Nearly 37 million people worldwide are living with HIV. When the virus destroys so many immune cells that the body can’t fight off infection, AIDS will develop. The disease took the lives of more than a million people last year.... Read more »
Lu, M., Hou, G., Zhang, H., Suiter, C., Ahn, J., Byeon, I., Perilla, J., Langmead, C., Hung, I., Gor'kov, P.... (2015) Dynamic allostery governs cyclophilin A–HIV capsid interplay. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201516920. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1516920112
The peer review of research proposals (grants) aims to judge the merit of projects and researchers and enable the best to be contemplated. The director of an institution in the United Kingdom shared on Twitter his struggle in evaluating the numerous proposals received and started a discussion forum from which ideas and suggestions emerged. … Read More →... Read more »
This is not a study that has a valid control group to determine if there is any benefit from ventilation. There is no group that does not receive ventilations, so it is like a study of one type of blood-letting vs. another type of blood-letting with the researchers taking for granted that blood-letting does improve outcomes. That is not a problem if blood-letting actually improves outcomes.
Should we take it for granted that blood-letting improves outcomes and that the only hypothesis worth s........ Read more »
Nichol, G., Leroux, B., Wang, H., Callaway, C., Sopko, G., Weisfeldt, M., Stiell, I., Morrison, L., Aufderheide, T., Cheskes, S.... (2015) Trial of Continuous or Interrupted Chest Compressions during CPR. New England Journal of Medicine, 2147483647. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1509139
Alldredge BK,, Gelb AM,, Isaacs SM,, Corry MD,, Allen F,, Ulrich S,, Gottwald MD,, O’Neil N,, Neuhaus JM,, Segal MR,.... (2001) A Comparison of Lorazepam, Diazepam, and Placebo for the Treatment of Out-of-Hospital Status Epilepticus. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(25), 1860-1860. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200112203452521
Usually for Thanksgiving week posting is light. In the past, we’ve all done turkey breeding and genomics, cranberry genome, and some people have included apples, potatoes, and more. But another key aspect of the holiday is to remember the past and thank those who came before. And as I was watching this video that crossed my […]... Read more »
Nelson, G., Sweeney, P., Wallace, L., Rabeler, R., Allard, D., Brown, H., Carter, J., Denslow, M., Ellwood, E., Germain-Aubrey, C.... (2015) Digitization Workflows for Flat Sheets and Packets of Plants, Algae, and Fungi. Applications in Plant Sciences, 3(9), 1500065. DOI: 10.3732/apps.1500065
Nelson, G., Paul, D., Riccardi, G., & Mast, A. (2012) Five task clusters that enable efficient and effective digitization of biological collections. ZooKeys, 19-45. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.209.3135
Jolley-Rogers, G., Varghese, T., Harvey, P., dos Remedios, N., & Miller, J. (2014) PhyloJIVE: Integrating biodiversity data with the Tree of Life. Bioinformatics, 30(9), 1308-1309. DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu024
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
The growing body of research on genetic variations and their relation to crime may leave you uncertain about how to best defend your client charged with a violent crime. Do you encourage jurors to support an insanity defense by using a genetic defense or does that route backfire and leave jurors seeing your client as […]
Teaching people about neuroscience can make them softer on crime!
The “Nerd Defense”: Redux
Automatism and the Ambien Defense
... Read more »
Cheung BY, & Heine SJ. (2015) The Double-Edged Sword of Genetic Accounts of Criminality: Causal Attributions From Genetic Ascriptions Affect Legal Decision Making. Personality . PMID: 26498975
This is a post written jointly by Nelson Lau from Brandeis and me, Björn Brembs. In contrast to Nelson’s guest post, which focused on the open data aspect of our collaboration, this one describes the science behind our paper and […] ↓ Read the rest of this entry...... Read more »
Rahman R, Chirn GW, Kanodia A, Sytnikova YA, Brembs B, Bergman CM, & Lau NC. (2015) Unique transposon landscapes are pervasive across Drosophila melanogaster genomes. Nucleic acids research. PMID: 26578579
Chirn, G., Rahman, R., Sytnikova, Y., Matts, J., Zeng, M., Gerlach, D., Yu, M., Berger, B., Naramura, M., Kile, B.... (2015) Conserved piRNA Expression from a Distinct Set of piRNA Cluster Loci in Eutherian Mammals. PLOS Genetics, 11(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005652
"Are you on the autistic spectrum? Take the test" read a recent media headline.Commenting on the findings reported by Emily Ruzich and colleagues , the headline is followed by some pretty bizarre text about how the study "has confirmed that men are more likely to be autistic than women."I have to take some exception to this sentence, as I quote from the Ruzich findings: "In a sample of nearly half a million individuals, we found a moderate effect of sex on AQ [Autism-Spectrum Quotie........ Read more »
Westwood, H., Eisler, I., Mandy, W., Leppanen, J., Treasure, J., & Tchanturia, K. (2015) Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-015-2641-0
An injury prevention program warm-up helped immediately improve landing mechanics in a youth population without compromising performance measures. ... Read more »
Root H, Trojian T, Martinez J, Kraemer W, & DiStefano LJ. (2015) Landing Technique and Performance in Youth Athletes After a Single Injury-Prevention Program Session. Journal of athletic training. PMID: 26523663
If you recall, dear reader, around this time last year, Robert Vander Velde, David Basanta, Jacob Scott and I got excited about the Archetti (2013,2014) approach to modeling non-linear public goods in cancer. We’ve been working on this intermittently for the last year, but aim to focus now that I have settled in here at […]... Read more »
Archetti, M. (2013) Evolutionary game theory of growth factor production: implications for tumour heterogeneity and resistance to therapies. British Journal of Cancer, 109(4), 1056-62. PMID: 23922110
Recently, I signed a contract for a revised second edition of my 2011 book Intercultural Communication: A Critical Introduction to be published in 2017. One way in which I am planning to extend the book is to have a greater … Continue reading →... Read more »
Researchers at the University of Waterloo have discovered a new way to create designer proteins that have the potential to transform biotechnology and personalized medicines.
In a range of experiments Professor Elizabeth Meiering, in collaboration with colleagues from India and the United States, created a protein that can withstand a range of physiological and environmental conditions – a problem that has challenged chemists looking to create super stable, highly functional proteins.... Read more »
Broom, A., Ma, S., Xia, K., Rafalia, H., Trainor, K., Colon, W., Gosavi, S., & Meiering, E. (2015) Designed protein reveals structural determinants of extreme kinetic stability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1510748112
When a person is unable to eat, a tube may be inserted down their throat in order to get nutrient-rich goop into their stomach. Dyes are often added to the goop to help healthcare workers ensure it doesn't accidentally end up in a patient's lungs. This situation, otherwise known as pulmonary aspiration, can lead to pneumonia or, worst case, death by asphyxiation.In one rather remarkable case, a woman being treated for multiple organ failure acquired an intense green skin colour while being tube ........ Read more »
They say you can catch more flies with honey than with vinegar. But what about with lazy spiders versus lively ones? When it comes to keeping pests at bay, the personalities of the spiders hunting them are important.
That's what two behavioral ecologists reported after watching bug dramas play out in a sunny hilltop alfalfa patch. Raphaël Royauté of North Dakota State University and Jonathan Pruitt of the University of Pittsburgh were studying the personalities of wolf spiders (Pardosa mi........ Read more »
Royauté, R., & Pruitt, J. (2015) Varying predator personalities generates contrasting prey communities in an agroecosystem. Ecology, 96(11), 2902-2911. DOI: 10.1890/14-2424.1
Indian corn isn’t corn, it’s maize. But not all corn is maize, corn is actually an old word that denotes the major crop of any particular region. The colors are most beautiful, including a newly breed variety called Carl’s Glass Gem corn. The spots of color were instrumental in our understanding of DNA and gene movement, but do you think we would be so fast to decorate our houses with it if it were common knowledge how much Indian corn has in common with the causative agents of........ Read more »
Pohl ME, Piperno DR, Pope KO, Jones JG. (2007) Microfossil evidence for pre-Columbian maize dispersals in the neotropics from San Andres, Tabasco, Mexico. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. , 104(16), 6870-6875. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0701425104
Keely SP, & Stringer JR. (2009) Complexity of the MSG gene family of Pneumocystis carinii. BMC genomics, 367. PMID: 19664205
You might be wondering what Pinocchio and Captain Hook have in common. Well, they are both from children’s stories, they both have prosthetics, they have issues with being honest, and they both experience interesting maritime adventures. But there is something else too: they are both annoyed by a continuous ticking sound that follows them everywhere. For Pinocchio it is Jiminy Cricket who bothers him while for Hook the crocodile is ticking merrily away. I can hear you saying: “So? Wh........ Read more »
Okamoto, H., Stracke, H., Stoll, W., & Pantev, C. (2009) Listening to tailor-made notched music reduces tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related auditory cortex activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(3), 1207-1210. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0911268107
Pantev C, Rudack C, Stein A, Wunderlich R, Engell A, Lau P, Wollbrink A, & Shaykevich A. (2014) Study protocol: Münster tinnitus randomized controlled clinical trial-2013 based on tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT). BMC neurology, 40. PMID: 24581050
Pantev, C., Wollbrink, A., Roberts, L., Engelien, A., & Lütkenhöner, B. (1999) Short-term plasticity of the human auditory cortex. Brain Research, 842(1), 192-199. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01835-1
Sanchez, T., & Rocha, C. (2011) Diagnosis and management of somatosensory tinnitus: review article. Clinics, 66(6), 1089-1094. DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322011000600028
"Decision makers, clinicians, and researchers developing interventions for children with ASDs [autism spectrum disorders] should consider how secondary conditions may impact obesity and related activities."That was the conclusion reached in the study by Kathryn Corvey and colleagues  looking to: "examine obesity, overweight, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among children and youth with and without ASD using nationally representative data and controlling for secondary ........ Read more »
Corvey K, Menear KS, Preskitt J, Goldfarb S, & Menachemi N. (2015) Obesity, Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Maternal and child health journal. PMID: 26515467
Lack of power, budget concerns, misconceptions about the role of an athletic trainer, and rural location emerged as primary barriers to hiring an athletic trainer by an Athletic Director in the public secondary school setting.... Read more »
Mazerolle SM, Raso SR, Pagnotta KD, Stearns RL, & Casa DJ. (2015) Athletic Directors' Barriers to Hiring Athletic Trainers in High Schools. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(10), 1059-68. PMID: 26509776
Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have reported measurements of dopamine release with unprecedented temporal precision in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease. The measurements, collected during brain surgery as the conscious patients played an investment game, demonstrate how rapid dopamine release encodes information crucial for human choice.... Read more »
Kenneth T. Kishida, Ignacio Saez, Terry Lohrenz, Mark R. Witcher, Adrian W. Laxton, Stephen B. Tatter, Jason P. White, Thomas L. Ellis, Paul E. M. Phillips, & P. Read Montague. (2015) Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward. Proceedings of the natural sciences academy of the United States of America. info:/10.1073/pnas.1513619112
The widespread introduction of the automobile in the early 20th century brought with it an unfortunate collection of new ways to get injured. In addition to collisions, people were harmed by hand cranks, detachable rims, and carbon monoxide.Back in the day, motor vehicles had to be started by hand. Within a car's engine, the up-and-down motion of pistons (produced by igniting a fuel-air mixture) is converted into rotational motion via a crankshaft. When starting up an engine, the crankshaft has ........ Read more »
Cherniack MG. (1992) Diseases of unusual occupations: An historical perspective. Occupational Medicine, 7(3), 369-84. PMID: 1496425
For the remainder of 2015, Brain Posts will focus on pathological gambling and also highlight the top-viewed posts for the year.Functional connectivity is a relatively recent brain imaging technique that provides a new look at brain circuitry at rest and with tasks.Resting state connectivity using fMRI provides a snapshot of brain connections in each individual. There is increasing study of resting connectivity in individuals with disorders in neuroscience medicine compared to control population........ Read more »
Koehler S, Ovadia-Caro S, van der Meer E, Villringer A, Heinz A, Romanczuk-Seiferth N, & Margulies DS. (2013) Increased functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and reward system in pathological gambling. PloS one, 8(12). PMID: 24367675
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