Tetyana

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  • November 11, 2014
  • 11:55 AM
  • 148 views

Recovering from an Eating Disorder in a Society that Loves Fat Shaming (and Dieting)

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Is ED recovery easier when your body is “normative or stereotypically desirable”? The anon asking the question implied that recovery could be more difficult because “an obese person … will never stop hearing hearing extremely triggering stuff about their body type.” Anon asked, “Have there been any studies on this?” Andrea tackled this question in her last post (it might be helpful to read it first if you haven’t yet); in this post, I........ Read more »

Bulik, C.M., Marcus, M.D., Zerwas, S., Levine, M.D., & La Via, M. (2012) The changing "weightscape" of bulimia nervosa. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(10), 1031-6. PMID: 23032383  

McKisack, C., & Waller, G. (1997) Factors influencing the of group psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 22(1), 1-13. PMID: 9140730  

  • November 11, 2014
  • 11:54 AM
  • 105 views

Recovering from an Eating Disorder in a Society that Loves Fat Shaming (and Dieting)

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders

Is ED recovery easier when your body is “normative or stereotypically desirable”? The anon asking the question implied that recovery could be more difficult because “an obese person … will never stop hearing hearing extremely triggering stuff about their body type.” Anon asked, “Have there been any studies on this?” Andrea tackled this question in her last post (it might be helpful to read it first if you haven’t yet); in this post, I will expand ........ Read more »

Bulik, C.M., Marcus, M.D., Zerwas, S., Levine, M.D., & La Via, M. (2012) The changing "weightscape" of bulimia nervosa. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(10), 1031-6. PMID: 23032383  

McKisack, C., & Waller, G. (1997) Factors influencing the of group psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 22(1), 1-13. PMID: 9140730  

  • October 31, 2014
  • 12:05 PM
  • 165 views

I Need How Many Calories? Caloric Needs in Bulimia Nervosa Patients

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


In the 1980s, a few studies came out suggesting that patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) require fewer calories for weight maintenance than anorexia nervosa patients (e.g., Newman, Halmi, & Marchi, 1987) and healthy female controls (e.g., Gwirtsman et al., 1989).
Gwirtsman et al. (1989), after finding that patients with bulimia nervosa required few calories for weight maintenance than healthy volunteers, had these suggestions for clinicians:
When bulimic patient........ Read more »

de Zwaan, M., Aslam, Z., & Mitchell, J.E. (2002) Research on energy expenditure in individuals with eating disorders: a review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31(4), 361-9. PMID: 11948641  

Gwirtsman, H.E., Kaye, W.H., Obarzanek, E., George, D.T., Jimerson, D.C., & Ebert, M.H. (1989) Decreased caloric intake in normal-weight patients with bulimia: comparison with female volunteers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 49(1), 86-92. PMID: 2912015  

  • July 31, 2014
  • 07:18 PM
  • 442 views

Serious Restrictive Eating Disorders Occur at Any Weight

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Although the words “anorexia nervosa” typically conjure up images of emaciated bodies, eating disorders characterized by dietary restriction or weight loss can — and do — occur at any weight. However, precisely because anorexia nervosa is associated with underweight, doctors are less likely to identify eating disorders among individuals who are in the so-called “normal” or above normal weight range, even if they have........ Read more »

  • July 28, 2014
  • 07:55 PM
  • 237 views

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder & Eating Disorders: Is There a Link?

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, is a common childhood disorder. ADHD can often persist into adolescence and adulthood. The prevalence of ADHD is thought to be between 6-7% among children and adolescents and ~5% among adults (Willcutt, 2012).
Increasingly, evidence from multiple studies has pointed to comorbidity between ADHD and eating disorders (EDs). For example, one study found that young females with ADHD we........ Read more »

  • May 7, 2014
  • 11:39 PM
  • 592 views

Hypermetabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Weight restoration is a crucial component of anorexia nervosa treatment. It is a challenging process for a multitude of reasons. Adding to the complexity and the challenge is the fact that during weight restoration, individuals with anorexia nervosa tend to require increasingly more calories to maintain the same rate of weight gain.
That is, individuals need to continually increase their caloric intake, in steps, sometimes upwards of 100 calories (technically, kilocalories) per kilogram pe........ Read more »

  • April 19, 2014
  • 12:46 AM
  • 436 views

Energy Expenditure (Calories Burned) in Anorexia Nervosa Patients

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


How many calories do patients with anorexia nervosa need to eat to gain a kilo (2.2 lbs)? It seems like a simple question and one that we should have figured out a long time ago, given the importance (err, necessity) of refeeding and weight restoration in recovery from anorexia nervosa.
Unfortunately, research in this area has often led to contradictory results (see Salisbury et al., 1995 and de Zwaan et al., 2002 for reviews). Fortunately, a paper by Stephan Zipfel and colleagues (2013,........ Read more »

Zipfel S, Mack I, Baur LA, Hebebrand J, Touyz S, Herzog W, Abraham S, Davies PS, & Russell J. (2013) Impact of exercise on energy metabolism in anorexia nervosa. Journal of Eating Disorders, 1(1), 37. PMID: 24499685  

  • March 5, 2014
  • 11:25 PM
  • 581 views

Eating Disorder Awareness Week: Useful, Useless, or Worse?

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


National Eating Disorder Awareness Week came and went (in the US, anyway). Posters were shared, liked, and tweeted. Pretty (but often misguided) infographics made the rounds on the internet. Local ED groups visited schools and college campuses to educate students about eating disorders. To, you know, increase awareness. 
The thing is, awareness is not always a good thing. For one, as Carrie over at ED Bites mentioned, there’s a whole lot of misinformation masquerading as fact. An........ Read more »

  • February 19, 2014
  • 10:43 PM
  • 535 views

Eating Disorders and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Eating disorder patients commonly complain of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including bloating, abdominal pain, and constipation. This is, of course, not surprising. After all, disordered eating behaviours such as self-induced vomiting, laxative abuse, and restriction are bound to have negative effects on the digestive system.
But just how common are GI complaints and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) like irritable bowel syndrome among ED patients? And is there more to the r........ Read more »

  • February 4, 2014
  • 09:48 PM
  • 483 views

Setting a Target Weight: An Arbitrary Exercise?

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Achieving a healthy weight is a major goal of anorexia nervosa treatment. Indeed, a healthy weight is often seen as a prerequisite for psychological recovery. The fact that weight restoration is a crucial component of recovery is uncontroversial, the problem arises when it comes to determining what constitutes a healthy weight. How are ideal, optimal, or goal weights set? And who gets to decide?
Despite its recognized importance, there’s surprisingly little consensus on how target w........ Read more »

  • January 18, 2014
  • 11:04 PM
  • 505 views

Enraged by Sounds: Misophonia in Eating Disorder Patients (Clinicians, Listen Up)

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Few people would claim to like the sound of chewing, lip smacking, or pen clicking. But while disliking these noises is commonplace, experiencing anxiety, panic and/or rage in response to them–a condition called misophonia (hatred of sound)–is not.
Well, truth be told, we don’t actually know how common it is: Searching “misophonia” in PubMed returns just 14 results. Seven were published in 2013/2014, and only three were published prior to 2010. (Searching........ Read more »

  • January 13, 2014
  • 10:53 AM
  • 1,276 views

Examining Mandometer(r) Founders’ 10 “Reasons” Why Eating Disorders Are Not Mental Disorders – Part II

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


This is the last post in my mini-series on the Mandometer® Treatment. (Links to earlier posts here: Part I, Part II, and Part III). In this post I’m going to continue examining Bergh et al.’s reasons for why eating disorders are not mental disorders (#6-10). In my last post I omitted something important: I didn’t define mental disorders, but to avoid repeating myself, please see my comment on the topic here.
Bergh et al.’s reason #6 why EDs are not mental disorder........ Read more »

Bergh C, Callmar M, Danemar S, Hölcke M, Isberg S, Leon M, Lindgren J, Lundqvist A, Niinimaa M, Olofsson B.... (2013) Effective treatment of eating disorders: Results at multiple sites. Behavioral Neuroscience, 127(6), 878-89. PMID: 24341712  

  • January 8, 2014
  • 10:00 AM
  • 506 views

Examining Mandometer(r) Founders’ 10 “Reasons” Why Eating Disorders Are Not Mental Disorders

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


This is Part III of my mini-series on the Mandometer® treatment. In my first post, I wrote about the history and rationale of the Mandometer® treatment. In my second post, I evaluated a recent study published by the creators of Mandometer® (Bergh et al., 2013); I wanted to see whether their data supported their claims (spoiler alert: it didn’t). In this post, I’m going to focus on the first five of Bergh et al.’s ten reasons why eating disorders are not mental disorders........ Read more »

Bergh C, Callmar M, Danemar S, Hölcke M, Isberg S, Leon M, Lindgren J, Lundqvist A, Niinimaa M, Olofsson B.... (2013) Effective treatment of eating disorders: Results at multiple sites. Behavioral Neuroscience, 127(6), 878-89. PMID: 24341712  

  • December 30, 2013
  • 11:22 AM
  • 524 views

The Finest Quality Snake Oil: Mandometer(r) Treatment for Eating Disorders – Part II

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


This is Part II of my mini-series on the Mandometer(r) treatment for eating disorders (link to Part I). In Part I, I provided some background on the Mandometer(r) treatment; in this post, I want to take an in-depth look at the recent Mandometer treatment study. My main goal is to see whether their data live up to their claims. Warning: This post may contain high levels of snark.  
Their main claims? This is from the abstract:
Sounds pretty good, right? (Note the use of the word “........ Read more »

Bergh C, Callmar M, Danemar S, Hölcke M, Isberg S, Leon M, Lindgren J, Lundqvist A, Niinimaa M, Olofsson B.... (2013) Effective treatment of eating disorders: Results at multiple sites. Behavioral neuroscience, 127(6), 878-89. PMID: 24341712  

  • December 24, 2013
  • 08:05 PM
  • 677 views

The Finest Quality Snake Oil: Mandometer(r) Treatment for Eating Disorders – Part I

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


PROTIP: When selling your snake oil treatment, try NOT to make wildly outrageous efficacy claims. But if you can’t resist that temptation, try to limit your hard-to-believe, eye-roll-inducing claims to your treatment — there’s no need to go further.
In this post, I’m going to give a brief history of the Mandometer® treatment and its apparent rationale. In the next one or two posts, I will do an analysis of the most recently study by the group that claims to show r........ Read more »

Bergh, C., Eklund, S., Eriksson, M., Lindberg, G., & Sodersten, P. (1996) A new treatment of anorexia nervosa. . The Lancet, 611-612. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)64824-6  

Bergh C, Callmar M, Danemar S, Hölcke M, Isberg S, Leon M, Lindgren J, Lundqvist A, Niinimaa M, Olofsson B.... (2013) Effective treatment of eating disorders: Results at multiple sites. Behavioral neuroscience, 127(6), 878-89. PMID: 24341712  

  • October 25, 2013
  • 07:10 PM
  • 477 views

The Sobering Reality (and the Silver Lining) of Treating Anorexia Nervosa in Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


The challenges of treating anorexia nervosa are plenty; some of these challenges — like low prevalence rate and high treatment dropout rate —  make conducting randomised controlled trials aimed at identifying effective treatment methods really hard as well.
So I was pretty excited about the recently published randomised controlled trial comparing focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT), cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), and optimised treatment as usual in adult (a harder to treat ........ Read more »

  • October 21, 2013
  • 01:12 PM
  • 715 views

How you doin’? Differences in Psychological Well-being Between Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge Eating Disorder Patients

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Good health is more than just the absence of illness; it is more than just the absence of dysfunction. Good health — that is, mental, social, and physical health — requires the presence of wellness, or the ability to function well.
In this respect, with regard to eating disorders, most research has focused on assessing (health-related) quality of life and subjective well-being of eating disorder patients, often focusing on things like body satisfaction, self-este........ Read more »

Tomba E, Offidani E, Tecuta L, Schumann R, & Ballardini D. (2013) Psychological well-being in out-patients with eating disorders: A controlled study. International Journal of Eating Disorders. PMID: 24123214  

  • September 22, 2013
  • 11:33 PM
  • 462 views

Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa in the “Real World”: What’s the Evidence?

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is commonly described as the evidence-based treatment for bulimia nervosa. But do the findings from nearly perfectly crafted trials, with stringently followed protocols and “ideal” participants apply to the “real world”? How generalizable are the findings from carefully selected participants to clinical populations where, for one, the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities is relatively high?
In other words, CBT has been shown to be efficacious ........ Read more »

  • September 18, 2013
  • 11:49 AM
  • 418 views

Demystifying the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Disordered Eating

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Genetics play an important role in the development of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours. To date, many (over 30!) twin studies have been done and all but two found significant genetic effects on the development of eating disorders and disordered eating. However, no methodology is without limitations and tentative conclusions become more convincing when the findings are confirmed using different experimental approaches.
Twin studies, while they offer many advantages, are n........ Read more »

Klump KL, Suisman JL, Burt SA, McGue M, & Iacono WG. (2009) Genetic and environmental influences on disordered eating: An adoption study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(4), 797-805. PMID: 19899849  

  • September 11, 2013
  • 10:58 AM
  • 488 views

Emotion Fluctuations in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa: A Rollercoaster or Not So Much?

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders


Restricting, bingeing, and purging are powerful ways to regulate emotional states. However, these behaviours probably play different roles in emotional regulation. Whereas restriction is hypothesized to pre-empt the onset of highly emotional states, bingeing and purging is thought to act as a coping mechanism to deal with overwhelming emotional states once they’ve already been activated. 
If this is true, we would expect to see more variability (or fluctuation) in the intensity and ........ Read more »

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