The Neurocritic

285 posts · 271,071 views

Born in West Virginia in 1980, The Neurocritic embarked upon a roadtrip across America at the age of thirteen with his mother. She abandoned him when they reached San Francisco and The Neurocritic descended into a spiral of drug abuse and prostitution. At fifteen, The Neurocritic's psychiatrist encouraged him to start writing as a form of therapy.

The Neurocritic
285 posts

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  • November 14, 2011
  • 03:08 PM
  • 870 views

The Return of Physiognomy

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Physiognomy "is the assessment of a person's character or personality from their outer appearance, especially the face." Although one might think of physiognomy as an outdated pseudoscience, along with its brethren craniometry and phrenology, facial phenotyping has undergone a resurgence of interest. Most recently, a study by Wong et al. (2011) looked at facial width and financial success in male CEOs:Can head shape determine chances of business success?Research suggests that the shape of a chi........ Read more »

  • October 31, 2011
  • 03:45 AM
  • 706 views

Buried Alive!

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

The pathological fear of being buried alive is called taphophobia1 [from the Greek taphos, or grave]. Being buried alive seems like a fate worse than death, the stuff of nightmares and horror movies and Edgar Allan Poe short stories. What could be pathological about such a fear? When taken to extremes, it can become a morbid, all-consuming obsession. In 1881, psychiatrist Enrico Morselli wrote about "two hitherto undescribed forms of Insanity" (English translation, 2001):As the result of some ob........ Read more »

  • October 23, 2011
  • 03:44 AM
  • 834 views

Activation of the Hate Circuit While Reading 'Depression Uncouples Brain Hate Circuit'

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

A recent article published in Molecular Psychiatry has the curious title, 'Depression uncouples brain hate circuit' (Tao et al., 2011). Hate circuit, you ask? Is there really any such thing? Is the existence of a distinctive brain circuit for hate so well-established that we ought to go about including it in the title of our papers? And what does it mean for this circuit to be uncoupled in depression? That depressed people no longer have coherent feelings of hatred?The current article refers to ........ Read more »

Tao, H., Guo, S., Ge, T., Kendrick, K., Xue, Z., Liu, Z., & Feng, J. (2011) Depression uncouples brain hate circuit. Molecular Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1038/mp.2011.127  

  • October 11, 2011
  • 06:27 AM
  • 643 views

Rising Mortality Rates for People with Serious Mental Illness

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Fig 1 (Hoang et al., 2011). Trend in standardised 365 day all cause mortality ratio for all people discharged from hospital with principal diagnosis of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.The "mortality gap" is the differential between the mortality rates for the general population and for persons with serious mental illness (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder). A new study from England examined hospital records for psychiatric patients discharged between 1999 and 2006, and determined how many had........ Read more »

  • October 6, 2011
  • 12:19 PM
  • 761 views

New York Times on Addiction and The Insula

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

In Clue to Addiction, Brain Injury Halts SmokingBy BENEDICT CAREYPublished: January 26, 2007Scientists studying stroke patients are reporting today that an injury to a specific part of the brain, near the ear, can instantly and permanently break a smoking habit. People with the injury who stopped smoking found that their bodies, as one man put it, “forgot the urge to smoke.”The finding, which appears in the journal Science, is based on a small study [Naqvi et al., 2007]. But experts say it i........ Read more »

Naqvi, N., Rudrauf, D., Damasio, H., & Bechara, A. (2007) Damage to the Insula Disrupts Addiction to Cigarette Smoking. Science, 315(5811), 531-534. DOI: 10.1126/science.1135926  

  • September 25, 2011
  • 05:40 AM
  • 747 views

The Neurophysiology of Pain During REM Sleep

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

In the last post, we learned about The Phenomenology of Pain During REM Sleep. Real life pain can intrude into dreams, as was shown for experimentally induced pain (Nielsen et al., 1993) and in hospitalized burn patients (Raymond et al., 2002). In this post we'll hear about a fascinating experiment that recorded laser evoked potentials directly from the brains of epilepsy patients who were being surgically monitored for seizures (Bastuji et al. 2011). Only under rare circumstances can intracran........ Read more »

  • September 18, 2011
  • 05:26 AM
  • 1,433 views

The Phenomenology of Pain During REM Sleep

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Coarse — Pain in DreamsHave you ever felt pain in dreams? I have. Once I dreamed I was lying on my stomach, getting a tattoo on my calf against my will. Because it was a particularly malevolent tattoo studio, I cried out in the dream. When I woke up, I felt no pain at all. It was false, a figment of the Pain Matrix. Another time a monkey bit me on the arm. Once again, the pain vanished upon awakening.I think these examples of what I'll call "fake pain" are unusual. More common are instances wh........ Read more »

Nielsen TA, McGregor DL, Zadra A, Ilnicki D, & Ouellet L. (1993) Pain in dreams. Sleep, 16(5), 490-8. PMID: 7690981  

  • September 7, 2011
  • 07:07 AM
  • 1,153 views

Chronic Ketamine for Depression: An Unethical Case Study?

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

A year ago, Ketamine for Depression: Yay or Neigh? covered acute administration of the club drug (and dissociative anesthetic) ketamine for rapid (albeit transient) relief of major depression. That post was part of a blog focus on hallucinogenic drugs in medicine and mental health, organized by Nature editor Noah Gray following publication of a review article on The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs: implications for the treatment of mood disorders. At the time, I wrote:Although the immediate on........ Read more »

Messer M, Haller IV (2010). Maintenance Ketamine Treatment Produces Long-term Recovery from Depression. (2010) Maintenance Ketamine Treatment Produces Long-term Recovery from Depression. Primary Psychiatry, 48-50. info:/

  • August 28, 2011
  • 04:21 AM
  • 1,018 views

Drug Trials in 'At Risk' Youth

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic



Is it ethical to medicate healthy teenagers "at risk" of developing psychosis to prevent a symptom that may not occur? One such clinical trial in Australia was recently stopped before it could even begin:
Drug trial scrapped amid outcryJill Stark
August 21, 2011

FORMER Australian of the Year Patrick McGorry has aborted a controversial trial of antipsychotic drugs on children as young as 15 who are "at risk" of psychosis, amid complaints the study was unethical.The Sunday Age can reveal ........ Read more »

Mechelli, A., Riecher-Rossler, A., Meisenzahl, E., Tognin, S., Wood, S., Borgwardt, S., Koutsouleris, N., Yung, A., Stone, J., Phillips, L.... (2011) Neuroanatomical Abnormalities That Predate the Onset of Psychosis: A Multicenter Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(5), 489-495. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.42  

  • August 5, 2011
  • 06:51 PM
  • 1,289 views

A New Sexual Femunculus?

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Figure 3A (adapted from Komisaruk et al., 2011). Group-based composite view of the clitoral, vaginal, and cervical activation sites, all in the medial paracentral lobule, but regionally differentiated. We interpret this as due to the differential sensory innervation of these genital structures, i.e., clitoris: pudendal nerve, vagina: pelvic nerve,1 and cervix: hypogastric and vagus nerves."Femunulus" is a neologism for "female homuculus" The neuroanatomical definition of homunculus is a "di........ Read more »

  • August 2, 2011
  • 05:00 AM
  • 1,131 views

The Man Who Mistook a Harmonica for a Cash Register

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

One of the most famous books written by Oliver Sacks, popular author and beloved behavioral neurologist, is The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. One of the chapters describes the case of a patient with visual agnosia, or the inability to recognize objects.Below is a conversation between Sacks and Dr. P, the patient with visual agnosia.I showed him the cover [of a National Geographic Magazine], an unbroken expanse of Sahara dunes.'What do you see here?' I asked.'I see a river,' he said. 'And a........ Read more »

  • July 23, 2011
  • 07:37 PM
  • 1,559 views

Neuro Bliss and Neuro Codeine

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Lindsay Lohan drinking Neuro Bliss.NEUROBRANDS®, LLC is a company that markets a series of colorful and attractively designed "nutritional drinks", known as Neuro® Drinks.Neuro Gasm Is Part Of The New Neuro CultureFor a company that has great product placement (with many celebrity endorsements), carefully crafted packaging, and regularly issued press releases, they sure are modest about their marketing efforts:"Neuro Drinks® offer consumers an alternative to products that perpetuate our self........ Read more »

  • July 17, 2011
  • 11:27 AM
  • 1,076 views

The Google Stroop Effect?

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

The Google logo.Notice the logo is multi-colored (as pointed out by Neurobonkers). Seeing "Google" printed in a solid color (or in any other font, for that matter) would likely result in a Stroop effect, or a slower response time in identifying the color of the font, relative to that of a neutral word.Is Google making us stupid?That question, and its original exposition in The Atlantic, has been furthering the career of Nicholas G. Carr. His subsequent book, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Do........ Read more »

  • July 11, 2011
  • 06:23 PM
  • 999 views

Underwear Models and Low Libido

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Erotic or not? (from Hot Chicks with Douchebags)Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is a controversial diagnosis given to women who have a low (or nonexistent) libido and are distressed about it. The International Definitions Committee (a panel of 13 experts in female sexual dysfunction) from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine in Paris defined HSDD, which has also been called Women's Sexual Interest/Desire Disorder (Basson et al., 2004), in the following fashion:There ........ Read more »

Bianchi-Demicheli, F., Cojan, Y., Waber, L., Recordon, N., Vuilleumier, P., & Ortigue, S. (2011) Neural Bases of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women: An Event-Related fMRI Study. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02376.x  

  • June 28, 2011
  • 06:16 PM
  • 1,256 views

JAMA on 60s Psychedelic Drug Culture

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

An amusing semi-anthropological study was published in JAMA by Ludwig and Levine in 1965. It was based on extensive interviews with 27 "postnarcotic drug addict inpatients" who were treated at a hospital in Lexington, Kentucky. The specific drugs of interest included peyote (from the peyotl cactus plant), mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin. The current availability of each drug, most popular methods of intake, slang terms, psychoactive properties, and subcultural norms were discussed. Hallucinogens ........ Read more »

LUDWIG AM, & LEVINE J. (1965) PATTERNS OF HALLUCINOGENIC DRUG ABUSE. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 92-6. PMID: 14233246  

  • June 19, 2011
  • 04:08 AM
  • 1,284 views

Could Anthony Weiner Ace the Stroop Test?

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Former U.S. Representative Anthony Weiner served New York's 9th congressional district for 12 years until his online sexual indiscretions forced him to resign on June 16, 2011. We've all been overexposed [so to speak] to the "Weinergate" scandal, so no need to recount all the lurid details. Boxer briefly, he sent lewd photos of himself to young and under-aged girls following him on Twitter. This occurred despite the fact that Huma Abedin, Deputy Chief of Staff for Hillary Rodham Clinton and his........ Read more »

  • June 13, 2011
  • 12:53 AM
  • 809 views

Akiskal and the Bipolar Spectrum

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

In the last post, we learned that the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Affective Disorders has published 165 papers in the journal, 155 of these since becoming editor in 1996. Excluding commentaries and editorials, that makes for a grand total of 142 articles thus far during his tenure as editor.The two major themes of Dr. Hagop Akiskal's papers are (1) the bipolar spectrum, and (2) temperament as the basis of mood, behavior and personality (e.g., Lara et al., 2006). Clearly, I cannot begin to ........ Read more »

  • May 27, 2011
  • 02:00 AM
  • 1,101 views

Abusing Chocolate and Bipolar Diagnoses

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Is chocolate a legal "social drug" of abuse in the same category as nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol? Do you hang out at chocolate cafes with the purpose of becoming high or intoxicated? No? Have you heard of cancer-related deaths due to chocolate or driving under the influence of chocolate?And really, how much chocolate is considered "chocolate abuse"?1A new paper by Maremmani et al. (2011) addressed none of these questions, but asked 562 depressed Italian outpatients about their cigarette, coff........ Read more »

Maremmani I, Perugi G, Rovai L, Maremmani AG, Pacini M, Canonico PL, Carbonato P, Mencacci C, Muscettola G, Pani L.... (2011) Are "social drugs" (tobacco, coffee and chocolate) related to the bipolar spectrum?. Journal of affective disorders. PMID: 21605911  

  • May 19, 2011
  • 03:09 AM
  • 1,046 views

Improving the Physical Health of People With Serious Mental Illness

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Today is the Mental Health Blog Party sponsored by the American Psychological Association as part of Mental Health Month. A widely neglected part of mental health treatment is encouraging and maintaining good physical health. This is extremely difficult when some of the major drugs prescribed for serious mental illnesses (such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) produce substantial weight gain. The "second generation" or atypical antipsychotics can cause obesity and hence diabetes, hypertensi........ Read more »

  • May 11, 2011
  • 02:59 PM
  • 1,192 views

Revisiting Depression's Cognitive Downside

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Depression, by h.koppdelaneyIs depression actually good for you?Experts now believe that mild to moderate depression may be good for us – and even help us live longer. Rebecca Hardy explains how to reap the benefitsWe constantly hear how depression is blighting our lives, but some experts have an interesting, if controversial, theory: depression can be "good for us", or at least a force for good in our lives.Is this the start of a new Negative Psychology1 movement? Let's all seek out personal........ Read more »

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