The second in a series on the History of Cataloguing, this post highlights OCLC's news that they will no longer be printing catalogue cards and provides an insight into Charles Coffin Jewett's suggestion that shared cataloguing be undertaken, led by the Smithsonian Institution in the mid-nineteenth century.... Read more »
Charles Coffin Jewett. (1853) On the Construction of Catalogues of Libraries, and their Publication by Means of Separate, Stereotyped Titles, with Rules and Examples. 2nd ed. Hathi Trust Digital Library. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Ismail Laher Department of Anesthesiology Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics Faculty of Medicine University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Laher: There … Continue reading →
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Prof. Ismail Laher. (2015) Exercise Pills May Benefit Those Unable To Exercise. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
The human brain does not come with an operating manual. However, a group of scientists have developed a way to convert structural brain imaging techniques into “wiring diagrams” of connections between brain regions. Three researchers from UCSB’s Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences — Michael Miller, Scott Grafton and Matt Cieslak — used the structure of neural networks to reveal the fundamental rules that govern which parts of the brain are most able to exert cognitive control over thoughts and actions.... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kimberly J. Van Zee, MD, FACS Surgical oncologist Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Medical Research: Why is this study important? Dr. Van Zee: It is very important because the 4 large studies that randomized women with DCIS to radiation … Continue reading →
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Kimberly J. Van Zee, MD, FACS. (2015) Recurrence Rates Fall For In-Situ Ductal Breast Cancer. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adam Hanley Doctoral candidate College of Education’s Counseling/School Psychology program Florida State University Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This study emerged from the intersection of my personal dislike … Continue reading →
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Adam Hanley. (2015) Can Mindful Dishwashing Reduce Nervousness?. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Everyone knows that exercise improves health, and ongoing research continues to uncover increasingly detailed information on its benefits for metabolism, circulation, and improved functioning of organs such as the heart, brain, and liver. With this knowledge in hand, scientists may be better equipped to develop “exercise pills” that could mimic at least some of the beneficial effects of physical exercise on the body. But a review of current development efforts ponders whether such pills will achieve their potential therapeutic impact, at least in the near future.... Read more »
Laher, & et al. (2015) Exercise Pills: At the Starting Line?. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. info:/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2015.08.014
"Children born after an IPI [interpregnancy interval] of <12 months or ≥72 months had a 2- to 3-fold increased ASD [autism spectrum disorder] risk compared with children born after an interval of 36 to 47 months."So said the study results published by Ousseny Zerbo and colleagues  looking at the increasingly interesting area of the autism research landscape: the interpregnancy interval (the time from the birth of an index child to the next conception/pregnancy of a sibling).Looking at data derived from children "born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) between 2000 and 2009", researchers examined the IPI to evaluate the risk of ASD in second-born children. Various hazard ratios (HRs) are reported based on the spacing between children: "<6 months, 3.0 (1.9–4.7); 6 to 8 months, 2.1 (1.4–3.3); 9 to 11 months, 1.9 (1.3–2.1); 12 to 23 months, 1.5 (1.1–2.1); and ≥72 months, 2.4 (1.5–3.7)." Following a sort of U-shaped response curve and taking into account various factors that may potentially impact on offspring autism risk, researchers concluded that: "Children born after interpregnancy intervals <2 years or >6 years may be at increased risk of ASD."Whilst the Zerbo findings have attracted some media attention (see here and see here) it is not necessarily new news that the IPI might show some connection to offspring autism risk. I've covered the topic on at least two other occasions on this blog (see here and see here) outside of other research suggesting similar things . The findings are fairly robust and importantly, seem to cross different geographies and different ethnicities, suggesting that the IPI might be something generalisable to autism across the globe.As per my other musings on this topic, there are several possibilities as to how a short (or long) IPI might impact on offspring autism risk, mainly associated with more general research on how IPI might influence various birth outcomes (albeit with caveats ). Having watched the recent BBC series called 'Countdown to Life' documenting the nine months that made us, I'm particularly interested in the idea that there may be more than one mechanism at work depending on the IPI. Specifically, whether a short IPI where the greatest HR was reported by Zerbo, might be related to a depletion of maternal stores of various micronutrients (the authors have talked about folate although I'd be careful there, indeed very careful there ) that comes with pregnancy and David Barker style (see here) whether intrauterine health might be a factor in the elevated risk?Music, and something a little 'cool' today: The Specials And Fun Boy Three - Our Lips Are Sealed (complete with a sample of the Go-Go's).---------- Zerbo O. et al. Interpregnancy Interval and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics. 2015. Sept 14. Coo H. et al. The association between the interpregnancy interval and autism spectrum disorder in a Canadian cohort. Can J Public Health. 2015 Feb 3;106(2):e36-42. Ball SJ. et al. Re-evaluation of link between interpregnancy interval and adverse birth outcomes: retrospective cohort study matching two intervals per mother. BMJ. 2014; 349: g4333. Virk J. et al. Preconceptional and prenatal supplementary folic acid and multivitamin intake and autism spectrum disorders. Autism. 2015 Sep 25. pii: 1362361315604076.----------Zerbo, O., Yoshida, C., Gunderson, E., Dorward, K., & Croen, L. (2015). Interpregnancy Interval and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders PEDIATRICS DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-1099... Read more »
Zerbo, O., Yoshida, C., Gunderson, E., Dorward, K., & Croen, L. (2015) Interpregnancy Interval and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders. PEDIATRICS. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-1099
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. David Brent MD Department of Psychiatry Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Brent: Youth with a parent with a history … Continue reading →
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Dr. David Brent MD. (2015) Parental Depression Is Strong Predictor of Depression in Youth. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Russ S. Kotwal, M.D., M.P.H. United States Army Institute of Surgical Research Joint Base San Antonio-Ft. Sam Houston Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Kotwal: The term golden hour was coined to encourage … Continue reading →
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Russ S. Kotwal, M.D., M.P.H. (2015) Battlefield Deaths Decline Since Faster Care Became Mandated. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Austin G. Stack MD., MSc., FRCPI. Professor and Foundation Chair of Medicine, Graduate Entry Medical School (GEMS),Consultant Nephrologist, University Hospital Limerick Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Stack: Height is an important proxy for … Continue reading →
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Austin G. Stack MD., MSc. (2015) Tall Non-Black Dialysis Patients Die Prematurely. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Mark J Bolland Associate professor of medicine Department of Medicine University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Bolland: Many guidelines advise older people to take at least 1000-1200 … Continue reading →
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Dr. Mark J Bolland. (2015) Calcium Supplements Do Not Prevent Bone Fractures. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Well bad news for those of us who have a sweet tooth, a diet high in processed fructose sabotages rat brains’ ability to heal after head trauma, UCLA neuroscientists report. While this doesn’t necessarily translate to humans quite yet, it should still raise a few eyebrows given the results from the study.... Read more »
Rahul Agrawal, Emily Noble1, Laurent Vergnes, Zhe Ying1, Karen Reue, & Fernando Gomez-Pinilla. (2015) Dietary fructose aggravates the pathobiology of traumatic brain injury by influencing energy homeostasis and plasticity. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow . info:/10.1177/0271678X15606719
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marte Handal PhD Division of Epidemiology Norwegian Institute of Public Health Oslo, Norway Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Handal: The prevalence of depression during pregnancy is estimated to be as high as … Continue reading →
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Marte Handal PhD. (2015) What Is the Effect Of Prenatal Exposure To SSRIs?. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Who doesn't enjoy waking to a pleasant smell wafting past? Unfortunately for them, the penguins in a recent study woke up not to pancakes frying nearby, but to less appetizing aromas—for example, feces on a stick. But scientists promise the experiment taught them valuable lessons about a penguin's capabilities. Besides, they let the birds go right back to sleep.
"Research into the sense of smell in birds has a bit of a dubious history," says Gregory Cunningham, a biologist at St. John Fis... Read more »
Cunningham GB, & Bonadonna F. (2015) King penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics. The Journal of experimental biology. PMID: 26385329
Galileo Bust in Galileo Museum, Florence (wryates photo)There is a significant level of interest in the best behavioral activity balance in adolescents.Adolescents currently live in an environment of expanding opportunities for spending time watching TV, surfing the internet and playing video games.Understanding the best balance of study, exercise and time in front of a screen is an important topic.Kristen Corder and colleagues recently examined adolescent behavioral activity patterns and performance on the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) exam in British adolescents.They examined the amount of time adolescents spent in physical activity, screen-time (TV, internet, computer gaming) and non-screen time (reading/homework). These behavioral activity measures were then linked to the performance on the GCSE. The GCSE is taken by all British students at the end of Year 11 schooling, corresponding with an average age of 16 years.The key finding from the study included the following:Physical activity levels did not correlate with academic performanceIncreasing amounts of screen time correlated with poorer academic performance with one extra hour linked to a 9.3 lower scoreIncreased amounts of non-screen time (reading/homework) correlated with higher performance (one extra hour per day was associated with an increase of 23 points on the GCSE) The study found that the benefit of hours spent doing homework peaked at 4 hours per day. Those spending less or more than 4 hours per day in study had lower GCSE exam scores.Some studies of exercise in adolescents demonstrated increased academic performance with greater levels of exercise. This effect was not seen in the current study that used date from an activity monitor to measure physical activity. The authors note that physical activity should be promoted primarily for health benefits in adolescent age groups.The implications of this study for parents is that a balanced activity schedule is important for adolescents. Providing support for at least 4 hours of study/reading per day appears optimal. Physical activity and screen time after completing optimal homework hours does not appear to have significant academic performance effects.Individuals with more interest in this study can access the free full-text manuscript by clicking on the PMID link on the citation below.Photo of Galileo bust from the Galileo Museum is from the author's files. Follow the author on Twitter WRY999Corder K, Atkin AJ, Bamber DJ, Brage S, Dunn VJ, Ekelund U, Owens M, van Sluijs EM, & Goodyer IM (2015). Revising on the run or studying on the sofa: prospective associations between physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and exam results in British adolescents. The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 12 (1) PMID: 26337325... Read more »
Corder K, Atkin AJ, Bamber DJ, Brage S, Dunn VJ, Ekelund U, Owens M, van Sluijs EM, & Goodyer IM. (2015) Revising on the run or studying on the sofa: prospective associations between physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and exam results in British adolescents. The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 12(1), 106. PMID: 26337325
My efforts turn once again to Taiwan today and the results reported by Yu-Chiau Shyu and colleagues  that: "Compared to the control group, the ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder] group showed significantly increased risk of developing any psychotic disorder... and schizophrenia."As per the multitude of other instances where Taiwan is mentioned as a research powerhouse, the source data for the Shyu findings was the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and the analysis of data for over 73,000 people "newly diagnosed with ADHD" compared with a similar number of age- and sex-matched non-ADHD controls. "Having a diagnosis of any psychotic disorder and of schizophrenia were set as two different outcomes and were analyzed separately" we are told, as was the possible role (or not) of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment of ADHD on psychosis / schizophrenia outcomes.In line with the opening paragraph, there was potentially something to see when it came to a previous diagnosis of ADHD priming someone for future psychotic disorder or schizophrenia. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) - "5.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.30-6.30 and 4.65; 95% CI, 3.59-6.04" - for psychotic disorder and schizophrenia respectively are not to be sniffed at. Shyu et al also noted that where MPH use was part of the the ADHD intervention regime, there was a suggestion that MPH use increased the risk of developing psychotic disorder but not schizophrenia. Such a finding is not unheard of in the peer-reviewed literature . The authors also noted that: "Compared to ADHD patients without psychosis, patients with ADHD who developed psychosis had significantly older age at first diagnosis of ADHD (9.4±3.3years vs. 10.6±4.0years)."This is not the first time that ADHD has been associated with psychosis and/or schizophrenia. The results reported by Dalteg and colleagues  are testament to the idea of a possible connection, even if moderated by variables such as substance abuse issues. Indeed, the idea that a diagnosis of ADHD might elevate the risk of substance abuse  is an important point given the various voices lending support to the idea that substance abuse might also be a risk factor for psychosis . That being said, I don't want to stigmatise everyone with ADHD on the basis of this connection; there may be quite a few other 'shared pathways' also to consider (see here) and not just of the genetic variety as per nutritional issues for example (see here and see here).The Shyu results do however reiterate that birds of a developmental / psychiatric feather may very well flock together as per other research findings in related areas (see here). That such a connection can so severely affect quality of life potentially provides further evidence that continued efforts to alleviate childhood psychiatric issues should represent an important goal of modern-day medicine (see here) particularly in respect to the rising numbers being discussed (see here)...Music: Rush Hour - Jane Wiedlin.---------- Shyu YC. et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, methylphenidate use and the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. Schizophr Res. 2015 Sep 9. pii: S0920-9964(15)00462-4. Kraemer M. et al. Methylphenidate-induced psychosis in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: report of 3 new cases and review of the literature. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2010 Jul;33(4):204-6. Dalteg A. et al. Psychosis in adulthood is associated with high rates of ADHD and CD problems during childhood. Nord J Psychiatry. 2014 Nov;68(8):560-6. Lee SS. et al. Prospective association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use and abuse/dependence: a meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011 Apr;31(3):328-41. Cantwell R. et al. Prevalence of substance misuse in first-episode psychosis. Br J Psychiatry. 1999 Feb;174:150-3.----------Shyu YC, Yuan SS, Lee SY, Yang CJ, Yang KC, Lee TL, & Wang LJ (2015). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, methylphenidate use and the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. Schizophrenia research PMID: 26363968... Read more »
Shyu YC, Yuan SS, Lee SY, Yang CJ, Yang KC, Lee TL, & Wang LJ. (2015) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, methylphenidate use and the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. Schizophrenia research. PMID: 26363968
In pop culture, conspiracy believers — like FBI agent Fox Mulder on The X Files or professor Robert Langdon in The Da Vinci Code — tend to reject the notion of coincidence or chance; even the most random-seeming events are thought to result from some sort of intention or design. And researchers have suggested that such a bias against randomness may explain real-world conspiracy beliefs. But new research from psychological scientists shows no evidence for a link between conspiracist thinking and perceptions of order, design, or intent.... Read more »
Dieguez, S., Wagner-Egger, P., & Gauvrit, N. (2015) Nothing Happens by Accident, or Does It? A Low Prior for Randomness Does Not Explain Belief in Conspiracy Theories. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797615598740
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ann-Cathrine Larsen MD, PhD-student University of Copenhagen Faculty of Health Sciences Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Eye Pathology Section Copenhagen Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Larsen: Conjunctival melanoma is an uncommon malignancy … Continue reading →
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Ann-Cathrine Larsen. (2015) Factors Associated With Aggressive Conjunctival Melanoma Outlined. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael P. Sherman, MD, FAAP Professor, Department of Child Health University of Missouri – Columbia Women’s and Children’s Hospital Columbia, Missouri 65201 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Sherman: We understand eosinophils are … Continue reading →
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Michael P. Sherman, MD, FAAP. (2015) Allergy Cells Predict Bowel Complications In Preterm Babies. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Sharing of research data (open data) is increasing in all areas related to scientific research, and it involves authors, journals, publishers, funding agencies, the productive sector and society. In order to encourage authors to provide and reuse datasets, it is paramount to find ways to measure their impact. The initiative ‘Making Data Count’ is efficiently doing this, find out how. … Read More →... Read more »
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