Post List

  • August 14, 2014
  • 12:10 PM

HIV Vaccine One Step Closer to Reality

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

The war on HIV, that tricky little guy has avoided every thing we could throw at it in a broad sense. Sure a few people here and there get lucky, but we have yet to actually make any sort of we're going to kick your ass headway [don't worry it's the technical term for it]. That is hopefully going to change with a new scientific discovery that has enormous implications for HIV vaccine development. Researchers have uncovered novel properties of special HIV antibodies that promise to........ Read more »

  • August 14, 2014
  • 11:17 AM

FDA Approves Novel Insomnia Drug Suvorexant (Belsomra)

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Regular readers of this blog had a heads up last year on the development of orexin receptor antagonists for the treatment of insomnia.I posted a review of an Italian clinical drug trial in humans with insomnia paired with polysomnography. This study used three different doses of a orexin receptor antagonist (10 mg 30 mg and 60 mg).In a second post, I reviewed a sleep lab study of the effects of an orexin antagonist drug compared to zolpidem (Ambien) on sleep architecture.This second study found ........ Read more »

  • August 14, 2014
  • 09:30 AM

Competition for ecological niches limits evolution of new species | @GrrlScientist

by GrrlScientist in GrrlScientist

A recently published study finds that competition for ecological niches limits the evolution of new species. Further, this study finds that speciation rate slows or even stops as available ecological niches fill up. Continue reading...... Read more »

Price Trevor D., Hooper Daniel M., Buchanan Caitlyn D., Johansson Ulf S., Tietze D. Thomas, Alström Per, Olsson Urban, Ghosh-Harihar Mousumi, Ishtiaq Farah, & Gupta Sandeep K. (2014) Niche filling slows the diversification of Himalayan songbirds. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature13272  

Kennedy Jonathan D., Weir Jason T., Hooper Daniel M. , Tietze D. Thomas, Martens Jochen, & Price Trevor D. (2012) Ecological limits on diversification of the Himalayan core Corvoidea. Evolution, 66(8), 2599-2613. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01618.x  

Harmon Luke J., Schulte James A., Larson Allan, & Losos Jonathan B. (2003) Tempo and Mode of Evolutionary Radiation in Iguanian Lizards. Science, 301(5635), 961-964. DOI: 10.1126/science.1084786  

  • August 14, 2014
  • 04:09 AM

Learning disability in autism: how prevalent is it?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Results showed that 36.8 % of the children met the criteria for ID [intellectual disability], with 60.2 % of these in the mild range (IQ 50-69) and 39.8 % in the moderate range (IQ 35-49)".That was the finding reported by Mélina Rivard and colleagues [1] looking at the co-occurrence of intellectual disability (also called learning disability here in Blighty) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) "in young children". Based on an analysis of over 200 children diagnosed with an ASD, resear........ Read more »

  • August 13, 2014
  • 11:35 PM

The Controversy of Admitting 'We Do Not Know What Works'

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

There are several news articles today criticizing a study because the patients might be deprived of a drug that has not been adequately studied in humans. This criticism is coming from journalists – the people who publicized the fraudulent vaccines research by Andrew Wakefield, who was trying to sell his competing vaccine and was being paid to produce negative research by lawyers suing the vaccine companies.[1]

The real controversy is that this untested drug became the standard of care ........ Read more »

Larabee TM, Liu KY, Campbell JA, & Little CM. (2012) Vasopressors in cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation, 83(8), 932-9. PMID: 22425731  

Herlitz J, Ekström L, Wennerblom B, Axelsson A, Bång A, & Holmberg S. (1995) Adrenaline in out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Does it make any difference?. Resuscitation, 29(3), 195-201. PMID: 7667549  

Olasveengen, T., Sunde, K., Brunborg, C., Thowsen, J., Steen, P., & Wik, L. (2009) Intravenous Drug Administration During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(20), 2222-2229. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2009.1729  

Hagihara A, Hasegawa M, Abe T, Nagata T, Wakata Y, & Miyazaki S. (2012) Prehospital epinephrine use and survival among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 307(11), 1161-8. PMID: 22436956  

Hayashi Y, Iwami T, Kitamura T, Nishiuchi T, Kajino K, Sakai T, Nishiyama C, Nitta M, Hiraide A, & Kai T. (2012) Impact of early intravenous epinephrine administration on outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society, 76(7), 1639-45. PMID: 22481099  

Glover BM, Brown SP, Morrison L, Davis D, Kudenchuk PJ, Van Ottingham L, Vaillancourt C, Cheskes S, Atkins DL, Dorian P.... (2012) Wide variability in drug use in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A report from the resuscitation outcomes consortium. Resuscitation. PMID: 22858552  

Stiell IG, Hebert PC, Weitzman BN, Wells GA, Raman S, Stark RM, Higginson LA, Ahuja J, & Dickinson GE. (1992) High-dose epinephrine in adult cardiac arrest. The New England journal of medicine, 327(15), 1045-50. PMID: 1522840  

Callaway, C. (2012) Questioning the Use of Epinephrine to Treat Cardiac Arrest. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(11), 1198. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.313  

  • August 13, 2014
  • 06:48 PM

Coronavirus and Coxsackievirus B3: p62/SQSTM1and EDEM1

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

The cleavage of p62/SQSTM1 and NBR1 by the Coxsackievirus B3 proteases 2Apro and 3Cpro respectively raises the question if other viruses, in particular positive strand RNA viruses, also target p62/SQSTM1 and inhibit selective autophagy. Furthermore as outlined before the inactivation of p62/SQSTM1 raises the possibility that the subsequent ER stress may favour the formation of EDEMosomes via increased expression of EDEM1 and other components of the ERAD pathway, notably EDEM-2/-3 and OS-9, in ad........ Read more »

Cottam EM, Whelband MC, & Wileman T. (2014) Coronavirus NSP6 restricts autophagosome expansion. Autophagy, 10(8), 1426-41. PMID: 24991833  

Le Fourn V, Park S, Jang I, Gaplovska-Kysela K, Guhl B, Lee Y, Cho JW, Zuber C, & Roth J. (2013) Large protein complexes retained in the ER are dislocated by non-COPII vesicles and degraded by selective autophagy. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, 70(11), 1985-2002. PMID: 23338832  

  • August 13, 2014
  • 08:09 AM

Stuck In The Middle: Migration Routes Of Hybrid Birds

by Gunnar de Winter in United Academics

Birds migrate long distances, via set routes and this behavior is partially genetic. But what’s the migration behavior then of hybrids with parents that employ two different travel routes? A new study provides fascinating answers.... Read more »

  • August 13, 2014
  • 08:00 AM

Getting High On Life

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Living organisms can survive and thrive in all kinds of rough environments. This would include the edges of space. There are bird species that can fly at almost 40,000 ft., as high as the highest clouds. New research is showing just how the bar headed goose is able to fly when the air is thin and the oxygen is scarce. But more impressive are the bacteria. They can actually live their whole lives in the air, dividing and growing nearly 25 miles (41 km) above the surface of the Earth. A study from........ Read more »

Pawar SP, Dhotre DP, Shetty SA, Chowdhury SP, Chaudhari BL, & Shouche YS. (2012) Genome sequence of Janibacter hoylei MTCC8307, isolated from the stratospheric air. Journal of bacteriology, 194(23), 6629-30. PMID: 23144385  

Hawkes LA, Balachandran S, Batbayar N, Butler PJ, Chua B, Douglas DC, Frappell PB, Hou Y, Milsom WK, Newman SH.... (2013) The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 280(1750), 20122114. PMID: 23118436  

  • August 13, 2014
  • 07:02 AM

“I see my patients as less than fully human”

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

Here’s an intriguing article on how some nurses cope with stress. If you think, based on the title of this post, they do it by dehumanizing their patients, you would be correct. Somehow we think this is not a good thing to admit on the witness stand, but it is an understandable and human reaction […]

Related posts:
I see diversity, you see divisiveness
The new issue of The Jury Expert is available now!
When you expect a gorilla you often miss other unexpected things

... Read more »

Trifiletti, E, Di Bernardo, GA, Falvo, R, & Capozza, D. (2014) Patients are not fully human: a nurse’s coping response to stress. . Journal of Applied Social Psychology. . info:/

  • August 13, 2014
  • 04:49 AM

The stability of your personality peaks in mid-life (then grows increasingly wobbly again)

by BPS Research Digest in BPS Research Digest

As we continue to settle into ourselves, you might think that personality would be something that becomes ever more cemented through life.  Not so, according to a survey of nearly 4000 New Zealanders aged from 20 to 80 years (including 2409 women). Petar Milojev and Chris Sibley report that the stability of personality increases through youth, peaks in mid-life and then gradually reduces again into old age, presumably in response to the variations in social and biological pressures we exper........ Read more »

  • August 13, 2014
  • 04:11 AM

Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) survivors and greater risk of autism?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"In term NICU [neonatal intensive care unit] survivors, ASD [autism spectrum disorder] occurs with a greater frequency than in the general population and often develops alongside comorbid conditions". That was the conclusion from the study by Alexander Winkler-Schwartz and colleagues [1] looking at term at-risk infants who survived NICU."You were only meant to blow the bloody doors off"'Surviving' their earliest days spent in NICU brings a bit of lump to my throat. As a paren........ Read more »

  • August 13, 2014
  • 12:05 AM

Make Sure You Charge That Phone Before Measuring Anterior Tibial Translation

by Kyle Harris in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

A mobile phone arthrometer application may be a reliable alternative to the KT-1000 when measuring anterior tibial translation following an anterior cruciate ligament injury.... Read more »

Andrea, F., Luigi, V., Daniele, M., Luca, M., Paolo, I., Giovanni, G., Fabio, C., & Raffaele, I. (2014) Smartphone versus knee ligament arthrometer when size does not matter. International Orthopaedics. DOI: 10.1007/s00264-014-2432-9  

  • August 12, 2014
  • 08:12 PM

3 Ways to Improve Your Cultural Intelligence

by Louise Rasmussen in Head Smart

Picture this – you’re introduced to the CEO of a French start-up that your company is in the process of acquiring. The CEO grabs your hand and leans in for some repeated lip action on your cheeks. His breath has a hint of garlic and something else you can’t identify. His grip on your hand […]
This article, 3 Ways to Improve Your Cultural Intelligence, first appeared on Global Cognition.
... Read more »

Earley PC, & Mosakowski E. (2004) Cultural intelligence. Harvard business review, 82(10), 139-146. PMID: 15559582  

  • August 12, 2014
  • 05:15 PM

Coxsackievirus B3: autophagy, p62, ER stress, and apoptosis

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

The induction of autophagy by cells infected with viruses can play an important strategy to prevent viral replication - or alternatively, can be subverted by viral proteins to allow the formation of viral particles as it is the case for many positive strand RNA viruses and discussed previously for Corona- and Arteriviruses. Enteroviruses are no different, and indeed the modulation of autophagy by Poliovirus has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest that the viral proteases cleave the cel........ Read more »

Wong J, Zhang J, Si X, Gao G, Mao I, McManus BM, & Luo H. (2008) Autophagosome supports coxsackievirus B3 replication in host cells. Journal of virology, 82(18), 9143-53. PMID: 18596087  

Robinson SM, Tsueng G, Sin J, Mangale V, Rahawi S, McIntyre LL, Williams W, Kha N, Cruz C, Hancock BM.... (2014) Coxsackievirus B exits the host cell in shed microvesicles displaying autophagosomal markers. PLoS pathogens, 10(4). PMID: 24722773  

Pankiv S, Clausen TH, Lamark T, Brech A, Bruun JA, Outzen H, Øvervatn A, Bjørkøy G, & Johansen T. (2007) p62/SQSTM1 binds directly to Atg8/LC3 to facilitate degradation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates by autophagy. The Journal of biological chemistry, 282(33), 24131-45. PMID: 17580304  

Kirkin V, Lamark T, Sou YS, Bjørkøy G, Nunn JL, Bruun JA, Shvets E, McEwan DG, Clausen TH, Wild P.... (2009) A role for NBR1 in autophagosomal degradation of ubiquitinated substrates. Molecular cell, 33(4), 505-16. PMID: 19250911  

Moscat J, Diaz-Meco MT, Albert A, & Campuzano S. (2006) Cell signaling and function organized by PB1 domain interactions. Molecular cell, 23(5), 631-40. PMID: 16949360  

Saura, M., Lizarbe, T., Rama-Pacheco, C., Lowenstein, C., & Zaragoza, C. (2007) Inhibitor of NFκB Alpha is a Host Sensor of Coxsackievirus Infection. Cell Cycle, 6(5), 503-506. DOI: 10.4161/cc.6.5.3918  

Durán A, Serrano M, Leitges M, Flores JM, Picard S, Brown JP, Moscat J, & Diaz-Meco MT. (2004) The atypical PKC-interacting protein p62 is an important mediator of RANK-activated osteoclastogenesis. Developmental cell, 6(2), 303-9. PMID: 14960283  

Komatsu M, Kageyama S, & Ichimura Y. (2012) p62/SQSTM1/A170: physiology and pathology. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society, 66(6), 457-62. PMID: 22841931  

Amitava Mukherjee,, Stefanie A. Morosky,, Elizabeth Delorme-Axford,, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko,, M. Steven Oberste,, Tianyi Wang,, & Carolyn B. Coyne. (2011) The Coxsackievirus B 3Cpro Protease Cleaves MAVS and TRIF to Attenuate Host Type I Interferon and Apoptotic Signaling. PLOS pathogens. info:/

Duran A, Amanchy R, Linares JF, Joshi J, Abu-Baker S, Porollo A, Hansen M, Moscat J, & Diaz-Meco MT. (2011) p62 is a key regulator of nutrient sensing in the mTORC1 pathway. Molecular cell, 44(1), 134-46. PMID: 21981924  

Xi X, Zhang X, Wang B, Wang T, Wang J, Huang H, Wang J, Jin Q, & Zhao Z. (2013) The interplays between autophagy and apoptosis induced by enterovirus 71. PloS one, 8(2). PMID: 23437282  

  • August 12, 2014
  • 03:18 PM

Responsibility of demand: air travel projected to create net increase in greenhouse gas emissions

by Jonathan Trinastic in Goodnight Earth

A literature review has revealed that our demand for air travel will lead to a net increase in greenhouse gas emissions despite improvements in energy efficiency. The authors predict behavior change and less flights to be the only way to reduce emissions.... Read more »

Matt Grote, Ian Williams, John Preston. (2014) Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft. Atmospheric Environment. info:/

  • August 12, 2014
  • 02:07 PM

Treatment and Prevention of PTSD

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

It’s no secret for anyone who follows me that I am a Marine veteran. It’s also no secret for anyone who follows me that I’ve had my own ups and downs in life because of my experiences. PTSD is a nightmare, one that you can’t quite shake no matter how hard you try. Then again, not everyone reacts the same way to the trauma that typically causes PTSD, not everyone walks away from war with it. The big question that scientists set out to answer was, why? And now they might just have an answe........ Read more »

Nikolaos P. Daskalakis, Hagit Cohen, Guiqing Caia, Joseph D. Buxbaum, & Rachel Yehuda. (2014) Expression profiling associates blood and brain glucocorticoid receptor signaling with trauma-related individual differences in both sexes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(32). info:/10.1073/pnas.1401660111

  • August 12, 2014
  • 10:47 AM

Even Kindergarteners Can Rate Their Own Confidence

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish

Do you remember on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire—apparently this show is still on, but I’ll assume no one else has seen it this decade—how after contestants picked an answer, Regis Philbin sometimes asked, “How sure are you?” They’d pull a number seemingly out of the air: “Oh, eighty-five percent.” This trick of estimating our […]The post Even Kindergarteners Can Rate Their Own Confidence appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »

  • August 12, 2014
  • 08:59 AM

Why are the elderly invisible in archaeological contexts?

by Katy Meyers in Bones Don't Lie

For the past two months, I have been busy preparing my dissertation data for analysis. This means that I am taking the paper versions of my data from books, monographs, […]... Read more »

C. Cave, & M. Oxenham. (2014) Identification of the Archaeological ‘Invisible Elderly’: An Approach Illustrated with an Anglo-Saxon Example. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. info:/

  • August 12, 2014
  • 04:45 AM

Remembering and imagining both engage the same key brain region, but they depend on distinct neural processes

by BPS Research Digest in BPS Research Digest

credit: Gray's Anatomy/WikipediaRemembering and imagining appear to be very different functions, one recovering true information from the past, the other considering the unreal or exploring the future. And yet many patients with damage to the hippocampus (a structure in the temporal lobes) - and resultant memory impairment - struggle in imagining the future. Moreover, neuroimaging data show the hippocampus is involved in both tasks. Taken together, this evidence suggests that memory for the past........ Read more »

  • August 12, 2014
  • 04:04 AM

Neonatal jaundice and increased risk of ADHD

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The findings from Chang-Ching Wei and colleagues [1] suggesting an over-representation of the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) following a history of neonatal jaundice provides fodder for today's brief post. Based in Taiwan, one of the most impressive countries when it comes to the use and analysis of 'big data' (see here), researchers were able to identify some 25,000 participants diagnosed with neonatal jaundice and compare them with almost 70,000 non-jaundiced........ Read more »

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