Post List

  • July 22, 2014
  • 06:47 PM
  • 2 views

When Crazy becomes a Crime

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

My friend has a glass eye, you would never notice and unless you knew the story you might not think anything of it. His older brother did it. Yes, you […]... Read more »

Dana Goldman,, John Fastenau,, Riad Dirani,, Eric Hellend,, Geoff Joyce,, Ryan Conrad,, & Darius Lakdawalla,. (2014) Medicaid Prior Authorization Policies and Imprisonment Among Patients With Schizophrenia. The American Journal of Managed Care, 20(7). info:/2014;20(7):577-586

  • July 22, 2014
  • 03:38 PM
  • 4 views

Cheaper Platinum-Yttrium Fuel Cell Catalyst Developed

by dailyfusion in The Daily Fusion

Researchers at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) report that they have developed a platinum-yttrium fuel cell catalyst which is stable, more active and less expensive than the existing platinum catalysts.... Read more »

Patricia Hernandez-Fernandez, Federico Masini, David N. McCarthy, Christian E. Strebel, Daniel Friebel, Davide Deiana, Paolo Malacrida, Anders Nierhoff, Anders Bodin, Anna M. Wise, Jane H. Nielsen, Thomas W. Hansen, Anders Nilsson, Ifan E. L. . (2014) Mass-selected nanoparticles of PtxY as model catalysts for ​oxygen electroreduction. Nature Chemistry. info:/10.1038/nchem.2001

  • July 22, 2014
  • 02:00 PM
  • 8 views

The Genetic Craftwork of CRISPR

by The Lab Hippo in The Lab Hippo

n ancient immune system used by bacteria to combat against viral phage infections is the latest tool at the disposal of genetic engineers. Many have high hopes of it allowing not only targeted genome alterations, but also the ability to colocalize any RNA, DNA or protein polymer to specified genomic DNA locations.... Read more »

  • July 22, 2014
  • 01:48 PM
  • 4 views

Fasting Improves Recovery of Bone Marrow Stem Cells after Chemotherapy

by Jalees Rehman in The Next Regeneration

Fasting is defined as either completely abstaining from or minimizing food intake for a defined period time - ranging from about 12 hours to even a few weeks. Calorie restriction, on the other hand, refers to an overall reduction in the daily calorie intake by about 20%-40% without necessarily reducing the meal intake frequency. Although calorie restriction is well-suited for weight loss and thus also reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease, proponents of fasting claim that it has distinct health benefits which cannot be attributed to weight loss.
... Read more »

  • July 22, 2014
  • 01:19 PM
  • 8 views

Optical Cables, from Thin Air!

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

It’s a project that would make Tesla proud. Just imagine being able to instantaneously run an optical cable or fiber to any point on earth, or even into space. That’s what researchers are trying to do. Did I mention it was instantaneous and involved no connection other than the air around us? Well if you are as excited as I am, then you should read on! If not, two words, laser weapons!!... Read more »

Rosenthal, E., Jhajj, N., Wahlstrand, J., & Milchberg, H. (2014) Collection of remote optical signals by air waveguides. Optica, 1(1), 5. DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.1.000005  

Jhajj, N., Rosenthal, E., Birnbaum, R., Wahlstrand, J., & Milchberg, H. (2014) Demonstration of Long-Lived High-Power Optical Waveguides in Air. Physical Review X, 4(1). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.011027  

  • July 22, 2014
  • 09:08 AM
  • 14 views

A History of Bioinformatics (told from the Year 2039)

by Mary in OpenHelix

A week or so back I was watching the chatter around the #ISMB / #BOSC2014 meeting, and saw a number of amusing and intriguing comments about Titus Brown’s keynote talk. [embedded tweets] You can see a lot of chatter about it in the Storify. I was delighted to soon see this follow up...... Read more »

  • July 22, 2014
  • 07:15 AM
  • 16 views

White or Brown: which is the better fat?

by Shefali Sabharanjak in United Academics

White adipose tissue or white fat has earned notoriety in the current obesity pandemic. But it is not right to throw white fat cells out of the window, just yet. Recent research has shown that conservation of energy-storing white fat cells can help to overcome cachexia brought on by chemotherapy in cancer patients. ... Read more »

Petruzzelli, M., Schweiger, M., Schreiber, R., Campos-Olivas, R., Tsoli, M., Allen, J., Swarbrick, M., Rose-John, S., Rincon, M., Robertson, G.... (2014) A Switch from White to Brown Fat Increases Energy Expenditure in Cancer-Associated Cachexia. Cell Metabolism. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.06.011  

  • July 22, 2014
  • 04:32 AM
  • 20 views

Common variation and the genetics of autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The paper by Trent Gaugler and colleagues [1] reporting that the genetic architecture of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) seems in the most part to be due to "common variation" over and above "rare variants or spontaneous glitches" adds to the quite voluminous literature in this area.Everything in proportion? @ Wikipedia Based on an analysis of "a unique epidemiological sample from Sweden" researchers looked at DNA variations in some 3000 individuals with autism and asymptomatic controls. They were able to model their findings "based mostly on combined effects of multiple genes and non-shared environmental factors" including some "synthesis of results from other studies".Their results: "Most genetic risk for autism comes from common inherited gene variations that can be found in many individuals without the disorder" as per one write-up of the study results. Spontaneous mutations - those so-called de novo mutations which seem to be of growing interest to autism research - were reported to only 'modestly' increase risk of the condition (2.6% of the total risk). About 40% of the risk was unaccounted for, but combined with those common inherited gene variations, made up about 90% of the total risk or liability for ASD.Quite a lot of the discussion about these results has focused on the issue of tiny genetic effects which many people not on the autism spectrum have present in their genome adding up into something with "substantial impact" when present together. Other research has hinted at similar things as for example, in the paper by St Pourcain and colleagues [2] looking at the genetics of social communication issues.Whilst I do think that the Gaugler paper is an important one, I am minded to suggest a few words of caution. First and foremost is the reliance on observed genetic variation in the current paper. Although no expert in genetics, my very basic knowledge is that such variations are structural in nature as per issues like single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The presence of such mutations (which we all have by the way, dotted around our genomic landscape) whilst of interest, don't actually though tell you an awful lot about the function of particular genes as a consequence of those point mutations unless further studies are conducted. Genes for example expressing protein can be affected by such mutations but, as we've come to realise in the past few decades, gene expression is also to some degree affected by other variables, as per the rise and rise of the science of epigenetics and the focus on non-structural effects on the genome. It's beyond the scope of this post to go too heavily into epigenetics and autism, but the research forays so far have provided some interesting data on issues like DNA methylation and autism (see here) and potential knock-on effects (see here). Importantly, structural variations might not necessarily be the same, or have the same effects, as epigenetic variations although the two may work synergistically.Second, and I hate to bang on about this, but autism or ASD does not normally appear in some sort of diagnostic vacuum. As per the Gillberg work on the ESSENCE of autism (see here) or the 'big data' studies from the likes of Kohane and colleagues (see here), not only is autism an extremely heterogeneous condition in terms of presentation, but also a condition more than likely to co-exist alongside some heightened risk of certain comorbidity. It's all well and good saying that cumulative common genetic variants raise the risk of autism but, as per other biomarker discussions, we might very well replace the word autism with something like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or epilepsy or even something more somatic along the lines of the various work looking at autoimmune conditions appearing alongside autism. In short, genetic risk might be related to other things outside of just autism or its individual traits, and as I was reminded recently: "correlation is not the same as causation" (thanks Natasa). Oh, and then there is the RDoC initiative to consider...Finally, it is a glaring omission in quite a bit of the coverage of this paper that the 41% of risk "unaccounted for" does not receive more interest than it has. I don't want to speculate on what might be included in the array of factors involved in this category (outside of my previous chatter on possible epigenetic factors) but will again draw your attention to other work on the old genetics-environment relationship with autism in mind and the question of heritability (see here and see here). That also one media piece talking about the Gaugler study is quoted as saying: "On their own, none of these common variants will have sufficient impact to cause autism" is an important detail which implies both cumulative effects and possibly the input of some external force(s). And those effects may very well cross the nature-nuture debate in some instances as per the results from Mitchell and colleagues talked about in a previous post.Deciphering the genetic architecture of autism is still very much a work in progress. This latest contribution to the issue is important not least for the conclusions arrived at with talk of an additive model and it's intersection with common genetic mutations present in the general population. That being said, I still want to see more from the discipline. I'd like to see a more comprehensive analysis taking into account both genetic and epigenetic factors crossing environmental contributions too. I'd also like to see more focus on smaller groups on the autism spectrum as a function of things like developmental trajectory (see here) or response to certain interventions (see here). And for those who seem to be using this work as a hammer against environment being related to cases of autism, just remember, there may be many, many routes towards a clinical diagnosis...----------[1] Gaugler T. et al. Most genetic risk for autism resides with common variation. Nature Genetics. 2014. July 20.[2] St Pourcain B. et al. Common variation contributes to the genetic architecture of social communication traits. Mol Autism. 2013 Sep 18;4(1):34.----------... Read more »

Gaugler T, Klei L, Sanders SJ, Bodea CA, Goldberg AP, Lee AB, Mahajan M, Manaa D, Pawitan Y, Reichert J.... (2014) Most genetic risk for autism resides with common variation. Nature genetics. PMID: 25038753  

  • July 21, 2014
  • 02:31 PM
  • 19 views

Do quarks grant confinement?

by Marco Frasca in The Gauge Connection

In 2010 I went to Ghent in Belgium for a very nice Conference on QCD. My contribution was accepted and I had the chance to describe my view about this matter. The result was this contribution to the proceedings. The content of this paper was really revolutionary at that time as my view about Yang-Mills […]... Read more »

Marco Frasca. (2010) Mapping theorem and Green functions in Yang-Mills theory. PoS FacesQCD:039,2010. arXiv: 1011.3643v3

Markus Hopfer, Christian S. Fischer, & Reinhard Alkofer. (2014) Running coupling in the conformal window of large-Nf QCD. arXiv. arXiv: 1405.7031v1

Markus Hopfer, Christian S. Fischer, & Reinhard Alkofer. (2014) Infrared behaviour of propagators and running coupling in the conformal window of QCD. arXiv. arXiv: 1405.7340v1

  • July 21, 2014
  • 01:27 PM
  • 10 views

Autism and Parents: Reducing stress

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Raising an autistic child can be a gift. Unfortunately it can also be challenging and stressful. Let’s be real, it’s stressful just being a parent, throw in a disability that […]... Read more »

  • July 21, 2014
  • 05:51 AM
  • 40 views

It's time for Western psychology to recognise that many individuals, and even entire cultures, fear happiness

by Christian Jarrett in BPS Research Digest

It's become a mantra of the modern Western world that the ultimate aim of life is to achieve happiness. Self-help blog posts on how to be happy are almost guaranteed popularity (the Digest has its own!). Pro-happiness organisations have appeared, such as Action for Happiness, which aims to "create a happier society for everyone." Topping it all, an increasing number of governments, including in the UK, have started measuring national well-being (seen as a proxy for "happiness") - the argument being that this a potentially more important policy outcome than economic prosperity.But hang on a minute, say Moshen Joshanloo and Dan Weijers writing in the Journal of Happiness Studies - not everyone wants to be happy. In fact, they point out that many people, including in Western cultures, deliberately dampen their positive moods. Moreover, in many nations, including Iran and New Zealand, many people are actually fearful of happiness, tending to agree with questionnaire items like "I prefer not to be too joyful, because usually joy is followed by sadness".Looking into the reasons for happiness aversion, Joshanloo and Weijers identify four: believing that being happy will provoke bad things to happen; that happiness will make you a worse person; that expressing happiness is bad for you and others; and that pursuing happiness is bad for you and others. Let's touch on each of these.Fear that happiness leads to bad outcomes is perhaps most strong in East Asian cultures influenced by Taoism, which posits that "things tend to revert to their opposite". A 2001 study asked participants to choose from a range of life-course graphs and found that Chinese people were more likely than Americans to choose graphs that showed periods of sadness following periods of joy. Other cultures, such as Japan and Iran, believe that happiness can bring misfortune as it causes inattentiveness. Similar fears are sometimes found in the West as reflected in adages such as "what goes up must come down."Belief that being happy makes you a worse person is rooted in some interpretations of Islam, the reasoning being that it distracts you from God. Joshanloo and Weijers quote the Prophet Muhammad: "were you to know what I know, you would laugh little and weep much" and "avoid much laughter, for much laughter deadens the heart." Another relevant belief here is the idea that being unhappy makes people more creative. Consider this quote from Edward Munch: "They [emotional sufferings] are part of me and my art. They are indistinguishable from me ... I want to keep those sufferings."In relation to the overt expression of happiness, a 2009 study found that Japanese participants frequently mentioned that doing so can harm others, for example by making them envious; Americans rarely held such concerns. In Ifaluk culture in Micronesia, meanwhile, Joshanloo and Weijers note that expressing happiness is "associated with showing off, overexcitement, and failure at doing one's duties."Finally, the pursuit of happiness is believed by many cultures and philosophies to be harmful to the self and others. Take as an example this passage of Buddhist text: "And with every desire for happiness, out of delusion they destroy their own well-being as if it were their enemy." In Western thought, as far back as Epicurus, warnings are given that the direct pursuit of happiness can backfire on the self, and harm others through excessive self-interest. Also, it's been argued that joy can make the oppressed weak and less likely to fight injustice.There's a contemporary fixation with happiness in the much of the Western world. Joshanloo and Weijers' counterpoint is that for various reasons, not everyone wants to happy. From a practical perspective, they say this could seriously skew cross-cultural comparisons of subjective well-being. "It stands to reason," they write, "that a person with an aversion to expressing happiness ... may report lower subjective wellbeing than they would do otherwise." But their concerns go deeper: "There are risks for happiness studies in exporting Western psychology to non-Western cultures without undertaking indigenous analyses, including making invalid cross-cultural comparisons and imposing Western cultural assumptions on other cultures."_________________________________  Joshanloo, M., & Weijers, D. (2013). Aversion to Happiness Across Cultures: A Review of Where and Why People are Averse to Happiness Journal of Happiness Studies, 15 (3), 717-735 DOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9489-9 --further reading--What's the difference between a happy life and a meaningful one?Other people may experience more misery than you realisePost written by Christian Jarrett (@psych_writer) for the BPS Research Digest.

... Read more »

  • July 21, 2014
  • 03:24 AM
  • 24 views

Autism and asthma yet again

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Asthma is approximately 35 % more common in autistic children".Pipe down @ Wikipedia That was the finding reported by Stanley Kotey and colleagues [1] based on their analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) dataset, a resource looking at "the physical and emotional health of children ages 0-17 years of age" resident in the United States. I don't intend to dwell too much on the Kotey findings aside from pointing out: (a) the reported prevalence of autism came in at 1.8% which is not a million miles away from the latest US estimate made by the CDC and, (b) although the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for asthma in cases of autism was 1.35 (CI: 1.18-1.55), the adjusted OR taking into account factors such as "age, gender, body mass index, race, brain injury, secondhand smoke and socio-economic status" dropped down to 1.19... so perhaps it was more accurate to conclude that asthma is approximately 20% more common in kids with autism. Oh and that OR and relative risk might not necessarily be one and the same [2].The NSCH is a valuable resource which provides snapshots for lots of different aspects of child health and wellbeing (see here). A quick trawl of the sections pertinent to an autism and/or asthma diagnosis (see section 2 here) reveals how information about diagnosis is arrived at. I was taken by the fact that questioning about an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis was "applicable for ages 2-17 years only" which perhaps ties into some of the issues raised in other papers when it comes to early diagnosis.Asthma and autism is a topic not totally unfamiliar to this blog (see here). The quite recent paper from Tsai and colleagues [3] covered in a previous post (see here) detailing how asthma might be a risk factor for autism puts the Kotey findings into some potential context albeit not necessarily with the same directional association. The paper from Chen and colleagues [4] likewise also discussed in another post (see here) also implicates comorbidity (ADHD in that case) as a potential confounding variable bearing in mind the estimated rates of ADHD in cases of autism (see here).When it comes to the hows and whys of any relationship between asthma and autism, a rather large void starts to appear outside of any link just being due to coincidence [5]. "[The] Autism-secondhand smoke interaction was insignificant" kinda suggests that tobacco smoke filled houses and cars were probably not a primary reason for any connection. Given what is known about asthma - a chronic lung condition characterised by inflammation of the airways - one might look to something like immune function as being a commonality between the conditions especially in light of recent meta-analyses with autism in mind. A couple of years back I did a sort of focus on some of the work from Kevin Becker (see here) including his paper on the hygiene hypothesis [6] (open-access here). I'm not necessarily saying that this is the primary connector, merely that the interaction between immune functions and environment might have some role to play. I might add that all the recent chatter on air pollution and autism (see here and see here and most recently here) might also be something to look at with further assiduity. Oh, and one might also think about certain medicines as perhaps being important to this relationship too (see here).I would close with a last sentence from Kotey et al: "screening may be an efficient approach to reduce risk of morbidity due to asthma". In other words, asthma is yet another comorbidity for which a diagnosis of autism seemingly carries no protection, and the onus is on professionals to reduce any further health inequality...So: Ben E King and Stand By Me. "Chopper! Sic'em, boy!"----------[1] Kotey S. et al. Co-occurrence of Autism and Asthma in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Children in the United States. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014 Jul 6.[2] Davies HT. et al. When can odds ratios mislead? BMJ. 1998 Mar 28;316(7136):989-91.[3] Tsai PH. et al. Increased risk of autism spectrum disorder among early life asthma patients: An 8-year nationwide population-based prospective study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2014; 8: 381-386.[4] Chen MH. et al. Asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide population-based prospective cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(11):1208-14.[5] Mrozek-Budzyn D. et al. The frequency and risk factors of allergy and asthma in children with autism--case-control study. Przegl Epidemiol. 2013;67(4):675-9, 761-4.[6] Becker KG. Autism, asthma, inflammation, and the hygiene hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69(4):731-40.----------Kotey, S., Ertel, K., & Whitcomb, B. (2014). Co-occurrence of Autism and Asthma in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Children in the United States Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders DOI: 10.1007/s10803-014-2174-y... Read more »

  • July 21, 2014
  • 03:24 AM
  • 27 views

Autism and asthma yet again

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Asthma is approximately 35 % more common in autistic children".Pipe down @ Wikipedia That was the finding reported by Stanley Kotey and colleagues [1] based on their analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) dataset, a resource looking at "the physical and emotional health of children ages 0-17 years of age" resident in the United States. I don't intend to dwell too much on the Kotey findings aside from pointing out: (a) the reported prevalence of autism came in at 1.8% which is not a million miles away from the latest US estimate made by the CDC and, (b) although the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for asthma in cases of autism was 1.35 (CI: 1.18-1.55), the adjusted OR taking into account factors such as "age, gender, body mass index, race, brain injury, secondhand smoke and socio-economic status" dropped down to 1.19... so perhaps it was more accurate to conclude that asthma is approximately 20% more common in kids with autism. Oh and that OR and relative risk might not necessarily be one and the same [2].The NSCH is a valuable resource which provides snapshots for lots of different aspects of child health and wellbeing (see here). A quick trawl of the sections pertinent to an autism and/or asthma diagnosis (see section 2 here) reveals how information about diagnosis is arrived at. I was taken by the fact that questioning about an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis was "applicable for ages 2-17 years only" which perhaps ties into some of the issues raised in other papers when it comes to early diagnosis.Asthma and autism is a topic not totally unfamiliar to this blog (see here). The quite recent paper from Tsai and colleagues [3] covered in a previous post (see here) detailing how asthma might be a risk factor for autism puts the Kotey findings into some potential context albeit not necessarily with the same directional association. The paper from Chen and colleagues [4] likewise also discussed in another post (see here) also implicates comorbidity (ADHD in that case) as a potential confounding variable bearing in mind the estimated rates of ADHD in cases of autism (see here).When it comes to the hows and whys of any relationship between asthma and autism, a rather large void starts to appear outside of any link just being due to coincidence [5]. "[The] Autism-secondhand smoke interaction was insignificant" kinda suggests that tobacco smoke filled houses and cars were probably not a primary reason for any connection. Given what is known about asthma - a chronic lung condition characterised by inflammation of the airways - one might look to something like immune function as being a commonality between the conditions especially in light of recent meta-analyses with autism in mind. A couple of years back I did a sort of focus on some of the work from Kevin Becker (see here) including his paper on the hygiene hypothesis [6] (open-access here). I'm not necessarily saying that this is the primary connector, merely that the interaction between immune functions and environment might have some role to play. I might add that all the recent chatter on air pollution and autism (see here and see here and most recently here) might also be something to look at with further assiduity. Oh, and one might also think about certain medicines as perhaps being important to this relationship too (see here).I would close with a last sentence from Kotey et al: "screening may be an efficient approach to reduce risk of morbidity due to asthma". In other words, asthma is yet another comorbidity for which a diagnosis of autism seemingly carries no protection, and the onus is on professionals to reduce any further health inequality...So: Ben E King and Stand By Me. "Chopper! Sic'em, boy!"----------[1] Kotey S. et al. Co-occurrence of Autism and Asthma in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Children in the United States. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014 Jul 6.[2] Davies HT. et al. When can odds ratios mislead? BMJ. 1998 Mar 28;316(7136):989-91.[3] Tsai PH. et al. Increased risk of autism spectrum disorder among early life asthma patients: An 8-year nationwide population-based prospective study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2014; 8: 381-386.[4] Chen MH. et al. Asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide population-based prospective cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(11):1208-14.[5] Mrozek-Budzyn D. et al. The frequency and risk factors of allergy and asthma in children with autism--case-control study. Przegl Epidemiol. 2013;67(4):675-9, 761-4.[6] Becker KG. Autism, asthma, inflammation, and the hygiene hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69(4):731-40.----------Kotey, S., Ertel, K., & Whitcomb, B. (2014). Co-occurrence of Autism and Asthma in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Children in the United States Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders DOI: 10.1007/s10803-014-2174-y... Read more »

  • July 21, 2014
  • 12:05 AM
  • 23 views

It’s Only One Little Muscle Group…The Impact of Lumbar Multifidus Size on Lower Extremity Injury

by Mark A. Sutherlin in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Smaller lumbar multifidus size during preseason and the competitive season was associated with lower extremity injury in Australian Football. Additionally, lumbar multifidus asymmetry, limb kicking dominance and a history of low back pain were also associated with increased lower extremity injury.... Read more »

Hides, J., Stanton, W., Mendis, M., Franettovich Smith, M., & Sexton, M. (2014) Small Multifidus Muscle Size Predicts Football Injuries. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 2(6). DOI: 10.1177/2325967114537588  

  • July 20, 2014
  • 09:13 PM
  • 30 views

Parasite Cures Cancer

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

A parasite commonly found in the intestines of cats turns out to be an immune system boost against cancer!... Read more »

  • July 20, 2014
  • 05:39 PM
  • 33 views

Bacterial CRISPRs: Not Just For Targeting Foreign Nucleic Acids

by Geoffrey Hannigan in Prophage

In recent years, CRISPRs (Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats) have been gaining popularity in the microbiology field. Briefly, CRISPRs serve as an adaptive immune system for bacteria, meaning that they are able to remember what viruses (bacteriophages) or other entities have infected them and mount a targeted defensive response the next time they are infected with the same entity (think of it as an analog to our adaptive immune response which uses antibodies and other agents to target invading microbes)...... Read more »

Wiedenheft B, Sternberg SH, & Doudna JA. (2012) RNA-guided genetic silencing systems in bacteria and archaea. Nature, 482(7385), 331-8. PMID: 22337052  

Sampson TR, Napier BA, Schroeder MR, Louwen R, Zhao J, Chin CY, Ratner HK, Llewellyn AC, Jones CL, Laroui H.... (2014) A CRISPR-Cas system enhances envelope integrity mediating antibiotic resistance and inflammasome evasion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 25024199  

  • July 20, 2014
  • 03:43 PM
  • 25 views

Babylonian Neurology and Psychiatry

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

A fascinating little paper in Brain examines Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon. It’s a collaboration by British neurologist Edward H. Reynolds and Assyriologist James V. Kinnier Wilson. The sources they discuss are almost 4,000 years old, dating to the Old Babylonian Dynasty of 1894 – 1595 BC. Writing in cuneiform script impressed into clay tablets, […]The post Babylonian Neurology and Psychiatry appeared first on Neuroskeptic.... Read more »

Reynolds EH, & Kinnier Wilson JV. (2014) Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon. Brain : a journal of neurology. PMID: 25037816  

  • July 20, 2014
  • 01:29 PM
  • 43 views

Cooperative sperm, killer sperm and the competition for reproductive success

by Sam Hardman in Ecologica

In the closing paragraph of on the origin of species Darwin famously said that nature was a war in which individuals struggle against each other and the environment for survival. […]... Read more »

Moore H, Dvoráková K, Jenkins N, & Breed W. (2002) Exceptional sperm cooperation in the wood mouse. Nature, 418(6894), 174-7. PMID: 12110888  

Pearcy M, Delescaille N, Lybaert P, & Aron S. (2014) Team swimming in ant spermatozoa. Biology letters, 10(6). PMID: 24919705  

Byrne PG, Simmons LW, & Roberts JD. (2003) Sperm competition and the evolution of gamete morphology in frogs. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 270(1528), 2079-86. PMID: 14561298  

  • July 20, 2014
  • 11:47 AM
  • 35 views

Neury Thursday: mitochondria, neuron health, and sufficient sleep

by Allison in Dormivigilia

Researchers have uncovered further evidence as to why partial sleep deprivation degrades neuron health at a microscopic level... Read more »

  • July 20, 2014
  • 11:33 AM
  • 34 views

Antiretrovirals and Pregnancy Risk

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

Don’t drink when you are pregnant, we all know that you aren’t supposed to do that. We also know you shouldn’t smoke, use drugs, and should talk to your Doctor […]... Read more »

Mugo NR, Hong T, Celum C, Donnell D, Bukusi EA, John-Stewart G, Wangisi J, Were E, Heffron R, Matthews LT.... (2014) Pregnancy Incidence and Outcomes Among Women Receiving Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 312(4), 362-371. PMID: 25038355  

join us!

Do you write about peer-reviewed research in your blog? Use ResearchBlogging.org to make it easy for your readers — and others from around the world — to find your serious posts about academic research.

If you don't have a blog, you can still use our site to learn about fascinating developments in cutting-edge research from around the world.

Register Now

Research Blogging is powered by SMG Technology.

To learn more, visit seedmediagroup.com.