Memory Reactivation

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This blog reviews current papers from the fields of immunology and host-pathogen interactions. It contains also personal opinions on the significance of data, possible elaboration routes and questions I would ask.

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  • January 21, 2014
  • 06:59 AM

BLyS drives affinity maturation

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

I have found an interesting paper that describes in the very detailed way how the interactions between two specialized subsets of lymphocytes which are germinal center (GC) B cells and follicular helper (FH) T cells may influence the affinity maturation of antibodies. The cooperation of these two subsets is known for the long time. However, […]... Read more »

Radhika Goenka, Andrew H. Matthews, Bochao Zhang, Patrick J. O’Neill, Jean L. Scholz, Thi-Sau Migone, Warren J. Leonard, William Stohl, Uri Hershberg, and Michael P. Cancro. (2014) Local BLyS production by T follicular cells mediates retention of high affinity B cells during affinity maturation. Journal of Experimental Medicine. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20130505  

  • January 8, 2014
  • 11:09 AM

Observations on the B cell repertoire in young and elderly people

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

Since I have not written for a while I decided to choose for my comeback something that could be summarized in couple of shorts paragraph, something that I am not very familiar with, so I am not grounded in endless divagations yet something that is of enough interest to whet my appetite for more posts […]... Read more »

Krishna M. Roskin, Tho D. Pham, Jonathan Laserson, Chen Wang, Yi Liu, Lan T. Xu, Katherine J. L. Jackson, Eleanor L. Marshall, Katie Seo, Ji-Yeun Lee, David Furman, Daphne Koller, Cornelia L. Dekker, Mark M. Davis, Andrew Z. Fire and Scott D. Boyd. (2014) Effects of Aging, Cytomegalovirus Infection, and EBV Infection on Human B Cell Repertoires . Journal of Immunology. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301384  

  • January 7, 2013
  • 01:22 PM

IL-13 and hepatic gluconeogenesis

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

When I started learning about immunology I held a conviction that the immunity serves only to combat infections and pathogens. Perhaps the major change I have acquired in my understanding of immune processes is that the function of the immune system could be more permeating and extend to broader activities than just the defense. What we call [...]... Read more »

Stanya KJ, Jacobi D, Liu S, Bhargava P, Dai L, Gangl MR, Inouye K, Barlow JL, Ji Y, Mizgerd JP.... (2013) Direct control of hepatic glucose production by interleukin-13 in mice. The Journal of clinical investigation, 123(1), 261-71. PMID: 23257358  

  • January 2, 2013
  • 10:29 AM

Schistosoma mansoni evacuates its eggs through Peyer’s patches

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

Schistosomes are parasitic worms that live in the blood and have a complicated life cycle. The sexual form inhabits vertebrates (humans included) whereas the other stages infest fresh water snails. Adult worms tend to chronically infect theirs host (sometimes for many years) but for the propagation they have to be able to release their eggs to the [...]... Read more »

Joseph D. Turner,Priyanka Narang,Mark C. Coles,Adrian P. Mountford. (2012) Blood Flukes Exploit Peyer's Patch Lymphoid Tissue to Facilitate Transmission from the Mammalian Host. PLOS Pathogens. info:/

  • November 27, 2012
  • 12:32 PM

Memory CD4 T cells and the neonatal gut

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

I have found a short paper on the potential mechanism how HIV virus may be transmitted between mother and child. I think it is interesting because it not only provides the information which may be useful for a given pathology but it also poses some questions as to the basic immunology processes. The main theme of [...]... Read more »

  • November 21, 2012
  • 10:34 PM

On the wild mice and autoimmunity

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

Only the relatively small part of mammalian genome is formed by protein-coding sequences. The long stretches between these protein-bearing fragments contain other components which are either non-transcribed regulatory elements or the variety of non-translated RNAs many of which are also taking part in the regulation of gene expression. This intricate network influences the decision whether a given protein [...]... Read more »

  • November 16, 2012
  • 03:03 PM

First prime and then pull – the novel immunization approach

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

Some areas of our body enjoy a special status as far as the immune reaction is concerned. Anatomical entities like the gut or female genital tract as well as other mucosal surfaces do not support the same extend of protective response compared to many non-mucosal tissues. This exclusion is crucial to avoid the unwanted inflammation in [...]... Read more »

  • September 19, 2012
  • 10:10 AM

The own versus foreign microbiota

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

It was long known the absence of the gut microbiota impairs the full functionality of mammalian immune system. However, it appears that the immune system may require the species-specific microbiota not just any microbiota to develop its proper responses as the recent publication indicates. I think that this report has important implications both for the better understanding of [...]... Read more »

Chung H, Pamp SJ, Hill JA, Surana NK, Edelman SM, Troy EB, Reading NC, Villablanca EJ, Wang S, Mora JR.... (2012) Gut immune maturation depends on colonization with a host-specific microbiota. Cell, 149(7), 1578-93. PMID: 22726443  

  • August 27, 2012
  • 12:21 PM

Non-pathogenic SIV infection and type-I interferon signaling

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

How monkeys or apes respond to the challenge of lentiviral immunodeficiency viruses varies across different primate species. Some primates like rhesuses are similar to humans because following SIV infection they develop the AIDS-like disease with all the characteristic features of progressive immune destruction. However, there are other species that do not display such aggravated pathology. African sooty mangabeys are the best studied [...]... Read more »

  • August 15, 2012
  • 05:00 AM

Enter the mycobiota

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

I have found the publication that focus on pretty much unexplored subject which is the presence and role of commensal fungi in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. As far as I know there is no information on whether the intestinal fungi community (similarly the bacterial microbiome) has any influence on the basic metabolic functions of their hosts. The discussed paper does not provide such knowledge either.... Read more »

Iliev ID, Funari VA, Taylor KD, Nguyen Q, Reyes CN, Strom SP, Brown J, Becker CA, Fleshner PR, Dubinsky M.... (2012) Interactions between commensal fungi and the C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1 influence colitis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6086), 1314-7. PMID: 22674328  

  • August 10, 2012
  • 01:08 PM

PAX5 ability to repress BLIMP1 is phosphorylation-dependent

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

When a B cell starts releasing antibodies at the large scale it undergoes the sequence of deep morphological and physiological changes. It expands its cytoplasm and switches on the machinery that lets it cope with the enhanced protein production in preparation to professional antibody secretion. On the molecular level this transition it governed by the onset in expression of [...]... Read more »

  • August 6, 2012
  • 04:38 PM

The abluminal crawling of neutrophils

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

During the inflammatory reaction to an invading pathogen neutrophils arrive at the injury site and leave blood vessels to accumulate around foreign particles. The publication I am discussing today analyzes how neutrophils migrate through the layer of pericytes that coats endothelial cells. Pericytes are cells that form the important structural part of certain types of blood [...]... Read more »

Proebstl D, Voisin MB, Woodfin A, Whiteford J, D'Acquisto F, Jones GE, Rowe D, & Nourshargh S. (2012) Pericytes support neutrophil subendothelial cell crawling and breaching of venular walls in vivo. The Journal of experimental medicine, 209(6), 1219-34. PMID: 22615129  

  • August 1, 2012
  • 10:54 AM

Borrelia burgdorferi – the master manipulator

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

Who are the most accomplished immunologists in the world? The title may go to several pathogenic organisms that are apparently able to manipulate immune responses and do it in the way that puzzles many researchers. Bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi (the causative agent of Lyme disease) definitely belongs to the elite club. I have learnt that during infection [...]... Read more »

Hastey CJ, Elsner RA, Barthold SW, & Baumgarth N. (2012) Delays and diversions mark the development of B cell responses to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 188(11), 5612-22. PMID: 22547698  

  • July 25, 2012
  • 11:15 AM

The developmental diversion of thymocytes

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

I like reports that make me learn something new and appreciate novel developments leading to more integral view of immunological concepts. My understanding of the thymic central tolerance process was that thymocytes receiving strong signals from tissue antigens through TCR undergo invariably the clonal deletion. But it looks like the clonal deletion of cells that can develop [...]... Read more »

Pobezinsky LA, Angelov GS, Tai X, Jeurling S, Van Laethem F, Feigenbaum L, Park JH, & Singer A. (2012) Clonal deletion and the fate of autoreactive thymocytes that survive negative selection. Nature immunology, 13(6), 569-78. PMID: 22544394  

  • July 20, 2012
  • 12:10 PM

B cells can secrete IL-6 and drive Th17 response in autoimmunity

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

The main task of B cells is to release protective immunoglobulins. Yet it is not their only role since they are apparently capable to take on the diverse array of activities that do not directly form a part of effector humoral responses. Instead of just secreting antibodies B cells can influence the outcome of an [...]... Read more »

Barr TA, Shen P, Brown S, Lampropoulou V, Roch T, Lawrie S, Fan B, O'Connor RA, Anderton SM, Bar-Or A.... (2012) B cell depletion therapy ameliorates autoimmune disease through ablation of IL-6-producing B cells. The Journal of experimental medicine, 209(5), 1001-10. PMID: 22547654  

  • July 13, 2012
  • 10:45 AM

The effect of MyD88 deletion on autoimmunity driven by Foxp3 inactivation

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

Over last 10 years few subjects in immunology have received more attention than regulatory CD4 T cells called in abbreviation Tregs. Tregs are considered to have the potent suppression activity over adaptive immune responses and their lack may result in the autoimmunity development. The central trait pertinent to Tregs is the expression of the transcription factor Foxp3.  The essential role of Foxp3 [...]... Read more »

  • July 9, 2012
  • 11:48 AM

The early microbiota species composition may influence the B cell development in children

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

We never walk alone; each of us is colonized by scores of bacterial species that live in our gastrointestinal tract. The colonization event occurs right after birth and has profound effects on our immune system – this sentence appears in every modern immunology textbook. There is, however, no such thing like one human microbiome as [...]... Read more »

Lundell AC, Björnsson V, Ljung A, Ceder M, Johansen S, Lindhagen G, Törnhage CJ, Adlerberth I, Wold AE, & Rudin A. (2012) Infant B cell memory differentiation and early gut bacterial colonization. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 188(9), 4315-22. PMID: 22490441  

  • July 4, 2012
  • 10:25 AM

The intestinal role of NLRC4

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

The May issue of Nature Immunology contained an article that has described an intriguing mechanism of tolerance to microbiota without losing the ability to detect invading intestinal pathogens and switching on protection mechanisms when it comes to the defending. According to that report macrophages residing in the colon (but not from the bone marrow) remain hyporesponsive to TLR [...]... Read more »

Carvalho FA, Nalbantoglu I, Aitken JD, Uchiyama R, Su Y, Doho GH, Vijay-Kumar M, & Gewirtz AT. (2012) Cytosolic flagellin receptor NLRC4 protects mice against mucosal and systemic challenges. Mucosal immunology, 5(3), 288-98. PMID: 22318495  

  • June 22, 2012
  • 11:22 AM

The different chemokine profile in HIV exposed seronegative persons

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

The studies on human population infected with or exposed to HIV have brought the description of several virus-refractory phenotypes. Among them are long-time non-progressors and HIV exposed seronegative persons. The first group is able to control virus replication without the anti-retroviral therapy, maintain the normal CD4 T cell number and avoid the chronic immune activation [...]... Read more »

  • June 20, 2012
  • 11:13 AM

Degradation of chemokines by food-borne bacterium

by memoryreactivation in Memory Reactivation

The diet, previous or ongoing encounters with infectious organisms and parasites as well as bacterial microflora that inhabit the intestinal tract or other mucosal surfaces – all these factors influence the quality of immune responses. To mention just one relevant case – in developing countries people appear to be less affected by autoimmune diseases but [...]... Read more »

von Schillde MA, Hörmannsperger G, Weiher M, Alpert CA, Hahne H, Bäuerl C, van Huynegem K, Steidler L, Hrncir T, Pérez-Martínez G, Kuster B, Haller D. (2012) Lactocepin Secreted By Lactobacillus Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects By Selectively Degrading Proinflammatory Chemokines. Cell Host. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2012.02.006  

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