Image from Graphic SociologyCan Brain Activity Predict Criminal Reoffending? The previous post discussed a functional MRI study suggesting that the level of error-related activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) might have value in predicting whether a recently released prisoner will be rearrested within 4 years (Aharoni et al. 2013):The odds that an offender with relatively low anterior cingulate activity would be rearrested were approximately double that of an offender with high........ Read more »
Aharoni, E., Vincent, G., Harenski, C., Calhoun, V., Sinnott-Armstrong, W., Gazzaniga, M., & Kiehl, K. (2013) Neuroprediction of future rearrest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1219302110
Kiehl, K., Liddle, P., & Hopfinger, J. (2000) Error processing and the rostral anterior cingulate: An event-related fMRI study. Psychophysiology, 37(2), 216-223. DOI: 10.1111/1469-8986.3720216
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important research topic. Over 100,000 armed services personnel experienced a significant traumatic brain event in the last decade. A majority of these were explosion or blast-related in nature.However, standard brain imaging techniques (computed tomographay, structural MRI) typically fail to demonstrate changes following blast TBI. New imaging strategies are needed to assess severity and progression.Graner and colleagues from Wa........ Read more »
Graner J, Oakes TR, French LM, & Riedy G. (2013) Functional MRI in the investigation of blast-related traumatic brain injury. Frontiers in neurology, 16. PMID: 23460082
Hello Julie,My, oh my! What an exciting time it was last week, witnessing Dog Spies' migration to the Scientific American Blog Network. Such a great day for dogs, for science and for YOU! Yah! for this recognition of your fabulous writing achievements, communicating the field of canine science to a broader audience. WELL DONE!As for your question about writing and how I do it, I have to admit I'm 'between systems' currently. By this, I mean that I sometimes map out ideas and plan........ Read more »
Liberati Alessandro, Altman Douglas G., Tetzlaff Jennifer, Mulrow Cynthia, Gøtzsche Peter C., Ioannidis John P.A., Clarke Mike, Devereaux P.J., Kleijnen Jos, & Moher David. (2009) The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 62(10). DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.06.006
Dorey Nicole R., Udell Monique A.R., & Wynne Clive D.L. (2009) Breed differences in dogs sensitivity to human points: A meta-analysis. Behavioural Processes, 81(3), 409-415. DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2009.03.011
Many cultural conventions appear like the result of historical accidents. The QUERTY – keyboard is a typical example: the technical requirements of early typewriters still determine the computer keyboard that I write this text on, even though by now technical advances would allow for a far more efficient design. Some culturally accepted oddities, however, appear [...]... Read more »
Schneider P, Sluming V, Roberts N, Bleeck S, & Rupp A. (2005) Structural, functional, and perceptual differences in Heschl's gyrus and musical instrument preference. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 387-94. PMID: 16597790
Is it possible for a brain scan to predict whether a recently paroled inmate will commit another crime within 4 years? A new study by Aharoni et al. (2013) suggests that the level of activity within the anterior cingulate cortex might provide a clue to whether a given offender will be rearrested.Dress this up a bit and combine with a miniaturized brain-computer interface that continuously uploads EEG activity to the data center at a maximum security prison. There, machine learning algorith........ Read more »
A variety of research tools are being utilized to study the effect of trauma on the brain. In a previous post, I summarized some of the research using diffusion brain imaging or DTI.A recent study looked at the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in a group of football players. The BBB is an important brain protective mechanism. A variety of blood proteins and other compounds have the potential to cause inflammation and other damage to neurons and other brain cells.Marchi........ Read more »
Marchi N, Bazarian JJ, Puvenna V, Janigro M, Ghosh C, Zhong J, Zhu T, Blackman E, Stewart D, Ellis J.... (2013) Consequences of repeated blood-brain barrier disruption in football players. PloS one, 8(3). PMID: 23483891
So there has been a lot of noise about whether giving women 'safety tips' to avoid being raped is a form of 'victim blaming'.Don't get Raped (source)This culminated in a great hashtag (as many things do). Follow #safetytipsforladies to see some lovely tips for avoiding rape.For example:Don't be anywhere. 100% of rapes happen in places and locations. #safetytipsforladies— Conna Stevenson (@1000DaysOfRain) March 25, 2013Others suggest simply not being a woman, not ever drinking anything, not eve........ Read more »
Bieneck S, & Krahé B. (2011) Blaming the victim and exonerating the perpetrator in cases of rape and robbery: is there a double standard?. Journal of interpersonal violence, 26(9), 1785-97. PMID: 20587449
An interesting Journal of Neuroscience paper just out argues that Spontaneous and Task-Evoked Brain Activity Negatively Interact. If true, this could be explosive, because a lot of neuroscience is built on the assumption that those two things don’t interact. So what’s going on? We know that the brain is active all of the time. Even [...]... Read more »
He BJ. (2013) Spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity negatively interact. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 33(11), 4672-82. PMID: 23486941
Telepathic rats and brain machine interfaces.... Read more »
Pais-Vieira M, Lebedev M, Kunicki C, Wang J, & Nicolelis MA. (2013) A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Real-Time Sharing of Sensorimotor Information. Scientific reports, 1319. PMID: 23448946
I’m currently researching a piece on politics and neurosurgery, and I just came across this amusing snippet. David McKalip MD is a brain surgeon from Florida. He attained 15 minutes of infamy in 2009 when he deemed a virulently racially insensitive of Barack Obama to be “funny stuff” and emailed it to some Tea Party [...]... Read more »
Today's post is brought to you by @BabyAttachMode, who is an electrophysiologist and blogger. Today we are blog swapping! I have a post over at her blog and her post about AMPA receptors and LTP is here. So enjoy, and when you're done reading about the newest advances in synaptic plasticity here, you can head over to InBabyAttachMode and read about my personal life. AMPA Receptors are not Necessary for long term potentiationScience is most interesting to me when you’re testing a hypo........ Read more »
Granger AJ, Shi Y, Lu W, Cerpas M, & Nicoll RA. (2013) LTP requires a reserve pool of glutamate receptors independent of subunit type. Nature, 493(7433), 495-500. PMID: 23235828
WARNING: Wall of text on the yummy neuroprotective effect of ketosis from a molecular neuroscience point of view. Proceed with caution. Remember when your high school biology teacher said that the brain absolutely NEEDS glucose to function? Well, that’s not entirely true. Under severe carbohydrate restriction, the brain can adapt and start burning ketones as [...]... Read more »
Hallböök T, Ji S, Maudsley S, & Martin B. (2012) The effects of the ketogenic diet on behavior and cognition. Epilepsy research, 100(3), 304-9. PMID: 21872440
Ruskin DN, Ross JL, Kawamura M Jr, Ruiz TL, Geiger JD, & Masino SA. (2011) A ketogenic diet delays weight loss and does not impair working memory or motor function in the R6/2 1J mouse model of Huntington's disease. Physiology , 103(5), 501-7. PMID: 21501628
Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Dangelo K, Couch SC, Benoit SC, & Clegg DJ. (2012) Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiology of aging, 33(2), 2147483647-27. PMID: 21130529
Denke, M. (2001) Metabolic effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets. The American Journal of Cardiology, 88(1), 59-61. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9149(01)01586-7
Sometimes even big project could start from a tweet.
Matteo Cantarelli - member of the OpenWorm team - says: "It was 2007 when Giovanni Idili and I started - naively - talking about simulating the worm. We were approaching the problem after having hit common limits of artificial intelligence. We never got to write any code for the worm at that time, we just had lengthy conversations and paper reading sessions together."
... Read more »
Varshney LR, Chen BL, Paniagua E, Hall DH, & Chklovskii DB. (2011) Structural properties of the Caenorhabditis elegans neuronal network. PLoS computational biology, 7(2). PMID: 21304930
Palyanov A, Khayrulin S, Larson SD, & Dibert A. (2011) Towards a virtual C. elegans: a framework for simulation and visualization of the neuromuscular system in a 3D physical environment. In silico biology, 11(3-4), 137-47. PMID: 22935967
by Shelly Fan in Science of Eating Disorders
In my previous post, I looked at two hormones released during the cephalic phase (gastric secretion that occurs before food is eaten), ghrelin and obestatin, and how they may contribute to runaway eating behavior. Today I’m going to be looking at insulin release during chew and spit (CHSP), a fairly common symptom in eating disorders where the food is tasted, chewed and spit out. Insulin is a small peptide hormone that acts as a key regulator of metabolism; deregulation of insulin signalling........ Read more »
Teff KL, & Engelman K. (1996) Palatability and dietary restraint: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in women. Physiology , 60(2), 567-73. PMID: 8840920
Teff KL. (2011) How neural mediation of anticipatory and compensatory insulin release helps us tolerate food. Physiology , 103(1), 44-50. PMID: 21256146
So you want to image every neuron in the brain of a vertebrate? What kind of crazy man are you? Misha B. Ahrens, that’s who. In what can only be described as a “crazy awesome” experiment, Ahrens used a technique that’s been recently emerging called light sheet microscopy to image the activity of (nearly) every neuron [...]... Read more »
Ahrens, M., & Keller, P. (2013) Whole-brain functional imaging at cellular resolution using light-sheet microscopy. Nature Methods. DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2434
by sschroeder in Daily Observations
Few scientists know the brain as well as APS Past President Michael Gazzaniga does. A pioneer in cognitive neuroscience, Gazzaniga was the first researcher to study patients in whom the ... Read more »
Memories allow us to survive and adapt in constantly changing environments. Fear memory especially warns us to avoid that jumpy hornet in the garden, or the slithering snake on the hiking trail. These memories aren’t very specific – this is evolutionarily beneficial as it allows us to respond to new but similar threats on the [...]... Read more »
Xu W, & Südhof TC. (2013) A neural circuit for memory specificity and generalization. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6125), 1290-5. PMID: 23493706
Someone is trying to make me eat my words.yum. (source)That someone is the Dopamine Project. I am on record as saying "It is better for the public to learn simplified bite-size science morsels than to learn nothing at all." And my specific example was that it's better for people to know that 'dopamine is a reward molecule' than to not even know the term dopamine.But sometimes things just go too far. The "Dopamine Project" is a website run by Charles Lyell with a stated 'self-help' purpose: "The ........ Read more »
"The connection with the sun coming up is a misconception," asserts an article in the rural lifestyle magazine Grit. "Roosters crow all the time." Some roosters in Japan would like to loudly disagree. They've shown scientists that their crowing has everything to do with what time of day it is—something they don't even need the sun to know.
Tsuyoshi Shimmura and Takashi Yoshimura, both of Nagoya University in Japan, investigated whether a rooster's crowing is tied to its circ........ Read more »
Shimmura, T., & Yoshimura, T. (2013) Circadian clock determines the timing of rooster crowing. Current Biology, 23(6). DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.02.015
Religions tend to evolve and adapt to benefit a society the most. The first religion can be uncovered from ancient anthropomorphic sculptures 42,000 years ago.... Read more »
WU Fei-fei,JIN Li-ji,LI Xiao-yu,LI Hua-qiang,CAO Zhen-hui,YOU Jian-song,XU Yong-ping(Ministry of Education Center for Food Safety of Animal Origin,College of Life Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology,Dalian 116024,China). (2012) Research progress in active ingredients and pharmacological effects of deer antler. Chinese Journal. info:/
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