. The first results of the replication studies have just been published, however, their interpretation requires a careful approach. … Read More →... Read more »

  • February 7, 2017
  • 02:15 PM
  • 28 views

Biofouling successional processes

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective | Press Releases

To assess the successional pattern of fouling organisms we tested the hypothesis that depth, light intensity and predation influences the trajectory of the fouling community. The results suggest that each physical factor or biological process can change the successional trajectory, and the respective model (e.g., convergent, divergent, parallel, or cyclic) depends on the magnitudes of the determinants that act on the community at each stage of its trajectory. … Read More →... Read more »

  • February 4, 2017
  • 04:30 PM
  • 261 views

Hidden Symmetries

by Joshua Fisher in Text Savvy

The key ideas in the article center around (a) the standard multiplication table—with a row of numbers at the top, a column of numbers down the left, and the products of those numbers in the body of the table, and (b) modulus.... Read more »

  • February 1, 2017
  • 01:58 PM
  • 435 views

Preprints – the way forward for rapid and open knowledge sharing

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective

Preprints – versions of academic articles that have not yet been formally peer-reviewed before publication – are gaining acceptance in the academic world. They deliver open access as well as speedy publication, and their decades old success in physics has spurred on their spread in other disciplines. The development of preprints is accelerating; important funding agencies are in support of them, and also SciELO is planning to set up a preprint server for authors in Latin America and the Global South generally. … Read More →... Read more »

Helena Cousijn,, Amye Kenall,, Emma Ganley,, Melissa Harrison,, David Kernohan,, Fiona Murphy,, Patrick Polischuk,, Maryann Martone,, & Timothy Clark. (2017) A Data Citation Roadmap for Scientific Publishers. bioRχiv. DOI: 10.1101/100784  

CHAWLA, D.S. (2017) When a preprint becomes the final paper. Nature. info:/

  • February 1, 2017
  • 12:00 PM
  • 38 views

New volume of MANUSCRITO brings novel contributions to a wide variety of topics in philosophy

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective | Press Releases

MANUSCRITO (Vol. 39.1) brings some new original contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics and philosophical logic. It contains articles by specialists from Latin America and Europe on a variety of issues currently discussed in the literature, and represents a substantial contribution to the contemporary philosophical debate. … Read More →... Read more »

  • January 24, 2017
  • 11:52 AM
  • 211 views

Crowdfunding and Tribefunding in Science

by Jalees Rehman in The Next Regeneration

Competition for government research grants to fund scientific research remains fierce in the United States. The budget of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which constitute the major source of funding for US biological and medical research, has been increased only modestly during the past decade but it is not even keeping up with inflation. This problem is compounded by the fact that more scientists are applying for grants now than one or two decades ago, forcing the NIH to enforce strict cut-offs and only fund the top 10-20% of all submitted research proposals. Such competition ought to be good for the field because it could theoretically improve the quality of science. Unfortunately, it is nearly impossible to discern differences between excellent research grants. For example, if an institute of the NIH has a cut-off at the 13 percentile range, then a grant proposal judged to be in the top 10% would receive funding but a proposal in top 15% would end up not being funded. In an era where universities are also scaling back their financial support for research, an unfunded proposal could ultimately lead to the closure of a research laboratory and the dismissal of several members of a research team. Since the prospective assessment of a research proposal’s scientific merits are somewhat subjective, it is quite possible that the budget constraints are creating cemeteries of brilliant ideas and concepts, a world of scientific what-ifs that are forever lost.... Read more »

Vachelard J, Gambarra-Soares T, Augustini G, Riul P, & Maracaja-Coutinho V. (2016) A Guide to Scientific Crowdfunding. PLoS Biology, 14(2). PMID: 26886064  

  • January 24, 2017
  • 06:42 AM
  • 180 views

Study assesses financing sources of open-access article processing charge

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective

Is there a correlation between article processing charge (APC) and the journals' Impact Factor? What are the funding sources for payment and how do they influence the choice of journals for publication? These and other questions were investigated by authors from Nanjing University, China and the results explain the peculiarity of open access in different countries. … Read More →... Read more »

MADHAN, M., KIMIDI, S. S., GUNASEKARAN S., & ARUNACHALAM S. (2016) Should Indian researchers pay to get their work published?. ePrints@IISc. info:/

WANG, L. L., LIU, X. Z., & FANG, H. (2015) Investigation of the degree to which papers supported by research grants are published in open access health and life sciences journals. Scientometrics, 104(2), 511-528. info:/10.1007/s11192-015-1624-4

  • January 22, 2017
  • 04:58 PM
  • 40 views

Nature Shapes Faithful and Unfaithful Brains

by Miss Behavior in The Scorpion and the Frog

Among monogamous animals, some individuals are more faithful than others. Could these differences in fidelity be, in part, because of differences in our brains? And if so, why does this diversity in brain and behavior exist?A snuggly prairie vole family. Photo from theNerdPatrol at Wikimedia Commons.Prairie voles are small North American rodents that form monogamous pair bonds, share parental duties, and defend their homes. Although prairie voles form monogamous pairs, that does not mean they are sexually exclusive. About a quarter of prairie vole pups are conceived outside of their parents’ union.Not all male prairie voles cheat on their partners at the same rates. In fact, some males are very sexually faithful. It turns out, there are both costs and benefits to being faithful and to cheating. Mariam Okhovat, Alejandro Berrio, Gerard Wallace, and Steve Phelps from the University of Texas at Austin, and Alex Ophir from Cornell University used radio-telemetry to track male prairie voles for several weeks to explore what some of these costs and benefits might be. Compared to males that only sired offspring with their own partner, unfaithful males had larger home ranges, intruded on more territories of other individuals, and encountered females more often. However, these unfaithful males were also more likely to be cheated on when they were away (probably because they were away more). I guess even rodents live by The Golden Rule.Maps of how paired male voles in this study used space. The solid red/orange/yellow peaks show where a faithful male (in the left map) and unfaithful male (in the right map) spent their time in relation to where other paired males spent their time (showed by open blue peaks). Image from the Okhovat et al. Science paper (2015).Vasopressin is a hormone that has been found to affect social behaviors such as aggression and pair bonding when it acts in the brain. Mariam, Alejandro, Gerard, Alex, and Steve all set out to determine how vasopressin in the brain may relate to sexual fidelity in prairie voles. They found that faithful males had lots of a particular type of vasopressin receptor (called V1aR) in certain brain areas involved in spatial memory. Surprisingly, faithful males did not have more V1aR in brain regions typically associated with pair bonding and aggression. A male that has more V1aR in spatial memory regions might better remember where his own mate is and where other males have been aggressive, which would decrease the chances that he would intrude on other territories in search of other females and increase the time that he spends home with his own mate. A male that has less V1aR in spatial memory regions might be less likely to learn from his negative experiences and more likely to sleep around.Photos of a brain section from a faithful male (left) and unfaithful male (right). The dark shading shows the density of V1aR vasopressin receptors. The arrows show the location of the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a brain area involved in spatial memory. Faithful males had significantly more V1aR receptors in the RSC compared to unfaithful males. Image from the Okhovat et al. Science paper (2015). The research team then found genotype variations that related to having lots or not much V1aR in one of these spatial memory regions (called retrosplenial cortex … but we’ll just call it RSC). They confirmed these findings with a breeding study, in which they reared siblings that were genetically similar, but some had the genotype they predicted would result in lots of V1aR in RSC and some had the genotype they predicted would result in very little V1aR in RSC. They confirmed that these genetic variations correspond with the amount of vasopressin receptor in this specific spatial memory area.The researchers then looked closer at the different versions of this vasopressin receptor gene in the RSC brain region to see if differences in the amount of vasopressin receptors in RSC may be caused by the epigenetic state of the gene (i.e. how active the gene is). They found that the genotype that results in very little V1aR in RSC had many more potential methylation sites, which can repress gene activity.All of this data together tells a very interesting story. Male prairie voles that have the genotype for more V1aR vasopressin receptors in their RSC part of their brain are more likely to remember where their home and mate are and to remember where other aggressive prairie voles are, which will make them more likely to spend more time with their partner, to be sexually faithful and to have sexually faithful partners. Male prairie voles that have the genotype for less V1aR in their RSC are more likely to forget where their home and mate are and where other aggressive prairie voles are, which will make them more likely to cheat and to be cheated on. Overall, faithful and unfaithful male prairie voles have roughly the same number of offspring, but advantages may emerge with changes in population density. Prairie vole populations vary anywhere from 25 to 600 voles per hectare from year to year. When population densities are high, you (and your partner) are more likely to encounter more potential mates and it may benefit you to cheat (and have a “cheater’s brain”). When population densities are low, you (and your partner) are less likely to encounter more potential mates and it may benefit you to be faithful (and have a “faithful brain”). But when populations fluctuate between high and low densities, both faithful and unfaithful genotypes will get passed along from generation to generation. Want to know more? Check this out:Okhovat, M., Berrio, A., Wallace, G., Ophir, A., & Phelps, S. (2015). Sexual fidelity trade-offs promote regulatory variation in the prairie vole brain Science, 350 (6266), 1371-1374 DOI: 10.1126/science.aac5791 ... Read more »

  • January 18, 2017
  • 05:49 AM
  • 28 views

Research tests real contribution of stay-green character in Brazilian wheats

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective | Press Releases

Wheat lines carriers of stay-green alleles have a higher capacity to reach higher yield under more restricted environmental conditions compared to the checks. The study was conducted by researchers from the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel) in Pelotas, in partnership with UNIJUI and the Agricultural Research and Extension Company of Santa Catarina and Embrapa Clima Temperado in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. … Read More →... Read more »

Luche, H., Silva, J., Nornberg, R., Hawerroth, M., Silveira, S., Caetano, V., Santos, R., Figueiredo, R., Maia, L., & Oliveira, A. (2017) Stay-green character and its contribution in Brazilian wheats. Ciência Rural, 47(1). DOI: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20160583  

  • January 16, 2017
  • 12:50 PM
  • 213 views

Five things to consider when designing a policy to measure research impact [Originally published in The Conversation]

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective

The move of the Australian government to measure the impact of university research on society introduces many new challenges that were not previously relevant when evaluation focused solely on academic merit. … Read More →... Read more »

  • January 11, 2017
  • 05:46 AM
  • 329 views

Two Manifestos for Better Science

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover



Two new papers outline urge scientists to make research more reproducible.



First off, Russ Poldrack and colleagues writing in Nature Reviews Neuroscience discuss how to achieve transparent and reproducible neuroimaging research. Neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, are enormously powerful tools for neuroscientists but, Poldrack et al. say, they are at risk of "a ‘perfect storm’ of irreproducible results". because the "high dimensionality of fMRI data, the relatively low power of mos... Read more »

Poldrack RA, Baker CI, Durnez J, Gorgolewski KJ, Matthews PM, Munafò MR, Nichols TE, Poline JB, Vul E, & Yarkoni T. (2017) Scanning the horizon: towards transparent and reproducible neuroimaging research. Nature reviews. Neuroscience. PMID: 28053326  

Marcus R. Munafò, Brian A. Nosek, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Katherine S. Button,, Christopher D. Chambers, Nathalie Percie du Sert, Uri Simonsohn, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers,, & Jennifer J. Ware and John P. A. Ioannidis. (2017) A manifesto for reproducible science. Nat Hum Behav. info:/

  • January 10, 2017
  • 07:24 AM
  • 226 views

Adoption of open peer review is increasing

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective

In analyzing how the 'peer review' institution has emerged and evolved, it is possible to understand the current transition the assessment process is going through towards greater openness, transparency and accountability. … Read More →... Read more »

Csiszar, A. (2016) Peer review: Troubled from the start. Nature, 532(7599), 306-308. DOI: 10.1038/532306a  

Callaway, E. (2016) Open peer review finds more takers. Nature, 539(7629), 343-343. DOI: 10.1038/nature.2016.20969  

  • January 10, 2017
  • 01:49 AM
  • 216 views

Blocking obesity with a protein-sugar combination

by adam phillips in It Ain't Magic

Discovery of an enzyme that prevents obesity in mice through glycosylation of a protein involved fat-cell differentiation.... Read more »

Kaburagi T, Kizuka Y, Kitazume S, & Taniguchi N. (2016) Inhibitory role of α2,6-sialylation in adipogenesis. The Journal of biological chemistry. PMID: 28031460  

  • January 9, 2017
  • 08:09 AM
  • 26 views

Study shows vulnerabilities of GPS-dependent systems to electromagnetic attacks

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective | Press Releases

The study identifies the levels of jamming power and distance required to disable GPS-dependent systems such as cell phones, and those used in automotive and aeronautical applications. Open source software was used to analyze the data collected to identify vulnerabilities in these systems, as well as proper countermeasures to undertake. The results were published by the research team from the Brazilian Aeronautical Institute of Technology in the Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management. … Read More →... Read more »

Faria, L., Silvestre, C., & Correia, M. (2016) GPS-Dependent Systems: Vulnerabilities to Electromagnetic Attacks. Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management, 8(4), 423-430. DOI: 10.5028/jatm.v8i4.632  

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