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Exceptions to natural and biological rules are used to increase interest in biology. Recent studies, and not so recent studies, are described in order to demonstrate amazing organisms and practices. Core concepts of biology are emphasized, with side trips into the research of topics that give insight into the evolution and interelatedness of all life.
Arthropods have the most amazing structures and functions for taste sense. New research is showing that that insects can taste carbon dioxide, as well as DEET repellent. CO2 helps guide blood suckers to victims while DEET flavor keep mosquitoes from landing or biting.
Turnabout is fair play; caterpillars use taste to poison parasitic larvae within their body. The caterpillars switch to toxic plants when infected. On the other hand, plants can taste caterpillar saliva and initiate defensive s........ Read more »
Falik O, Mordoch Y, Quansah L, Fait A, Novoplansky A. (2011) Rumor Has It…: Relay Communication of Stress Cues in Plants. PLoS ONE, 6(11). info:/
Singer, M., Mace, K., . (2009) Self-Medication as Adaptive Plasticity: Increased Ingestion of Plant Toxins by Parasitized Caterpillars. PLoS ONE, 4(3), 4796. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004796
Allmann S, & Baldwin IT. (2010) Insects betray themselves in nature to predators by rapid isomerization of green leaf volatiles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5995), 1075-8. PMID: 20798319
Kwon JY, Dahanukar A, Weiss LA, & Carlson JR. (2007) The molecular basis of CO2 reception in Drosophila. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(9), 3574-8. PMID: 17360684
New research is describing the ways that arthropods use gustatory receptors. Drosophila use a muscular reflex to extend or retract the proboscis, based on the sweet or bitter taste they experience. In silica studies are showing that female behaviors are driving gene duplication and evolution of taste receptor genes, while specific taste receptors are responsible for male female interactions in fruit fly courtship rituals.
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Choi EA, Park HY, Yoo HS, & Choi YH. (2013) Anti-inflammatory effects of egg white combined with chalcanthite in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia through the inhibition of NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. International journal of molecular medicine, 31(1), 154-62. PMID: 23128312
Briscoe AD, Macias-Muñoz A, Kozak KM, Walters JR, Yuan F, Jamie GA, Martin SH, Dasmahapatra KK, Ferguson LC, Mallet J.... (2013) Female behaviour drives expression and evolution of gustatory receptors in butterflies. PLoS genetics, 9(7). PMID: 23950722
Koch SI, Groh K, Vogel H, Hansson BS, Kleineidam CJ, & Grosse-Wilde E. (2013) Caste-specific expression patterns of immune response and chemosensory related genes in the leaf-cutting ant, Atta vollenweideri. PloS one, 8(11). PMID: 24260580
Thistle R, Cameron P, Ghorayshi A, Dennison L, & Scott K. (2012) Contact chemoreceptors mediate male-male repulsion and male-female attraction during Drosophila courtship. Cell, 149(5), 1140-51. PMID: 22632976
There are links between the function of taste bud receptor cells and solitary chemosensory cells (SCC) that sense nutrients in many animals. New research shows that the evolution of SCC and taste bud receptors were completely independent of one another, even though they share receptors and purinergic signaling systems.... Read more »
Kirino M, Parnes J, Hansen A, Kiyohara S, & Finger TE. (2013) Evolutionary origins of taste buds: phylogenetic analysis of purinergic neurotransmission in epithelial chemosensors. Open biology, 3(3), 130015. PMID: 23466675
Tim Birkhead. (2012) Bird Sense: What It Is Like To Be Bird. Walker Publishing, New York. info:/
Lots of recent evidence is demonstrating that lingual taste buds are just the tip of the iceberg. Taste receptors have been identified in parts of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, and nervous systems. Taste receptor functions in non-gustatory tissues are related to feeding and hunger, nutrient sensing, and protective responses.
Studies have shown that the pancreas has umami and sweet receptors that work in insulin release. The gut has receptors for fat, umami, sweet and bitter. The........ Read more »
Sundaresan S, Shahid R, Riehl TE, Chandra R, Nassir F, Stenson WF, Liddle RA, & Abumrad NA. (2013) CD36-dependent signaling mediates fatty acid-induced gut release of secretin and cholecystokinin. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 27(3), 1191-202. PMID: 23233532
Kyriazis GA, Soundarapandian MM, & Tyrberg B. (2012) Sweet taste receptor signaling in beta cells mediates fructose-induced potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(8). PMID: 22315413
Wauson EM, Zaganjor E, Lee AY, Guerra ML, Ghosh AB, Bookout AL, Chambers CP, Jivan A, McGlynn K, Hutchison MR, Deberardinis RJ, Cobb MH. (2012) The G protein-coupled taste receptor T1R1/T1R3 regulates mTORC1 and autophagy. Mol Cell., 47(6), 851-862. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2012.08.001
Dehkordi O, Rose JE, Fatemi M, Allard JS, Balan KV, Young JK, Fatima S, Millis RM, & Jayam-Trouth A. (2012) Neuronal expression of bitter taste receptors and downstream signaling molecules in the rat brainstem. Brain research, 1-10. PMID: 22836012
Taste sense is important in all vertebrates as well as for many invertebrates. Evolutionary pressures rewarded those animals that could distinguish toxins from nutrient source, and physiology has made those things we need taste good to us. But there are differences in taste sense between species and within species.
Recent research has shown that many obligate carnivores have lost the ability to taste sweet foods, and some are known to have reduced sensitivity to umami tastes as well. Vampire ........ Read more »
Rawal S, Hayes JE, Wallace MR, Bartoshuk LM, & Duffy VB. (2013) Do polymorphisms in the TAS1R1 gene contribute to broader differences in human taste intensity?. Chemical senses, 38(8), 719-28. PMID: 24000232
Zhao H, Xu D, Zhang S, & Zhang J. (2012) Genomic and genetic evidence for the loss of umami taste in bats. Genome biology and evolution, 4(1), 73-9. PMID: 22117084
Sato JJ, & Wolsan M. (2012) Loss or major reduction of umami taste sensation in pinnipeds. Die Naturwissenschaften, 99(8), 655-9. PMID: 22777285
What are the tastes humans sense? Sweet salt, sour, and bitter – don’t forget umami. Even though it has been around since 1908, umami as a concept has hit it big in just the past decade or so. This makes one wonder, are there more tastes out there? How about fat. New research shows that there are fatty acid receptors in the oral cavity, and they do induce specific physiologic responses. Is this the same as tasting?
Fatty acid receptors may turn out to be especially important for o........ Read more »
Newman L, Haryono R, & Keast R. (2013) Functionality of fatty acid chemoreception: a potential factor in the development of obesity?. Nutrients, 5(4), 1287-300. PMID: 23595136
Pepino MY, Love-Gregory L, Klein S, & Abumrad NA. (2012) The fatty acid translocase gene CD36 and lingual lipase influence oral sensitivity to fat in obese subjects. Journal of lipid research, 53(3), 561-6. PMID: 22210925
Keller KL, Liang LC, Sakimura J, May D, van Belle C, Breen C, Driggin E, Tepper BJ, Lanzano PC, Deng L.... (2012) Common variants in the CD36 gene are associated with oral fat perception, fat preferences, and obesity in African Americans. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 20(5), 1066-73. PMID: 22240721
MacDonald CJ, Meck WH, & Simon SA. (2012) Distinct neural ensembles in the rat gustatory cortex encode salt and water tastes. The Journal of physiology, 590(Pt 13), 3169-84. PMID: 22570382
Taste is a direct chemo-sensing process, wherein water and fat-soluble molecules interact with gustatory receptors for sweet, salt, sour, bitter, or umami. However, there are chemicals that can mimic food chemicals, like artificial sweeteners, while other molecules can alter the perceived sensation in the mouth. Recent studies have started to deduce how miraculin, the active molecule in the miracle berry, is able to make sour foods taste sweet. Miraculin binds the sweet receptor, but sweetness i........ Read more »
Koizumi, A., Tsuchiya, A., Nakajima, K., Ito, K., Terada, T., Shimizu-Ibuka, A., Briand, L., Asakura, T., Misaka, T., & Abe, K. (2011) From the Cover: Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(40), 16819-16824. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1016644108
Baig, M., Gawali, V., Patil, R., & Naik, S. (2011) Protective effect of herbomineral formulation (Dolabi) on early diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Natural Medicines, 66(3), 500-509. DOI: 10.1007/s11418-011-0614-y
Exercise increases brainpower, but do you know how? Many recent studies document the results of exercise on executive function, memory, processing speed, and attention, but some are also investigating just how these changes in cognitive function are brought about.
In particular a 2013 study shows that preadolescents who begin exercise score better on a cognitive assessment not unlike an IQ test. They also perform better on a math test, even though no additional math instruction was given. On ........ Read more »
Patten AR, Sickmann H, Hryciw BN, Kucharsky T, Parton R, Kernick A, & Christie BR. (2013) Long-term exercise is needed to enhance synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Learning , 20(11), 642-7. PMID: 24131795
Cassilhas RC, Lee KS, Fernandes J, Oliveira MG, Tufik S, Meeusen R, & de Mello MT. (2012) Spatial memory is improved by aerobic and resistance exercise through divergent molecular mechanisms. Neuroscience, 309-17. PMID: 22155655
Davis CL, Tomporowski PD, McDowell JE, Austin BP, Miller PH, Yanasak NE, Allison JD, & Naglieri JA. (2011) Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: a randomized, controlled trial. Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 30(1), 91-8. PMID: 21299297
Tam ND. (2013) Improvement of Processing Speed in Executive Function Immediately following an Increase in Cardiovascular Activity. Cardiovascular psychiatry and neurology, 212767. PMID: 24187613
A New Year’s resolution to exercise could also help you sleep. But how? Sheer exhaustion is one way and reducing stress is another, but there is much more. Research is showing that exercise can induce sleep in the anterior hypothalamus and preoptic nucleus by either manipulation the temperature of the body or by modulating cytokine levels. Studies indicate that decreased temperature after exercise stimulate the brain to inhibit wakefulness signals modulated by orexin/hypocretin. Additional........ Read more »
Vivanco P, Studholme KM, & Morin LP. (2013) Drugs that prevent mouse sleep also block light-induced locomotor suppression, circadian rhythm phase shifts and the drop in core temperature. Neuroscience, 98-109. PMID: 24056197
Robey E, Dawson B, Halson S, Gregson W, King S, Goodman C, & Eastwood P. (2013) Effect of evening postexercise cold water immersion on subsequent sleep. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 45(7), 1394-402. PMID: 23377833
Santos RV, Viana VA, Boscolo RA, Marques VG, Santana MG, Lira FS, Tufik S, & de Mello MT. (2012) Moderate exercise training modulates cytokine profile and sleep in elderly people. Cytokine, 60(3), 731-5. PMID: 22917967
España RA, McCormack SL, Mochizuki T, & Scammell TE. (2007) Running promotes wakefulness and increases cataplexy in orexin knockout mice. Sleep, 30(11), 1417-25. PMID: 18041476
More exercise is a good New Year’s resolution, but do you know why it is good for you. Sure, you strengthen your heart and may lose some weight, but exercise affects your brain most of all. In terms of improved mood, research is showing how brain derived neurotrophic factor is stimulated by endocannabinoids and then increases serotonin production. The endocannabinoids have also recently been shown to decrease nociception to allow for increased effects of high serotonin and dopamine levels......... Read more »
Galdino G, Romero TR, Silva JF, Aguiar DC, de Paula AM, Cruz JS, Parrella C, Piscitelli F, Duarte ID, Di Marzo V.... (2013) The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats. Neuropharmacology, 313-324. PMID: 24148812
Koh SX, & Lee JK. (2013) S100B as a Marker for Brain Damage and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Following Exercise. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.). PMID: 24194479
Heyman E, Gamelin FX, Goekint M, Piscitelli F, Roelands B, Leclair E, Di Marzo V, & Meeusen R. (2012) Intense exercise increases circulating endocannabinoid and BDNF levels in humans--possible implications for reward and depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(6), 844-51. PMID: 22029953
Vučković MG, Li Q, Fisher B, Nacca A, Leahy RM, Walsh JP, Mukherjee J, Williams C, Jakowec MW, Petzinger GM. (2010) Exercise elevates dopamine D2 receptor in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease: in vivo imaging with [¹⁸F]fallypride. Movement Disorders, 25(16), 2777-2784. DOI: 10.1002/mds.23407
Puterman E, Lin J, Blackburn E, O'Donovan A, Adler N, & Epel E. (2010) The power of exercise: buffering the effect of chronic stress on telomere length. PloS one, 5(5). PMID: 20520771
Tis the season for snow in the northern hemisphere – on the ground and in the mind of the biologist. Recent studies are showing the unique ways that organisms depend on and use snow in order to survive. An antifreeze protein from snow fleas may lengthen the time that organs can be stored for transplant. More amazing, reindeer use the UV rays that bounce of the snow to see predators – they are the only mammals that can see in the UV range.... Read more »
Hogg C, Neveu M, Stokkan KA, Folkow L, Cottrill P, Douglas R, Hunt DM, & Jeffery G. (2011) Arctic reindeer extend their visual range into the ultraviolet. The Journal of experimental biology, 214(Pt 12), 2014-9. PMID: 21613517
Kondo H, Hanada Y, Sugimoto H, Hoshino T, Garnham CP, Davies PL, & Tsuda S. (2012) Ice-binding site of snow mold fungus antifreeze protein deviates from structural regularity and high conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(24), 9360-5. PMID: 22645341
Pentelute BL, Gates ZP, Dashnau JL, Vanderkooi JM, & Kent SB. (2008) Mirror image forms of snow flea antifreeze protein prepared by total chemical synthesis have identical antifreeze activities. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(30), 9702-7. PMID: 18598026
Kuwabara C, Takezawa D, Shimada T, Hamada T, Fujikawa S, & Arakawa K. (2002) Abscisic acid- and cold-induced thaumatin-like protein in winter wheat has an antifungal activity against snow mould, Microdochium nivale. Physiologia plantarum, 115(1), 101-110. PMID: 12010473
Phospholipids are just one type of lipid in all cells. The fatty acids are the precursor to all kinds of lipids, but in some cases they have been modified to such a degree that they are not identifiable. The fatty acids are showing interesting functions, such as a new study showing that the levels of odd chain fatty acids can be used to monitor rumen health in cattle. The omega fatty acids are also becoming important in the treatment and prevention of depression. A new study shows that in Ameri........ Read more »
Beydoun MA, Fanelli Kuczmarski MT, Beydoun HA, Hibbeln JR, Evans MK, & Zonderman AB. (2013) ω-3 Fatty Acid Intakes Are Inversely Related to Elevated Depressive Symptoms among United States Women. The Journal of nutrition, 143(11), 1743-52. PMID: 24005610
Li Z, Thiel K, Thul PJ, Beller M, Kühnlein RP, & Welte MA. (2012) Lipid droplets control the maternal histone supply of Drosophila embryos. Current biology : CB, 22(22), 2104-13. PMID: 23084995
Vlaeminck B, Dufour C, van Vuuren AM, Cabrita AR, Dewhurst RJ, Demeyer D, & Fievez V. (2005) Use of odd and branched-chain fatty acids in rumen contents and milk as a potential microbial marker. Journal of dairy science, 88(3), 1031-42. PMID: 15738238
Fats are bothersome to most us, but essential to life. Lipodystrophies are dysfunctions in fat storage, including lipoatrophies where fat is lost from a specific part of the body. In HIV, there is lipoatrophy in the face, but deposition of fat around the visceral organs. A new study shows tracked different markers in each location and found that mitochondrial changes were the same in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subdermal adipose tissue (SAT). But the signals to build fat decreased only in ........ Read more »
Gallego-Escuredo JM, Villarroya J, Domingo P, Targarona EM, Alegre M, Domingo JC, Villarroya F, & Giralt M. (2013) Differentially Altered Molecular Signature of Visceral Adipose Tissue in HIV-1-Associated Lipodystrophy. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 64(2), 142-8. PMID: 23714743
Xu S, Liu Z, & Liu P. (2013) HDL cholesterol in cardiovascular diseases: The good, the bad, and the ugly?. International journal of cardiology, 168(4), 3157-9. PMID: 23962777
Barter, P. (2005) The role of HDL-cholesterol in preventing atherosclerotic disease. , 7(Suppl F), F4-F8. European heart Journal. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/sui036
Indian corn isn’t corn, it’s maize. But not all corn is maize, corn is actually an old word that denotes the major crop of any particular region. We use Indian corn as decoration, but its history is as a food stuff colors and all, an that history is getting longer, as a new study from Florida State shows that maize has been farmed for over 7000 years. The colors are most beautiful, including a newly breed variety called Carl’s Glass Gem corn. The spots of color were instrumenta........ Read more »
Pohl ME, Piperno DR, Pope KO, Jones JG. (2007) Microfossil evidence for pre-Columbian maize dispersals in the neotropics from San Andres, Tabasco, Mexico. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. , 104(16), 6870-6875. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0701425104
Keely SP, & Stringer JR. (2009) Complexity of the MSG gene family of Pneumocystis carinii. BMC genomics, 367. PMID: 19664205
The cranberry is an amazing fruit for several reasons. Its cultivation and botany are unusual, as is its seed dispersal mechanism and structure. However, a major push has been on to understand the medicinal uses of the cranberry. Much debate is taking place as to the usefulness of cranberry compounds, anthocyanidins and polyphenols, in the prevention of urinary tract infections. New studies have diametrically opposed conclusions – one shows a benefit in women prone to UTIs, while a recent ........ Read more »
Burleigh AE, Benck SM, McAchran SE, Reed JD, Krueger CG, & Hopkins WJ. (2013) Consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries may reduce urinary tract infection incidence in susceptible women -- a modified observational study. Nutrition journal, 12(1), 139. PMID: 24139545
McCall J, Hidalgo G, Asadishad B, & Tufenkji N. (2013) Cranberry impairs selected behaviors essential for virulence in Proteus mirabilis HI4320. Canadian journal of microbiology, 59(6), 430-6. PMID: 23750959
Lorenzo AJ, & Braga LH. (2013) Use of cranberry products does not appear to be associated with a significant reduction in incidence of recurrent urinary tract infections. Evidence-based medicine, 18(5), 181-2. PMID: 23416416
Ruel G, Lapointe A, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, & Couillard C. (2013) Evidence that cranberry juice may improve augmentation index in overweight men. Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.), 33(1), 41-9. PMID: 23351409
Shidfar F, Heydari I, Hajimiresmaiel SJ, Hosseini S, Shidfar S, & Amiri F. (2012) The effects of cranberry juice on serum glucose, apoB, apoA-I, Lp(a), and Paraoxonase-1 activity in type 2 diabetic male patients. Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 17(4), 355-60. PMID: 23267397
We are taught and we teach that DNA codes fro the amino acid sequence of specific proteins. But the truth is that often times, the sequence of the mRNA ends of different than that coded by the DNA. In addition to mRNA processing, there is also RNA editing, which can add, subtract, or change the base sequence in a transcript.
New research is showing just how extensive RNA editing is and the powerful role it plays in cellular expression. A new algorithm has been introduced to better predict R........ Read more »
Paz-Yaacov N, Levanon EY, Nevo E, Kinar Y, Harmelin A, Jacob-Hirsch J, Amariglio N, Eisenberg E, & Rechavi G. (2010) Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing shapes transcriptome diversity in primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(27), 12174-9. PMID: 20566853
Takahashi T, Otsuguro K, Ohta T, & Ito S. (2010) Adenosine and inosine release during hypoxia in the isolated spinal cord of neonatal rats. British journal of pharmacology, 161(8), 1806-16. PMID: 20735412
Lenz H, & Knoop V. (2013) PREPACT 2.0: Predicting C-to-U and U-to-C RNA Editing in Organelle Genome Sequences with Multiple References and Curated RNA Editing Annotation. Bioinformatics and biology insights, 1-19. PMID: 23362369
Poulsen HE, Nadal LL, Broedbaek K, Nielsen PE, & Weimann A. (2013) Detection and interpretation of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua in urine, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Biochimica et biophysica acta. PMID: 23791936
Wang P, Fisher D, Rao A, & Giese RW. (2012) Nontargeted nucleotide analysis based on benzoylhistamine labeling-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS: discovery of putative 6-oxo-thymine in DNA. Analytical chemistry, 84(8), 3811-9. PMID: 22409256
The universal genetic code assigns different amino acids to different three base codons of mRNA. The link between the two is the tRNA, which recognizes the codon and carries the amino acid. It seems a waste to have the tRNAs doing just this one job, and new studies are showing that cleaved tRNAs and non-aminoacylated tRNAs have functions in regulation of gene expression and cell proliferation.
Also, the universality of the geneticcode has been exaggerated a bit. There are exceptions to the co........ Read more »
Xu XM, Turanov AA, Carlson BA, Yoo MH, Everley RA, Nandakumar R, Sorokina I, Gygi SP, Gladyshev VN, & Hatfield DL. (2010) Targeted insertion of cysteine by decoding UGA codons with mammalian selenocysteine machinery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(50), 21430-4. PMID: 21115847
Nature is rife with examples of how one organism can rob another of its free will, turning them into zombies so to say. New evidence is showing that in the case of the Jewel Wasp and the American Cockroach, the wasp is very careful to sting the victim in a certain part of the brain, that which controls the roach’s ability to initiate walking. This is based on the neurotransmitter octopamine, but additional research shows that the change is not due to alterations in octopamine production le........ Read more »
House PK, Vyas A, & Sapolsky R. (2011) Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats. PloS one, 6(8). PMID: 21858053
Flegr J, Lenochová P, Hodný Z, & Vondrová M. (2011) Fatal attraction phenomenon in humans: cat odour attractiveness increased for toxoplasma-infected men while decreased for infected women. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 5(11). PMID: 22087345
Banks CN, & Adams ME. (2012) Biogenic amines in the nervous system of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana following envenomation by the jewel wasp, Ampulex compressa. Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology, 59(2), 320-8. PMID: 22085538
Herzner G, Schlecht A, Dollhofer V, Parzefall C, Harrar K, Kreuzer A, Pilsl L, & Ruther J. (2013) Larvae of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa sanitize their host, the American cockroach, with a blend of antimicrobials. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(4), 1369-74. PMID: 23297195
Can zombies be considered a form of life? It might depend on the type of zombie you are talking about, and it might depend on what you consider to be life. New research has been illuminating important aspects of the seven traditionally name d characteristics of life. A 2013 review blurs the idea of organization in single celled organisms by discussing the subcellular localization of different replication, transcription, and translation, even in organisms that do not possess organelles or a nucle........ Read more »
TedEd video. (2013) The Wacky History of the Cell Theory. TED. info:/
Campos M, & Jacobs-Wagner C. (2013) Cellular organization of the transfer of genetic information. Current opinion in microbiology, 16(2), 171-6. PMID: 23395479
Yamada T, Tsukita S, & Katagiri H. (2013) Identification of a novel interorgan mechanism favoring energy storage in overnutrition. Adipocyte, 2(4), 281-4. PMID: 24052907
Zombies may not be real, but they are real profitable for Hollywood. While Wade Davis’ work in the 1980’s did not definitively prove the Haitian zombie production by witch doctors, there are several diseases that can mimic many of the characteristics of zombies. New research now shows that the African sleeping sickness vector, the tsetse fly, is more of a threat in enclosed buildings and cities than previously believed. Other research shows that rabies can incubate without symptoms f........ Read more »
Boland TA, McGuone D, Jindal J, Rocha M, Cumming M, Rupprecht CE, Barbosa TF, de Novaes Oliveira R, Chu CJ, Cole AJ.... (2013) Phylogenetic and epidemiologic evidence of multi-year incubation in human rabies. Annals of neurology. PMID: 24038455
Vale GA, Hargrove JW, Chamisa A, Hall DR, Mangwiro C, & Torr SJ. (2013) Factors affecting the propensity of tsetse flies to enter houses and attack humans inside: increased risk of sleeping sickness in warmer climates. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 7(4). PMID: 23638209
Veyseller B, Aksoy F, Yildirim YS, Açikalin RM, Gürbüz D, & Ozturan O. (2012) Olfactory dysfunction and olfactory bulb volume reduction in patients with leprosy. Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India, 64(3), 261-5. PMID: 23998032
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