Tony Ingram

26 posts · 25,716 views

A dancer / physical therapist talks about the science of exercise, injuries, pain, therapy and of course, dancing.

BBoy Science
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  • October 30, 2013
  • 06:25 PM

Study: Strength Training and Proprioceptive Training Prevents Injuries

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Researchers in Denmark recently reviewed the current research on exercise programs for injury prevention, and crunched some numbers to see what does or doesn’t work. What did they find?

Strength training reduces sports injuries by about 68%, proprioception training reduces injuries by about 45%, and stretching programs do not reduce injuries reliably. Interestingly, combined programs only reduced injuries by about 35% (all of which included strength training)...... Read more »

  • July 29, 2013
  • 04:20 PM

Improve Movement by Training Movement – Not Specific Muscles

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

A pervading idea in the fitness and therapy industries is that altered or "dysfunctional" movement is simply the product of specific muscle weakness (or imbalance). The solution, of course, is to find the weak muscle and strengthen it. The result: correct movement, and therefore decreased risk of injury and chronic pain.

Is this true? Can strengthening specific muscles improve movement form or technique?

...... Read more »

  • July 9, 2013
  • 03:55 PM

Does exercise order matter? Reviewing the research

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Does it matter when exercises are placed in a training program? Do you need to prioritize exercises?... Read more »

Simão R, de Salles BF, Figueiredo T, Dias I, & Willardson JM. (2012) Exercise order in resistance training. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 42(3), 251-65. PMID: 22292516  

  • May 21, 2013
  • 03:39 PM

How Pain Works, Part III – Nociception

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

There is actually no such thing as a "pain sensor" or "pain fiber" - but there is the fascinating system of nociception! An important concept in understanding pain.... Read more »

Basbaum AI, Bautista DM, Scherrer G, & Julius D. (2009) Cellular and molecular mechanisms of pain. Cell, 139(2), 267-84. PMID: 19837031  

  • April 22, 2013
  • 04:21 PM

How Dance Illuminates the Mind – The Brain Areas of Dance

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Dancing beautifully integrates complex movement and motor learning, rhythmic musical synchronization, creative emotional expression, and interpersonal communication.

Because of this complexity, studying the neural basis of dance is a challenge - but it may have important implications in rehabilitation and therapy.

So how do we study the neuroscience of dance?... Read more »

Brown S, Martinez MJ, & Parsons LM. (2006) The neural basis of human dance. Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991), 16(8), 1157-67. PMID: 16221923  

  • April 1, 2013
  • 02:48 PM

Dancing Makes You Smarter? How Dancing may Prevent Dementia

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Making the rounds throughout social media is a popular statistic claiming that dancing makes you smarter. Specifically, it cites a study that found that elderly people who dance frequently had a substantially lower risk of developing dementia.

At first glance, I happened to agree – duh! of course dancing makes you smarter! I may be a little biased though… so I’ve looked into the study further.

As usual, some of the statistics in these social media memes are wrong –........ Read more »

Verghese J, Lipton RB, Katz MJ, Hall CB, Derby CA, Kuslansky G, Ambrose AF, Sliwinski M, & Buschke H. (2003) Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. The New England journal of medicine, 348(25), 2508-16. PMID: 12815136  

Akbaraly TN, Portet F, Fustinoni S, Dartigues JF, Artero S, Rouaud O, Touchon J, Ritchie K, & Berr C. (2009) Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly: results from the Three-City Study. Neurology, 73(11), 854-61. PMID: 19752452  

Spruance SL, Reid JE, Grace M, & Samore M. (2004) Hazard ratio in clinical trials. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 48(8), 2787-92. PMID: 15273082  

  • March 18, 2013
  • 03:03 PM

Nutrition Skepticism – Worry less and be healthy

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Q: Why don’t I write much about nutrition? A: I barely believe anything I read about it. After spending the last decade with my head in the ‘health and fitness’ industry, I’ve developed a healthy skepticism – literally. It’s probably because I’ve seen so many fads come and go, myths busted, and contradictory research. Now, I take most of what I read with a grain of salt – and I’m probably healthier because of it.

Here’s why:... Read more »

Smith-Spangler C, Brandeau ML, Hunter GE, Bavinger JC, Pearson M, Eschbach PJ, Sundaram V, Liu H, Schirmer P, Stave C.... (2012) Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review. Annals of internal medicine, 157(5), 348-66. PMID: 22944875  

Casazza K, Fontaine KR, Astrup A, Birch LL, Brown AW, Bohan Brown MM, Durant N, Dutton G, Foster EM, Heymsfield SB.... (2013) Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. The New England journal of medicine, 368(5), 446-54. PMID: 23363498  

  • February 4, 2013
  • 05:36 PM

The Dunning-Kruger Effect – when you don’t know that you don’t know

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Ever notice how those who seem to know the least about something tend to be the most confident in their knowledge?

It’s known as the ‘Dunning-Kruger effect’, and I see it every day… especially in online discussions...... Read more »

  • January 7, 2013
  • 02:59 PM

Ankle sprains… caught in the act!

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Learning how injuries happen can help us prevent and treat them. Unfortunately, you can’t just do a study asking people to hurt themselves on purpose… those pesky ethical committees would never approve of your brilliant study. Then how are we …... Read more »

  • January 3, 2013
  • 03:10 PM

How Pain Works, Part II – Acute vs. Chronic

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

As you learn more about how pain works, you’ll notice a distinction is made between ‘acute’ and ‘chronic’ pain. What does this mean? Is it just a matter of time? Or is there something different happening when pain persists?... Read more »

Apkarian AV, Baliki MN, & Geha PY. (2009) Towards a theory of chronic pain. Progress in neurobiology, 87(2), 81-97. PMID: 18952143  

Bonezzi C, Demartini L, & Buonocore M. (2012) Chronic pain: not only a matter of time. Minerva anestesiologica, 78(6), 704-11. PMID: 22467050  

  • December 17, 2012
  • 03:20 PM

How Pain Works – What Is It?

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Before diving into the science of how pain works, it's helpful to have an idea of what pain really is, and what it's for!... Read more »

  • November 5, 2012
  • 02:51 PM

Outdated Pain Theories, Conclusion – “What’s the harm?”

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

It’s great to be nerdy picking apart how things work for the sake of learning science, but what really drives a point home is discussing it’s relevance.

Why is it bad to hold on to outdated pain theories?... Read more »

  • October 29, 2012
  • 03:28 PM

Outdated Pain Theories, III – Muscle Imbalances & the “Core”

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Chronic pain is often blamed on muscle imbalances and core instability - super popular in physical therapy and the fitness industry. But where's the research?... Read more »

van Middelkoop M, Rubinstein SM, Verhagen AP, Ostelo RW, Koes BW, & van Tulder MW. (2010) Exercise therapy for chronic nonspecific low-back pain. Best practice , 24(2), 193-204. PMID: 20227641  

  • October 22, 2012
  • 03:57 PM

Outdated Pain Theories, Part II – Posture and Body Structure

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

People are often told their pain is due to poor posture, uneven bones and out-of-place joints... but is this really what causes pain to persist?... Read more »

Bohns, V., & Wiltermuth, S. (2012) It hurts when I do this (or you do that): Posture and pain tolerance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 341-345. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.05.022  

  • October 15, 2012
  • 03:31 PM

Outdated Pain Theories, Part I – Damage and Degeneration

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Back in the early 1600′s, a famous philosopher and mathematician named René Descartes came up with a theory to explain pain.

Prior to this, people believed that pain was caused by spiritual or mystical forces. With Descartes new theory, pain finally had a physical explanation.

Innumerable treatments for pain are based on this model of “pain receptors” (nerve endings) detecting damage or degeneration, and sending “pain signals” to the brain. Many people ........ Read more »

  • October 8, 2012
  • 08:12 PM

Myth Busting Ain’t Easy – The Science of Correcting Misinformation

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

I thoroughly enjoy myth-busting. It’s a good way to learn, it potentially saves you time and money, and it’s just plain fun. It’s also a big part of why I love science.

But it's not always all fun and games...... Read more »

Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K. H., Seifert, C. M., Schwarz, N., & Cook, J. (2012) Misinformation and Its Correction. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 13(3), 106-131. DOI: 10.1177/1529100612451018  

  • October 1, 2012
  • 04:25 PM

Injury Prevention Research – What works, and what doesn’t?

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

What doesn’t work is a recurring theme on this website. There are good reasons for that – myth busting is a good way to learn science, it prevents you from wasting time and money, and it’s actually quite fun. But … ... Read more »

  • September 24, 2012
  • 04:25 PM

Why Learn How Pain Works? – Seriously Useful Science!

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

If you’re going to learn about injury prevention and recovery, or even health and fitness in general, learning how pain works should be considered fundamental knowledge.

Plus, it’s just really super duper mega interesting.... Read more »

  • September 10, 2012
  • 09:02 PM

Mental Imagery: Imagine yourself being awesome – it works!

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

With my injury last week, and a competition coming up this weekend, I’m being forced to get creative. It’s a good thing. When life gives you lemons, make lemonade, right?

To improve (or at least maintain) my skills without aggravating my injury, I’ve decided to give “mental imagery” a try...... Read more »

  • August 22, 2012
  • 03:34 PM

The Dancing Plague of 1518 & Mass Psychogenic Illnesses

by Tony Ingram in BBoy Science

Apparently, the people of Strasbourg, France suffered a "dancing plague" in 1518. Some actually danced themselves to death! What happened? Can we explain this any better now?... Read more »

Feinstein A. (2011) Conversion disorder: advances in our understanding. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal , 183(8), 915-20. PMID: 21502352  

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