Imagine spending your school half-term week with a forgetful relative who always leaves money scattered around the house. Would you pinch any? If so, when, and why? A new paper suggests that we are most likely to “cheat at the end”, and uses a neat method to find out why.A number of theories predict we are likelier to cheat later than earlier. Perhaps we award ourselves moral credits for being good earlier, and later spend them like Catholic indulgences for guilt-free sin. Or maybe the strug........ Read more »
The Nuremberg Code was drafted in 1947 following the appalling revelations of human experimentation committed in Nazi concentration camps. The overarching goal of the Code was to establish a set of rules for the ethical conduct of research using human subjects, guaranteeing that the rights and welfare of such participants would be protected. Two important principles guide and define this Code: the concept of voluntary, informed consent and that no experiment shall be conducted in which "there i........ Read more »
WHEAT RP, ZUCKERMAN A, & RANTZ LA. (1951) Infection due to chromobacteria; report of 11 cases. A.M.A. archives of internal medicine, 88(4), 461-6. PMID: 14867953
A misleading piece of statistical rhetoric has appeared in a paper about an experimental antidepressant treatment. The study is published in the Journal of Affective Disorders. JAD is a respectable mid-ranked psychiatry journal - yet on this occasion they seem to have dropped the ball badly.
The study examined whether the drug armodafinil (Nuvigil) improved mood in people with bipolar disorder who were in a depressive episode. In a double-blind trial, 462 patients were randomized to treat... Read more »
Ketter TA, Yang R, & Frye MA. (2015) Adjunctive armodafinil for major depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. Journal of affective disorders, 87-91. PMID: 25933099
Behavioral flexibility — the ability to change strategy when the rules change — is controlled by specific neurons in the brain, Researchers have confirmed. Cholinergic interneurons are rare — they make up just one to two percent of the neurons in the striatum, a key part of the brain involved with higher-level decision-making. Scientists have suspected they play a role in changing strategies, and researchers at OIST recently confirmed this with experiments.... Read more »
Aoki, S., Liu, A., Zucca, A., Zucca, S., & Wickens, J. (2015) Role of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons in Set-Shifting in the Rat. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(25), 9424-9431. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0490-15.2015
by Max_Yun in the Node
Salamanders are remarkable organisms. Following the amputation or loss of complex structures such as parts of their eyes, hearts and brains, tails -including the spinal cord-, jaws and even full limbs, they are able to set up a regeneration programme which leads to the exact replacement of the missing structure, even as adults. As such, […]... Read more »
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Yun, M., Davaapil, H., & Brockes, J. (2015) Recurrent turnover of senescent cells during regeneration of a complex structure. eLife. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.05505
Sousa-Victor, P., Gutarra, S., García-Prat, L., Rodriguez-Ubreva, J., Ortet, L., Ruiz-Bonilla, V., Jardí, M., Ballestar, E., González, S., Serrano, A.... (2014) Geriatric muscle stem cells switch reversible quiescence into senescence. Nature, 506(7488), 316-321. DOI: 10.1038/nature13013
Yun, M., Gates, P., & Brockes, J. (2013) Regulation of p53 is critical for vertebrate limb regeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(43), 17392-17397. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1310519110
Muñoz-Espín D, Cañamero M, Maraver A, Gómez-López G, Contreras J, Murillo-Cuesta S, Rodríguez-Baeza A, Varela-Nieto I, Ruberte J, Collado M.... (2013) Programmed cell senescence during mammalian embryonic development. Cell, 155(5), 1104-1118. PMID: 24238962
Storer, M., Mas, A., Robert-Moreno, A., Pecoraro, M., Ortells, M., Di Giacomo, V., Yosef, R., Pilpel, N., Krizhanovsky, V., Sharpe, J.... (2013) Senescence Is a Developmental Mechanism that Contributes to Embryonic Growth and Patterning. Cell, 155(5), 1119-1130. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.10.041
Demaria, M., Ohtani, N., Youssef, S., Rodier, F., Toussaint, W., Mitchell, J., Laberge, R., Vijg, J., Van Steeg, H., Dollé, M.... (2014) An Essential Role for Senescent Cells in Optimal Wound Healing through Secretion of PDGF-AA. Developmental Cell, 31(6), 722-733. DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2014.11.012
The search for a positive face of psychopathy prompted a study examining whether psychopaths and heroes share certain personality traits. Both psychopathy and heroism were correlated with a history of antisocial behavior, but the reasons for this remain unclear. Heroes might have more mature personalities than psychopaths, in spite of what features they may have in common. ... Read more »
Smith, S., Lilienfeld, S., Coffey, K., & Dabbs, J. (2013) Are psychopaths and heroes twigs off the same branch? Evidence from college, community, and presidential samples. Journal of Research in Personality, 47(5), 634-646. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2013.05.006
Recently, Science and Nature had news features on big BRAIN funding for the development of deep brain stimulation technologies. The ultimate aim of this research is to treat and correct malfunctioning neural circuits in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Both pieces raised ethical issues, focused on device manufacturers and potential military applications, respectively.A different ethical concern, not mentioned in either article, is who will have access to these new devices, and who is goin........ Read more »
Willis, A., Schootman, M., Kung, N., Wang, X., Perlmutter, J., & Racette, B. (2014) Disparities in deep brain stimulation surgery among insured elders with Parkinson disease. Neurology, 82(2), 163-171. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000017
Tens of millions of Americans — an estimated 1 to 2 percent of the population — will suffer at some point in their lifetimes from obsessive-compulsive disorder, a disorder characterized by recurrent, intrusive, and disturbing thoughts (obsessions), and/or stereotyped recurrent behaviors (compulsions). Left untreated, OCD can be profoundly distressing to the patient and can adversely affect their ability to succeed in school, hold a job or function in society.... Read more »
Feusner JD, Moody T, Lai TM, Sheen C, Khalsa S, Brown J, Levitt J, Alger J, & O'Neill J. (2015) Brain connectivity and prediction of relapse after cognitive-behavioral therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Frontiers in psychiatry, 74. PMID: 26042054
Despite heavy development, the U.S. still has millions of acres of pristine wild lands. Coveted for their beauty, these wilderness areas draw innumerable outdoor enthusiasts eager for a taste of primitive nature. But University of Georgia researchers say these federally protected nature areas have a problem: Their boundaries have become prime real estate.... Read more »
Lauren K. Ward, & Gary T. Green. (2015) Wilderness Zoning: Applying an Adapted Biosphere Reserve Model to Wilderness Areas. Illuminare. info:/http://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/illuminare/article/view/13341
I have to say that I was initially pretty interested to read the paper by Jakub Tomasik and colleagues  (open-access available here) discussing results examining the "possible immunomodulatory effects of probiotic supplementation in chronic schizophrenia patients."Interested because not only was this a partnership paper including Robert Yolken and Faith Dickerson on the authorship list (names who have appeared a few times on this blog) but also because of the subject matter extending som........ Read more »
Tomasik J, Yolken RH, Bahn S, & Dickerson FB. (2015) Immunomodulatory Effects of Probiotic Supplementation in Schizophrenia Patients: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Biomarker insights, 47-54. PMID: 26052224
by cathlau in the Node
This is my first post for the Node, so I thought I would introduce myself a little bit… I just finished my MSc in Experimental Psychology (Behavioural Neuroscience) and now I am striving towards becoming a science communicator. Although, I would like to share the research that I am interested in and was involved in, […]... Read more »
Adamec, R., & Shallow, T. (1993) Lasting effects on rodent anxiety of a single exposure to a cat. Physiology , 54(1), 101-109. DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(93)90050-P
Cohen, H., Zohar, J., Gidron, Y., Matar, M., Belkind, D., Loewenthal, U., Kozlovsky, N., & Kaplan, Z. (2006) Blunted HPA Axis Response to Stress Influences Susceptibility to Posttraumatic Stress Response in Rats. Biological Psychiatry, 59(12), 1208-1218. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.12.003
Hanson, N., Owens, M., Boss-Williams, K., Weiss, J., & Nemeroff, C. (2011) Several stressors fail to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(10), 1520-1529. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.04.006
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Kirby, E., Muroy, S., Sun, W., Covarrubias, D., Leong, M., Barchas, L., & Kaufer, D. (2013) Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2. eLife. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.00362
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Thomas, R., Urban, J., & Peterson, D. (2006) Acute exposure to predator odor elicits a robust increase in corticosterone and a decrease in activity without altering proliferation in the adult rat hippocampus. Experimental Neurology, 201(2), 308-315. DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2006.04.010
The 2014-2015 flu vaccine didn’t work as well compared to previous years because the H3N2 virus recently acquired a mutation that concealed the infection from the immune system. A new study reveals the major viral mutation responsible for the mismatch between the vaccine strain and circulating strains. The research will help guide the selection of viral strains for future seasonal flu vaccines.... Read more »
Chambers, B., Parkhouse, K., Ross, T., Alby, K., & Hensley, S. (2015) Identification of Hemagglutinin Residues Responsible for H3N2 Antigenic Drift during the 2014–2015 Influenza Season. Cell Reports. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.06.005
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael B. Burns, Ph.D. HHMI Post-Doctoral Fellow Dept. of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development Dept. of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior Masonic Cancer Center Dept. of Biology Teaching and Learning University of Minnesota, Twin Cities St. Paul, MN … Continue reading →
The post Gut Microbiome May Drive Colon Cancer appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Michael B. Burns, Ph.D.HHMI Post-Doctoral Fellow, & Dept. of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development. (2015) Gut Microbiome May Drive Colon Cancer. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jose A. Garcia Salcedo, PhD. Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas Hospital Universitario San Cecilio Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada Granada Spain Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Response: Drug resistance is complicating the treatment … Continue reading →
The post Drug Nanocarrier Helps Overcome Medication Resistance appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »
Jose A. Garcia Salcedo, PhD., Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas, & Hospital Universitario San Cecilio. (2015) Drug Nanocarrier Helps Overcome Medication Resistance. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Brett King, M.D., Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Dermatology Yale University School of Medicine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. King: Treatment options for vitiligo are limited and often … Continue reading →
The post JAK Inhibitors Offer Hope For Vitiligo appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Brett King, M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Dermatology, & Yale University School of Medicine. (2015) JAK Inhibitors Offer Hope For Vitiligo. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Carsten Lennerz Deutsches Herzzentrum München Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The number of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is increasing. Worldwide more than 4 million people … Continue reading →
The post Electromagnetic Interference Between Smart Phones and Cardiac Devices Rare But Possible appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews an........ Read more »
Dr. Carsten Lennerz, Deutsches Herzzentrum, & München. (2015) Electromagnetic Interference Between Smart Phones and Cardiac Devices Rare But Possible. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
We may call someone gutless who's acting afraid. But certain coral-reef dwellers take gutless to a whole other level: they shoot their digestive tracts out of their bodies when they feel threatened. This seems to deter nearby fish from taking a bite. Even more amazing, though, is how quickly the gutless animals grow back their organs.
Polycarpa mytiligera is a little tube-shaped creature called an ascidian, or sea squirt. It resides in tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans. Wit... Read more »
Shenkar N, & Gordon T. (2015) Gut-spilling in chordates: evisceration in the tropical ascidian Polycarpa mytiligera. Scientific reports, 9614. PMID: 25880620
Cats are increasingly earning themselves a reputation as wildlife killers with estimates of animals killed every year by domestic cats in the UK numbering into the millions. This new study on the attitudes of cat owners suggests that proposals to keep cats indoors in order to preserve wildlife would not be well received.... Read more »
McDonald, J., Maclean, M., Evans, M., & Hodgson, D. (2015) Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats. Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1553
I own a couple of neat old medical books. One was published in 1935 and is entitled The Canadian Formulary. It's essentially a cookbook for pharmacists, particularly ones who plied their trade at the military hospital in Kingston, Ontario (there's a stamp on the inside cover). The book contains some interesting recipes, to say the least, which is what you get when your ingredient list includes arsenic, lead, mercury, strychnine, and chloroform.One recipe in particular that recently caught my eye........ Read more »
Latifi, A., Nabavi, S., Mirzaei, M., Tavalaei, M., Ghafurian, H., Hellio, C., & Nabavi, S. (2012) Bioremediation of toxic metals mercury and cesium using three types of biosorbent: bacterial exopolymer, gall nut, and oak fruit particles. Toxicological , 94(9), 1670-1677. DOI: 10.1080/02772248.2012.728603
Shrestha, S., Kaushik, V., Eshwarappa, R., Subaramaihha, S., Ramanna, L., & Lakkappa, D. (2014) Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 4(1), 35-39. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60205-7
Image: Jose.Stuefer / FlickrChildren and adults with dyslexia have reading skills that are weak relative to their overall intelligence. That's why it is often referred to as "specific learning disability". But what if such a profile also tended to be associated with exceptional strengths in other areas, such as visual skills? That's certainly what some experts have proposed, for example based on the observation that people with dyslexia are over-represented in fields that involve visual-spatial ........ Read more »
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