1229 posts · 780,104 views
United Academics Connects Science to Society.
Meat unsustainable practices are damaging Earth's resources... Read more »
Herrero, M., Havlik, P., Valin, H., Notenbaert, A., Rufino, M., Thornton, P., Blummel, M., Weiss, F., Grace, D., & Obersteiner, M. (2013) Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(52), 20888-20893. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1308149110
White, D., Zhao, S., Sudler, R., Ayers, S., Friedman, S., Chen, S., McDermott, P., McDermott, S., Wagner, D., & Meng, J. (2001) The Isolation of Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella from Retail Ground Meats. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(16), 1147-1154. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa010315
Tilman, D., Cassman, K., Matson, P., Naylor, R., & Polasky, S. (2002) Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature, 418(6898), 671-677. DOI: 10.1038/nature01014
Donovan, C. (2015) If FDA Does Not Regulate Food, Who Will? A Study of Hormones and Antibiotics in Meat Production. American Journal of Law , 41(2-3), 459-482. DOI: 10.1177/0098858815591528
New drugs can delay aging and rejuvenate tissues.... Read more »
Chang, J., Wang, Y., Shao, L., Laberge, R., Demaria, M., Campisi, J., Janakiraman, K., Sharpless, N., Ding, S., Feng, W.... (2015) Clearance of senescent cells by ABT263 rejuvenates aged hematopoietic stem cells in mice. Nature Medicine, 22(1), 78-83. DOI: 10.1038/nm.4010
Baker, D., Wijshake, T., Tchkonia, T., LeBrasseur, N., Childs, B., van de Sluis, B., Kirkland, J., & van Deursen, J. (2011) Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive senescent cells delays ageing-associated disorders. Nature, 479(7372), 232-236. DOI: 10.1038/nature10600
2015 was the year for gene-editing to shine, especially thanks to CRISPR-Cas9. Voted Breakthrough of the Year by the Science journal panel of scientists, few techniques have made such a quick and controversial impact in the last decades as CRISPR. ... Read more »
Doudna J. (2015) Genome-editing revolution: My whirlwind year with CRISPR. Nature, 528(7583), 469-71. PMID: 26701037
Perez-Pinera, P., Kocak, D., Vockley, C., Adler, A., Kabadi, A., Polstein, L., Thakore, P., Glass, K., Ousterout, D., Leong, K.... (2013) RNA-guided gene activation by CRISPR-Cas9–based transcription factors. Nature Methods, 10(10), 973-976. DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2600
When it comes to cognitive control, we know that the basics are already present in young children but that the ability increases throughout adolescence. How does that happen? ... Read more »
Marek, S., Hwang, K., Foran, W., Hallquist, M., & Luna, B. (2015) The Contribution of Network Organization and Integration to the Development of Cognitive Control. PLOS Biology, 13(12). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002328
The final conclusion of the Science Fraud series: do more and more scientists lie because of publishing pressure? It's not that simple.
... Read more »
Fanelli, D., Costas, R., & Larivière, V. (2015) Misconduct Policies, Academic Culture and Career Stage, Not Gender or Pressures to Publish, Affect Scientific Integrity. PLOS ONE, 10(6). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127556
Fanelli, D. (2009) How Many Scientists Fabricate and Falsify Research? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Survey Data. PLoS ONE, 4(5). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005738
Data falsification occurs rather frequently. What makes scientists lie about their results? Haruko Obokata was a young female researcher, breaking into a predominantly male-dominated stem-cell research field...... Read more »
Obokata, H., Wakayama, T., Sasai, Y., Kojima, K., Vacanti, M., Niwa, H., Yamato, M., & Vacanti, C. (2014) Stimulus-triggered fate conversion of somatic cells into pluripotency. Nature, 505(7485), 641-647. DOI: 10.1038/nature12968
Almost every year, a new case of science fraud gets major attention in the media and threatens to compromise science’s credibility in the eyes of citizens. What makes scientists lose their professional integrity? Part 1 of a three-part article: four examples.... Read more »
Hwang, W. (2005) Patient-Specific Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from Human SCNT Blastocysts. Science, 308(5729), 1777-1783. DOI: 10.1126/science.1112286
Wakefield, A., Murch, S., Anthony, A., Linnell, J., Casson, D., Malik, M., Berelowitz, M., Dhillon, A., Thomson, M., Harvey, P.... (1998) RETRACTED: Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. The Lancet, 351(9103), 637-641. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(97)11096-0
Chen, L., Thung, S. N., . (2010) Retraction to "Metabolic basis of sexual dimorphism in PKU mice after genome-targeted PAH gene therapy". Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 18(12), 2190. PMID: 20859262
Chen, L., . (2010) Retraction to "Correction in female PKU mice by repeated administration of mPAH cDNA using phiBT1 integration system". Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 18(12), 2191. PMID: 20859260
Bacteria are gaining resistance to our last-resort group of antibiotics. Agriculture and ignorance. If we are playing the blame game then those two factors are key players.... Read more »
Liu, Y., Wang, Y., Walsh, T., Yi, L., Zhang, R., Spencer, J., Doi, Y., Tian, G., Dong, B., Huang, X.... (2015) Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00424-7
Once upon a time, it was thought that black holes could ‘eat-up’ accreted matter. That is: gas, dust, and other such things that have been pulled into the black hole’s gravity field, usually forming a disk of rotating material. The black holes would pull the matter into infinity, with no limit to how large a black hole could become in this manner.... Read more »
If you have ever had a laugh or enjoyed a talk about climate change, this was probably Obama’s speech at the 2015 White House Correspondents’ Dinner. And you are not alone; just to give you some key facts:... Read more »
Capstick, S., Whitmarsh, L., Poortinga, W., Pidgeon, N., & Upham, P. (2015) International trends in public perceptions of climate change over the past quarter century. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 6(1), 35-61. DOI: 10.1002/wcc.321
White, M., & Hunter, L. (2009) Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana. Social Science Quarterly, 90(4), 960-982. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2009.00672.x
Wiest, S., Raymond, L., & Clawson, R. (2015) Framing, partisan predispositions, and public opinion on climate change. Global Environmental Change, 187-198. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.12.006
A recent study spearheaded by researchers from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel followed 800 eaters to see how their blood sugar levels responded to their meals. It turns out that everybody processes food in her or his unique way.... Read more »
Zeevi, D., Korem, T., Zmora, N., Israeli, D., Rothschild, D., Weinberger, A., Ben-Yacov, O., Lador, D., Avnit-Sagi, T., Lotan-Pompan, M.... (2015) Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses. Cell, 163(5), 1079-1094. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.001
Research shows that our hearts beat in sync when we think about trusting each other.
trust, heart, heartbeat, synchronisation, public goods game
Trust is a crucial part of society, building complicated links between individuals, companies and even nations, but behavioural scientists have struggled to find a way to measure the physiological signs of trust. A new study suggests that our hearts might hold a clue: the heart rates of people who think about trusting one another start to beat in sync.
Researchers from Aarhus University in Denmark studied the heartbeats of 37 pairs of participants as they solved four building tasks using Lego toys. The researchers then studied the heartbeats of a further 20 pairs of participants as they solved the same four building tasks, with an additional ‘trust-building’ game between each task. The researchers found that the heartbeats of these pairs sped up and were more strongly synchronised compared to the heartbeats of pairs who did not play the trust game.
“This is the first time that anyone has shown that trust between two people can be seen in heart rhythms and we have no idea why it happens,” said Panagiotis Mitkidis, co-author of the study and assistant professor at the Centre for Interacting Minds at Aarhus University.... Read more »
Mitkidis, P., McGraw, J., Roepstorff, A., & Wallot, S. (2015) Building trust: Heart rate synchrony and arousal during joint action increased by public goods game. Physiology , 101-106. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.05.033
You might be wondering what Pinocchio and Captain Hook have in common. Well, they are both from children’s stories, they both have prosthetics, they have issues with being honest, and they both experience interesting maritime adventures. But there is something else too: they are both annoyed by a continuous ticking sound that follows them everywhere. For Pinocchio it is Jiminy Cricket who bothers him while for Hook the crocodile is ticking merrily away. I can hear you saying: “So? What’s the point? These are fairy tales. We are grownups, we live in the real world!” Right, so let’s look at the real world equivalent to these bothersome sounds.... Read more »
Okamoto, H., Stracke, H., Stoll, W., & Pantev, C. (2009) Listening to tailor-made notched music reduces tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related auditory cortex activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(3), 1207-1210. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0911268107
Pantev C, Rudack C, Stein A, Wunderlich R, Engell A, Lau P, Wollbrink A, & Shaykevich A. (2014) Study protocol: Münster tinnitus randomized controlled clinical trial-2013 based on tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT). BMC neurology, 40. PMID: 24581050
Pantev, C., Wollbrink, A., Roberts, L., Engelien, A., & Lütkenhöner, B. (1999) Short-term plasticity of the human auditory cortex. Brain Research, 842(1), 192-199. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01835-1
Sanchez, T., & Rocha, C. (2011) Diagnosis and management of somatosensory tinnitus: review article. Clinics, 66(6), 1089-1094. DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322011000600028
Patent for Bozepinib approved by scientists of University of Granada
Researchers at the University of Granada, Spain, have patented Bozepinib, a drug that inhibits the growth of cancer stem cells in breast, colon and melanoma cancers.
The mechanisms of action of Bozepinib were first described in an article published in the Open Access journal Oncotarget back in 2014. The team showed that Bozepinib was able to inhibit growth and metastasis of tumors in mice without inducing toxicity. Follow-up studies have proved that the drug was able to reduce tumor activity by 50% after forty-one days of treatment.
Bozepinib’s powerful anti-tumorigenic properties are mainly due to the inhibition of HER-2 signaling pathways. In normal cells HER-2 protein is associated with survival, growth and proliferation. However, HER-2 is over-expressed in cancer cells, ultimately leading to a poor prognosis and decreased overall patient survival rate. This makes HER-2 one exciting target for anti-cancer therapies. The ability to target cancer stem cells is one of the aspects that makes Bozepinib a promising drug in cancer treatment.... Read more »
Ramírez A, Boulaiz H, Morata-Tarifa C, Perán M, Jiménez G, Picon-Ruiz M, Agil A, Cruz-López O, Conejo-García A, Campos JM.... (2014) HER2-signaling pathway, JNK and ERKs kinases, and cancer stem-like cells are targets of Bozepinib small compound. Oncotarget, 5(11), 3590-606. PMID: 24946763
Eager to travel to Mars? Think twice!
NASA, galactic cosmic rays, mars, space travel
Explorations of Mars with probes and spacecraft are revealing intriguing features of the Red Planet. The most recent discovery by the NASA spacecraft Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, that liquid water very likely flows on Mars, has stirred enthusiasm among scientists who have been looking for signs of “life-as-we-know-it” on the planet for the last twenty years.
One of the major future goals of both the European and American space agencies, ESA and NASA, is to send human explorers to Mars to carry out investigations that cannot be performed by robots.
But aside from the technical challenges, how safe is it for the human body to travel in the cosmos under a shower of galactic cosmic rays?... Read more »
Using special antibodies to attack HIV
HIV, AIDS, ART, treatment, therapy, health
More than thirty-five million people in the world today are living with HIV/AIDS. In the last few decades there have been concerted, large-scale efforts worldwide to contain the spread of this pandemic and to help infected people survive the virus and live with it.
At the forefront of anti-HIV therapy stands a class of drugs known as anti-retroviral therapy or ART. These drugs are able to reduce the numbers of virus-infected immune cells in blood circulation but are unable to eliminate it completely. One of the major challenges of HIV research is to find ways to eliminate host cells that are infected but are dormant. Once patients stop taking ART, production of viruses from infected reserves of dormant T-cells resumes and the disease progresses anew.
In two recently published papers, scientists from two different labs have achieved some success in activating the virus in dormant T-cells and simultaneously getting the body’s T-cells to target such reactivated cells.... Read more »
Pegu, A., Asokan, M., Wu, L., Wang, K., Hataye, J., Casazza, J., Guo, X., Shi, W., Georgiev, I., Zhou, T.... (2015) Activation and lysis of human CD4 cells latently infected with HIV-1. Nature Communications, 8447. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9447
Sung, J., Pickeral, J., Liu, L., Stanfield-Oakley, S., Lam, C., Garrido, C., Pollara, J., LaBranche, C., Bonsignori, M., Moody, M.... (2015) Dual-Affinity Re-Targeting proteins direct T cell–mediated cytolysis of latently HIV-infected cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 125(11), 4077-4090. DOI: 10.1172/JCI82314
Different colors and flavors of pig?
pig, micro pig, genetics, gene editing, agriculture, pets
The Chinese genomics institute BGI (Beijing Genomics Institute) has announced that tiny pigs, created through genetic-editing techniques, are now being sold as pets. The profits generated through revenue will be used to further develop research in this area.
Demand for pigs as pets has been growing, especially among the U.S public. Yong Li, director of BGI believes that in the future gene-editing techniques will allow the company to offer pigs with different colors and patterns, he told the Nature journal.... Read more »
Li F, Li Y, Liu H, Zhang H, Liu C, Zhang X, Dou H, Yang W, & Du Y. (2014) [Production of GHR double-allelic knockout Bama pig by TALENs and handmade cloning]. Yi chuan , 36(9), 903-11. PMID: 25252308
Once upon a time there was a high school student who was struggling to write a literature essay. The student couldn’t find anything good about the writer she had to discuss; he simply looked like a depressed misogynist, unable to even properly commit suicide at the first try. There is no need to write and publish a poem called “Death Will Come and Will Have Your Eyes” just because a woman broke up with you (not that the student would blame her), right?
The student grew up, forgetting about the high school essay, and entered the academic world, until one day a colleague invited her to read a research article…... Read more »
Caputo GB. (2015) Dissociation and hallucinations in dyads engaged through interpersonal gazing. Psychiatry research, 228(3), 659-63. PMID: 26112448
Goldstein MA, Kilroy MC, & Van de Voort D. (1976) Gaze as a function of conversation and degree of love. The Journal of psychology, 92(2d Half), 227-234. PMID: 1271300
Prevention of peanut allergies is a controversial issue, leaving society uncertain whether children should eat or avoid peanuts. Recent scientific studies show...... Read more »
Du Toit G, Katz Y, Sasieni P, Mesher D, Maleki SJ, Fisher HR, Fox AT, Turcanu V, Amir T, Zadik-Mnuhin G.... (2008) Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 122(5), 984-91. PMID: 19000582
Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, Bahnson HT, Radulovic S, Santos AF, Brough HA, Phippard D, Basting M, Feeney M.... (2015) Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. The New England journal of medicine, 372(9), 803-13. PMID: 25705822
Gruchalla RS, & Sampson HA. (2015) Preventing peanut allergy through early consumption--ready for prime time?. The New England journal of medicine, 372(9), 875-7. PMID: 25705823
Fleischer DM, Sicherer S, Greenhawt M, Campbell D, Chan E, Muraro A, Halken S, Katz Y, Ebisawa M, Eichenfield L.... (2015) Consensus Communication on Early Peanut Introduction and Prevention of Peanut Allergy in High-Risk Infants. Pediatric dermatology. PMID: 26354148
Gupta R, Holdford D, Bilaver L, Dyer A, Holl JL, & Meltzer D. (2013) The economic impact of childhood food allergy in the United States. JAMA pediatrics, 167(11), 1026-31. PMID: 24042236
The cyberspace evolution of beauty
Researchers using CGI images found that beauty evolves in two steps.
beauty, cyberspace, CGI, women, female, attraction, attractive
Symmetrical faces and bodies are nice to look at. Men prefer a specific waist-to-hip ratio. People with a Body Mass Index within a certain range are more often perceived as beautiful, and tall people are generally judged as being more attractive.
Explanations of beauty abound. Yet, all of the above examples focus on a single trait. Human bodies, and what it is that makes them beautiful, are more complicated than that. It’s a puzzle of traits, all fitting together to make a unique person.
So, is there one factor that determines what makes a body beautiful, or do several of them work together to forge the Venuses among us?... Read more »
Brooks, R., Shelly, J., Jordan, L., & J.W. Dixson, B. (2015) The multivariate evolution of female body shape in an artificial digital ecosystem. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36(5), 351-358. DOI: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.02.001
Germine L, Russell R, Bronstad PM, Blokland GA, Smoller JW, Kwok H, Anthony SE, Nakayama K, Rhodes G, & Wilmer JB. (2015) Individual Aesthetic Preferences for Faces Are Shaped Mostly by Environments, Not Genes. Current biology : CB, 25(20), 2684-2689. PMID: 26441352
Do you write about peer-reviewed research in your blog? Use ResearchBlogging.org to make it easy for your readers — and others from around the world — to find your serious posts about academic research.
If you don't have a blog, you can still use our site to learn about fascinating developments in cutting-edge research from around the world.
Research Blogging is powered by SMG Technology.
To learn more, visit seedmediagroup.com.