Cancer is a disease of multicellular organisms. In order to become multicellular, a certain amount of control needs to be exerted over each individual cell, cells can no longer move around, grow, and divide when they want too. Instead they must obey signals from the surrounding environment (including their fellow cells) which tell them what to do. Cancer, like anarchy, is what happens when the control breaks down, and individual cells start growing and dividing regardless.Uncontrolled growth lea........ Read more »
by Nestor Lopez-Duran PhD in Child-Psych
Many of you have probably heard that studies have identified specific gene variations that when interacting with stressors in the environment increase the risk of developing depression. This interaction has been used by researchers and clinicians to explain why some people become depressed when exposed to stressful events, while others appear resilient. The argument is [...]... Read more »
Hammen, C., Brennan, P., Keenan-Miller, D., Hazel, N., & Najman, J. (2009) Chronic and acute stress, gender, and serotonin transporter gene-environment interactions predicting depression symptoms in youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02177.x
It's every man's dream - a pill to make women want more sex. According to Boehringer Pharmaceuticals, that dream could be a reality in a few years, in the form of the strangely-named flibanserin. But is it the latest wonder-drug or just a glorified sleeping pill? Read on.Flibanserin was originally developed as an antidepressant, but in clinical trials against depression it reportedly failed to perform better than placebo. The standard for getting approved as an antidepressant is low, s........ Read more »
It’s a phenomenon that medical educators have long suspected but haven’t been able to prove: a rise in medical errors when newly-hatched physicians begin their residency training programs in July. This suspected occurrence has been studied several times, but until recently, no conclusive evidence existed that it actually was true. For the first time, a [...]... Read more »
Haller, G., Myles, P., Taffe, P., Perneger, T., & Wu, C. (2009) Rate of undesirable events at beginning of academic year: retrospective cohort study. BMJ, 339(oct13 1). DOI: 10.1136/bmj.b3974
Bands of wild horses roaming the remote deserts of the southwestern United States conjure up an iconic image in many people's minds. But for conservationists, the introduced equines have fueled controversy over their impacts to desert ecosystems.... Read more »
Can the internet prevent government corruption? You’re probably never going to meet an entirely honest politician, but according to a statistical study by US researchers of 170 countries the internet could provide the tools necessary to reduce corruption significantly.
Martha García-Murillo of the School of Information Studies, at Syracuse University, New York, modeled political, economic and [...]Post from: David Bradley's Sciencetext Tech TalkInternet against government corruption
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Martha García-Murillo. (2010) The effect of internet access on government corruption. Electronic Government, An International Journal, 7(1), 22-40. info:/
Grinnell’s philosophy of scientific inquiry focused intently on the task of accumulating as much raw data as possible. For example, during the biological survey he carried out in Yosemite National Park between the years 1914 and 1920, Grinnell and his field crews collected 817 photographs, nearly 3000 animal specimens and more than 2000 pages of notes! Being organized and detail oriented is one thing, but Grinnell’s drive for thoroughness approached the obsessive.
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Moritz, C., Patton, J., Conroy, C., Parra, J., White, G., & Beissinger, S. (2008) Impact of a Century of Climate Change on Small-Mammal Communities in Yosemite National Park, USA. Science, 322(5899), 261-264. DOI: 10.1126/science.1163428
by Vincent Racaniello in virology blog
I have had many opportunities to speak with journalists of different kinds during the more than 30 years that I have studied viruses. I wrote previously about my negative experience with CNN. I’d like to relate a much more positive encounter with newspaper reporters.
As a postdoctoral fellow in David Baltimore’s laboratory I was fortunate to [...]... Read more »
Racaniello, V., & Baltimore, D. (1981) Cloned poliovirus complementary DNA is infectious in mammalian cells. Science, 214(4523), 916-919. DOI: 10.1126/science.6272391
Young children benefit socially and intellectually the more their carers engage and respond to them. Recognising this, we can train nursery staff to be as responsive to the children in their care as possible. But a new study by Claire Vallotton raises an interesting and under-examined issue - what if there's something about some infants that leads their carers to engage with them more, thus giving them an advantage over their peers.Vallotton filmed interactions between 18 student caregivers and ........ Read more »
Vallotton, C. (2009) Do infants influence their quality of care? Infants’ communicative gestures predict caregivers’ responsiveness. Infant Behavior and Development, 32(4), 351-365. DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.06.001
Taken from Fig. 1 (Bewernick et al., 2009). Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (PDF) over time.Two and a half years ago, The Neurocritic wrote about the very early results of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the nucleus accumbens for severe, refractory depression. You can read about the details of the procedure and its scientific motivation here:More About the Nucleus AccumbensNAcc Localization for DBSBriefly, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is considered one of the brain's PLEASURE CENTRES:When the ........ Read more »
Bewernick, B., Hurlemann, R., Matusch, A., Kayser, S., Grubert, C., Hadrysiewicz, B., Axmacher, N., Lemke, M., Cooper-Mahkorn, D., & Cohen, M. (2009) Nucleus Accumbens Deep Brain Stimulation Decreases Ratings of Depression and Anxiety in Treatment-Resistant Depression. Biological Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.09.013
Selective outcome reporting in clinical trials about off-label uses for gabapentin.... Read more »
Vedula, S., Bero, L., Scherer, R., & Dickersin, K. (2009) Outcome Reporting in Industry-Sponsored Trials of Gabapentin for Off-Label Use. New England Journal of Medicine, 361(20), 1963-1971. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa0906126
With the Internet many patients visit the GP after extensive searches on the Internet. They usually have an idea about what’s wrong with them. In a recent publication in the British Medical Journal I found a recent article on this subject. In visits to a GP patients the self diagnosis (also called self labelling) was [...]
Related posts:Depression in General Practice In the recent numbers of British Journal of General...Predictors of nonadherence to antidepressants in depressed patient........ Read more »
by Jon Voisey in Angry Astronomer
In general, supernova come in two flavors: The core collapse Type II supernovae, and the white dwarf over the Chandrasekhar limit, Type II supernova. The two are distinguished by the elemental composition of their spectra: Type II stars still have a hydrogen envelope and thus, hydrogen lines are prominent. Type I supernova, being the burned out cores of stars, don't have that envelope, so heavier elements, like silicon are present.However, the Supernova 2002bj defies classification. Initially, i........ Read more »
Peter and I have often discussed the links between visceral fat and metabolic risk. Visceral fat is the fat which surrounds the internal organs, and is thought to mediate much of the risk between obesity and disease. For example, individuals with excess body weight tend to have more visceral fat, which is likely responsible for the relationship between body weight and numerous chronic diseases. However, as Peter discussed on Monday, subcutaneous fat (the fat beneath the skin) does not seem to........ Read more »
Hunter, G., Brock, D., Byrne, N., Chandler-Laney, P., Del Corral, P., & Gower, B. (2009) Exercise Training Prevents Regain of Visceral Fat for 1 Year Following Weight Loss. Obesity. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2009.316
Darwin’s specimens aid efforts to save Galapagos mockingbird
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Hoeck, P., Beaumont, M., James, K., Grant, R., Grant, P., & Keller, L. (2009) Saving Darwin's muse: evolutionary genetics for the recovery of the Floreana mockingbird. Biology Letters. info:/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0778
Science continues with a series of essays commemorating the year of Darwin. This week (and by this week I mean the one I got this week, actually dated 6th of November) the topic is the evolutionary origins of religion.
This is quite an interesting topic to which I was first introduced with Daniel Dennett’s Breaking the spell: religion as a natural phenomenom. The central premise is that there could be evolutionary advantages to communities in which individuals follow ways of thi........ Read more »
Ning Fang (Iowa State University) and coworkers have combined the imaging capabilities of differential interference contrast microscopy with the optical properties of metal nanoparticles to develop a supplement to fluorescence imaging. This news feature was written on November 17, 2009.... Read more »
Sun W, Wang G, Fang N, & Yeung ES. (2009) Wavelength-Dependent Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy: Selectively Imaging Nanoparticle Probes in Live Cells. Analytical chemistry. PMID: 19788254
Glycoprotein 2 is the M cell receptor for type I pili on bacteria and is important for the immune response to these bacteria, according to research by Hase and colleagues published last week in the journal Nature.
The mucosal immune system is one of the largest components of our immune system and is hugely important for [...]... Read more »
Hase, K., Kawano, K., Nochi, T., Pontes, G., Fukuda, S., Ebisawa, M., Kadokura, K., Tobe, T., Fujimura, Y., Kawano, S.... (2009) Uptake through glycoprotein 2 of FimH bacteria by M cells initiates mucosal immune response. Nature, 462(7270), 226-230. DOI: 10.1038/nature08529
Who's more "sociable," men or women? Common sense says it's women, right? And many research studies back this impression up: Women are more interpersonal, more connected, more interdependent than men. Women are more likely to share intimate information with each other than men. But is that really the whole story?
There is also research suggesting that men have larger social networks than women do, and that male-male friendships last longer than female-female ones.
A team led by Joyce Benenson ........ Read more »
Fascinating research - often involving phantom limbs and smart sensory manipulations, -has shown that the brain’s body image relies heavily on learning via sensory feedback. This study shows the brain capable of reconstructing body image even in the absence of sensory feedback...... Read more »
Moseley GL, & Brugger P. (2009) Interdependence of movement and anatomy persists when amputees learn a physiologically impossible movement of their phantom limb. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(44), 18798-802. PMID: 19858475
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