New research has shown that the ability to medicate exists outside of the realm of humanity. There goes that God complex. In the kingdom of life, there are few examples of behavior specifically directed at treating a disease or infection outside of the scribbling your doctor calls a prescription. However, a new study out of [...]... Read more »
Lefèvre, T., Oliver, L., Hunter, M., & De Roode, J. (2010) Evidence for trans-generational medication in nature. Ecology Letters. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01537.x
I was trained as an Environmental Scientist long before I was at all interested in Microbes. So, I get excited when I come across microbial studies that are environmentally relevant. I get particularly nerd-cited when these studies take place in the ocean. A paper published in PNAS last week describes identifies what may be the [...]... Read more »
Coleman ML, & Chisholm SW. (2010) Ecosystem-specific selection pressures revealed through comparative population genomics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 20937887
Last week I began a breakdown of this paper. It’s a much more complicated paper than I usually cover round here, and I will also be covering it in more depth than usual, because I think there are a lot of things about it that are worth discussion, and I think that even this kind [...]... Read more »
LaPlant Q, Vialou V, Covington HE 3rd, Dumitriu D, Feng J, Warren BL, Maze I, Dietz DM, Watts EL, Iñiguez SD.... (2010) Dnmt3a regulates emotional behavior and spine plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Nature neuroscience, 13(9), 1137-43. PMID: 20729844
Barkeep and blogger Scribbler has a piece up giving one bartender’s view of New York’s smoking ban. Since I like Scribbler, I wondered what the data say about the effect of smoking bans on his health. Cigarette smoke has many harmful physiologic effects, and the data are pretty clear that you don’t have to be [...]... Read more »
Ockene JK, Kuller LH, Svendsen KH, & Meilahn E. (1990) The relationship of smoking cessation to coronary heart disease and lung cancer in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). American journal of public health, 80(8), 954-8. PMID: 2368857
Fichtenberg, C. (2002) Effect of smoke-free workplaces on smoking behaviour: systematic review. BMJ, 325(7357), 188-188. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.325.7357.188
Farrelly, M. (2005) Changes in hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law. Tobacco Control, 14(4), 236-241. DOI: 10.1136/tc.2004.008839
Eisner MD, Smith AK, & Blanc PD. (1998) Bartenders' respiratory health after establishment of smoke-free bars and taverns. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 280(22), 1909-14. PMID: 9851475
Allwright, S. (2005) Legislation for smoke-free workplaces and health of bar workers in Ireland: before and after study. BMJ, 331(7525), 1117. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.38636.499225.55
Menzies D, Nair A, Williamson PA, Schembri S, Al-Khairalla MZ, Barnes M, Fardon TC, McFarlane L, Magee GJ, & Lipworth BJ. (2006) Respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and markers of inflammation among bar workers before and after a legislative ban on smoking in public places. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 296(14), 1742-8. PMID: 17032987
When marine biologists first spotted the humpback whale AHWC no. 1363, there did not appear to be anything remarkable about her at all. Seen with another female on the Abrolhos Bank off the coast of Brazil on August 7th, 1999, the whale simply stuck around long enough for the scientists to snap a few photographs [...]... Read more »
Stevick, P., Neves, M., Johansen, F., Engel, M., Allen, J., Marcondes, M., & Carlson, C. (2010) A quarter of a world away: female humpback whale moves 10 000 km between breeding areas. Biology Letters. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2010.0717
Rizzo, L., & Schulte, D. (2009) A review of humpback whales' migration patterns worldwide and their consequences to gene flow. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 89(05), 995. DOI: 10.1017/S0025315409000332
PLoS ONE today published a paper very relevant to Open Access Week (which started today):
Gargouri Y, Hajjem C, Larivière V, Gingras Y, Carr L, Brody T, Harnad S. Self-Selected or Mandated, Open Access Increases Citation Impact for Higher Quality Research. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(10):e13636+. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013636.
The paper studied the citation rates of papers from four institutions with the longest-standing self-archiving mandate: Southampton University, CERN, Queensland University of Tec........ Read more »
Gargouri, Y., Hajjem, C., Larivière, V., Gingras, Y., Carr, L., Brody, T., & Harnad, S. (2010) Self-Selected or Mandated, Open Access Increases Citation Impact for Higher Quality Research. PLoS ONE, 5(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013636
New research reveals how Salmonella enterica spread in the gut and gallbladder—a subpopulation of Salmonella primed for invasion rapidly replicate in the host cell cytosol such that bacteria-laden cells are extruded out of the epithelial-cell layer releasing invasive Salmonella into the gastrointestinal and biliary lumen. Leigh Knodler and colleagues write that other mucosal-dwelling pathogens could [...]... Read more »
Knodler, L., Vallance, B., Celli, J., Winfree, S., Hansen, B., Montero, M., & Steele-Mortimer, O. (2010) Dissemination of invasive Salmonella via bacterial-induced extrusion of mucosal epithelia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(41), 17733-17738. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1006098107
Every high school student now learns that plate tectonics slowly drive our continents in different directions. Since only the most uncontroversial scientific knowledge finds its way to high school text books, it’s hard to imagine that when the theory of continental drift was proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912, it was firmly rejected by [...]... Read more »
Klaus S, Schubart CD, Streit B, & Pfenninger M. (2010) When Indian crabs were not yet Asian--biogeographic evidence for Eocene proximity of India and Southeast Asia. BMC evolutionary biology, 287. PMID: 20849594
If there is one aspect of chronic pain management that has received more attention than returning to work, I don’t know it! In 1995 when I started working at my current workplace, work was almost a dirty word. I was accused at one time of being a ‘Siberian workcamp’ Commandante because some people thought it … Read more... Read more »
Studying astronomy in culture should be simple. There’s only so much that is visible by the naked eye, and it follows predictable patterns. Modern astronomy means that we can reconstruct what was visible anywhere in the world in human history, within certain boundaries for errors. If we know what happens when, then studying a culture... Read more »
Clarke, P.A. (2007) An Overview of Australian Aboriginal Ethnoastronomy. Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture, 39-58. info:/
Generally bacteria genomes tend to be fairly minimal in the amount you can remove from them. Unlike eukaryotes, which can have whole swathes of genome that codes for very little, bacteria, with their limited space for a chromosome, need every gene they can get. They just don't have the space for unnecessary genes.Streptomyces bacteria, however, have bigger genomes and the luxary to invest in genes which are not strictly necessary for bacterial survival. These are called Secondary metabolite gene........ Read more »
Komatsu M, Uchiyama T, Omura S, Cane DE, & Ikeda H. (2010) Genome-minimized Streptomyces host for the heterologous expression of secondary metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(6), 2646-51. PMID: 20133795
by Moselio Schaechter in Small Things Considered
Sooner or later, but usually sooner, anyone dealing with fungi will have to deal with the issue of spore dispersal. Many fungi, mushrooms included, are a spore’s way of spreading spores through the environment. They do this in varied and universally ingenious ways. Spores, like mammalian sperm, are made in excess, which enhances the chances of some “making it.” Anybody who has made the spore print from a mushroom can attest to the large number of spores produced. This is true not only for ........ Read more »
Roper M, Seminara A, Bandi MM, Cobb A, Dillard HR, & Pringle A. (2010) Dispersal of fungal spores on a cooperatively generated wind. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 20880834
Feret J, Danos V, Krivine J, Harmer R, & Fontana W (2009). Internal coarse-graining of molecular systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (16), 6453-8 PMID: 19346467, PNAS page, Supporting Information. Models of molecular dynamics suffer from combinatorial explosion: the phenomenon of an exponential number of [...]... Read more »
This is the first guest post on The Language of Bad Physics by Cosmic Variance‘s Sean Carroll. This post is cross-posted on Cosmic Variance.
A few weeks ago there was a bit of media excitement about a somewhat surprising experimental result. Observations of quasar spectra indicated that the fine structure constant, the parameter in physics that describes the strength of electromagnetism, seems to be slightly different on one side of the universe than on the other. The preprint is here......... Read more »
The internet has grown as a source of health information for both clinicians and their patients. Patients with mental disorders may be particularly drawn to using the internet for information due to the stigma associated with these disorders. This makes it important for health educators to understand the demographic pattern of searches for health information including depression and other mental disorders. A recent research study of those seeking information about depression pr........ Read more »
Fu KW, Wong PW, & Yip PS. (2010) What do internet users seek to know about depression from web searches? A descriptive study of 21 million web queries. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 71(9), 1246-7. PMID: 20923627
Time to continue in the Tet Zoo series on laryngeal diverticula (and other pouches, pockets and sacs). This time, we look at baleen whales, or mysticetes. Like the primates we looked at previously, mysticetes have enlarged laryngeal ventricles* that (mostly) meet along the ventral midline of the throat and form a single large laryngeal pouch or sac. The presence of a raphe along the sac's ventral midline seems to mark the line of fusion between the two ancestral, bilateral sacs. It's probabl........ Read more »
In 1975, Edward Tronick and colleagues first presented the "still face experiment" to colleagues at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. He described a phenomenon in which an infant, after three minutes of "interaction" with a non-responsive expressionless mother, "rapidly sobers and grows wary. He makes repeated attempts to get the interaction into its usual reciprocal pattern. When these attempts fail, the infant withdraws [and] orients his face and body awa........ Read more »
Adamson, L., & Frick, J. (2003) The Still Face: A History of a Shared Experimental Paradigm. Infancy, 4(4), 451-473. DOI: 10.1207/S15327078IN0404_01
Florida panthers are healthier and fitter than they were fifteen years ago. They have higher genetic diversity, better immunity to disease, and fewer genetic abnormalities. They suffer fewer heart defects, enjoy higher fertility and are better able to climb trees. This is wonderful news for a population of panthers that was recently on the brink of extinction.
Like most populations of large carnivores, panther populations are divided between habitat islands and isolated in protected areas such ........ Read more »
Johnson, W., Onorato, D., Roelke, M., Land, E., Cunningham, M., Belden, R., McBride, R., Jansen, D., Lotz, M., Shindle, D.... (2010) Genetic Restoration of the Florida Panther. Science, 329(5999), 1641-1645. DOI: 10.1126/science.1192891
A plea to fund DonorsChoose projects that highlights research on sexism in mathematics instruction.... Read more »
Alessandri SM, & Lewis M. (1993) Parental evaluation and its relation to shame and pride in young children. Sex Roles, 335-343. info:/
Fennema, E., Peterson, P., Carpenter, T., & Lubinski, C. (1990) Teachers attributions and beliefs about girls, boys, and mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 21(1), 55-69. DOI: 10.1007/BF00311015
Being rejected by their peers hurts all kids, but they vary in the way they react. Some kids deal with rejection by lashing out, which, taken to the extreme, can ... Read more »
Reijntjes, A., Thomaes, S., Bushman, B.J., Boelen, P.A., de Castro, B.O., & Telch, M.J. (2010) The outcast-lash-out effect in youth: alienation increases aggression following peer rejection. Psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science/ APS. PMID: 20739674
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