by Vincent Racaniello in virology blog
One of the most important procedures in virology is measuring the virus titer – the concentration of viruses in a sample. A widely used approach for determining the quantity of infectious virus is the plaque assay. In this technique, the spread of progeny viruses released by individually infected cells is restricted to neighboring cells by [...]... Read more »
Doceul, V., Hollinshead, M., van der Linden, L., & Smith, G. (2010) Repulsion of Superinfecting Virions: A Mechanism for Rapid Virus Spread. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.1183173
by judithharvey in NASGP
A 1980s cult advertising campaign posed sharing your tube of cheap caramels as an existential crisis. A 21st century version of the dilemma involves higher stakes. Would you offer one of your kidneys to a member of your family? To a friend? To a stranger?
The first successful living donor kidney transplant was performed in 1954. [...]... Read more »
Clonal evolution during in situ to invasive breast carcinoma progression1
What’s a tumor?
In some ways, that’s a bad question (never mind the answer) because it implies that a tumor is a single thing. But we know that’s not true. A tumor, by the time we can detect it, is a collection of many cells, [...]... Read more »
Park, S., Gönen, M., Kim, H., Michor, F., & Polyak, K. (2010) Cellular and genetic diversity in the progression of in situ human breast carcinomas to an invasive phenotype. Journal of Clinical Investigation. DOI: 10.1172/JCI40724
It's a widely held, if much derided, belief that ownership of a prestige sports car can increase a man's sex appeal to women. Indeed, there's a scene in the American sit-com Friends in which Joey dons a ridiculous Porsche-branded costume of peak cap, gloves, jacket and trousers, so determined is he to convince female passers-by that he owns a fast, shiny car. Now Michael Dunn and Robert Searle have tested the shiny car effect scientifically, looking at the effect of apparent car ownership on bot........ Read more »
Dunn, M., & Searle, R. (2010) Effect of manipulated prestige-car ownership on both sex attractiveness ratings. British Journal of Psychology, 101(1), 69-80. DOI: 10.1348/000712609X417319
Satoshi Minakata (Osaka University) and coworkers have converted carbon dioxide into a synthetically-useful chemical under mild conditions, providing hope for practical atmospheric cleanup and a halt to global warming. This news feature was written on February 2, 2010.... Read more »
Minakata, S., Sasaki, I., & Ide, T. (2010) Atmospheric CO2 Fixation by Unsaturated Alcohols Using tBuOI under Neutral Conditions . Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 49(7), 1309-1311. DOI: 10.1002/anie.200906352
Oil and gas extraction is pervasive among the coasts of the world. In many areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and off the coast of west Africa, resource exploration companies have been moving into pretty deep waters. Many rigs use water-based muds in the drilling process. It is considered to the best alternative because [...]... Read more »
Hilde C. Trannum, Hans C. Nilsson, Morten T. Schaanning, & Sigurd Øxnevad. (2009) Effects of sedimentation from water-based drill cuttings and natural sediment on benthic macrofaunal community structure and ecosystem processes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. info:/10.1016/j.jembe.2009.12.004
A recent paper describes a significant benefit from abstinence-only education. The story is more complicated...... Read more »
Jemmott, J., Jemmott, L., & Fong, G. (2010) Efficacy of a Theory-Based Abstinence-Only Intervention Over 24 Months: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Young Adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164(2), 152-159. DOI: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.267
National holidays are there to celebrate the nation and the opinion pages tend to be full of self-congratulation on such occasions. Australia is no exception and one of the more over-excited ones that was produced on the occasion of Australia Day last week came from Ross Cameron, a former Liberal (and in Australia that means [...]... Read more »
Clyne, Michael. (2005) Australia's Language Potential. UNSW Press. info:/
For many years, up until fairly recently, life science researchers who talked in public about altering or reversing the course of aging found that this was a quick and effective way to destroy fundraising prospects. The mainstream institutions involved in grants are conservative indeed. So next to nobody said anything - in public at least. But times are changing. It has to be said that scientists involved in aging research are now becoming noticeably more comfortable about talking in public on t........ Read more »
Madeo F, Eisenberg T, Büttner S, Ruckenstuhl C, & Kroemer G. (2010) Spermidine: A novel autophagy inducer and longevity elixir. Autophagy, 6(1). PMID: 20110777
A little proof that the mini version of just about anything is cute:
Photo credit: Julie Larsen Maher/WCS via Zooborns
These little tykes are the Bronx Zoo's newest arrivals: baby Kihansi Spray Toads (Nectophrynoides asperginis). While they might just look like any other toad, this species is unique. Females give birth to fully-formed babies, not eggs like most amphibians. There are no tadpoles here - baby toads come right out of mom looking like mini versions of their parents.
Unfortunately........ Read more »
Jang et al. (2002): "A combined model of network design and production/distribution planning for a supply network" suggest a framework for integrating the strategic supply chain network design with the operational planning needed for production and distribution.... Read more »
Jang, Y. (2002) A combined model of network design and production/distribution planning for a supply network. Computers , 43(1-2), 263-281. DOI: 10.1016/S0360-8352(02)00074-8
Time to act like a big boy again...When you hear the word "schizophrenia," what comes to mind? Frequently, people imagine someone who has auditory hallucinations (e.g., a voice keeping a running commentary on the person's behavior) or bizarre delusions, such as having thoughts broadcasted to others.When mental health professionals discuss the disorder, the most common phrases used are "positive symptoms" (e.g., hallucinations, delusions) and "negative symptoms"........ Read more »
Reichenberg, A., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., Houts, R., Keefe, R., Murray, R., Poulton, R., & Moffitt, T. (2010) Static and Dynamic Cognitive Deficits in Childhood Preceding Adult Schizophrenia: A 30-Year Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(2), 160-169. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09040574
We discussed this paper at a journal club in our department yesterday (Monday 1st February). Some of our thoughts are below.
Although the media coverage of this study played heavily on the link to colony collapse disorder (which is causing honeybee colonies to die off around the world), the authors only allude to it in one [...]... Read more »
In a previous post which considered some of the bogus science claims made by the Australian TV show Today Tonight, I had a brief look at a few things that fish oil is supposed to treat. It seemed fair to say that counter to the strong claims made by TT, the evidence suggests that fish oil [...]... Read more »
Amminger, G., Schafer, M., Papageorgiou, K., Klier, C., Cotton, S., Harrigan, S., Mackinnon, A., McGorry, P., & Berger, G. (2010) Long-Chain Ω-3 Fatty Acids for Indicated Prevention of Psychotic Disorders: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(2), 146-154. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.192
We can't HIIT all the time, nor can we work steady state at the top end of our aerobic capacit all the time. Our central nervous system would come up and strangle us. That's another word for overtraining. But if we still want to make sure that we're optimizing our non-HIIT time for both endurance capacity and fat mobilization, can we do both at the same time? Outlook looks good that there's a sweet spot for such work in the 60-80% MaxHR zone.... Read more »
Carey, DG. (2009) Quantifying Differences in the "Fat Burning" Zone and the Aerobic Zone: Implications For Training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: , 23(7), 2090-2095. info:/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bac5c5
As I mentioned in my last post, this has been a watershed week in two areas I'm greatly interested in. Two major discoveries were published last week that are in areas of great interest for myself. My first post concentrated on one of my favourite parts of the cell - mitochondria. The second article I want to blog about is a blast from my past, and involves inflammation - the major way our immune system gets rid of bacteria, and ironically, the cause of many human diseases.This paper discusse........ Read more »
Boilard E, Nigrovic PA, Larabee K, Watts GF, Coblyn JS, Weinblatt ME, Massarotti EM, Remold-O'Donnell E, Farndale RW, Ware J.... (2010) Platelets amplify inflammation in arthritis via collagen-dependent microparticle production. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5965), 580-3. PMID: 20110505
A new study from Marius Wernig and colleagues at Stanford University has succeeded in transforming fibroblast cells directly into neurons. In the end, it was far simpler than expected. The identities of different cell types are known to be established during development by particular combinations of transcription factors, which, by controlling the expression of large numbers of target genes, define the genetic and biochemical profile of each cell type. It was thought that this profile of gen........ Read more »
Vierbuchen, T., Ostermeier, A., Pang, Z., Kokubu, Y., Südhof, T., & Wernig, M. (2010) Direct conversion of fibroblasts to functional neurons by defined factors. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature08797
One of the most troubling problems of North American cities is the isolation of the poor and racialized minorities in ghetto neighbourhoods. Mixed-income neighbourhoods offer a possible remedy, but in place of careful analysis of the benefits they can and can't provide, too often we argue fruitlessly from inadequately-researched, ideologically fixed positions. Some recent research takes a step forward.... Read more »
Joseph, M., Chaskin, R., & Webber, H. (2007) The Theoretical Basis for Addressing Poverty Through Mixed-Income Development. Urban Affairs Review, 42(3), 369-409. DOI: 10.1177/1078087406294043
Christians tend to be more fatalistic than the non-religious, which is not altogether surprising. In a post earlier this month I reviewed a study showing one of the consequences of that fatalism.This post is about an altogether weirder aspect of fatalism!It comes from a study by Ara Norenzayan (University of British Columbia) and Albert Lee (Queen's University, Ontario). They looked at religious students and found, lo and behold, they were more fatalistic than non-religious students.They also lo........ Read more »
Norenzayan, A., & Lee, A. (2010) It was meant to happen: Explaining cultural variations in fate attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. info:/
In their article, Posttraumatic Growth: Conceptual Foundations and Empirical Evidence,1 Tedeschi and Calhoun create a valuable framework for evaluating a routine consequence of trauma - personal growth.
Traumatic events are “profoundly disturbing,” cause significant anxiety and stress, can give rise to “dysfunctional patterns of thinking,” including “repetitive intrusions of thoughts and images,” cause unpleasant, potentially significant physical reactions, and can cause or exacerba........ Read more »
Tedeschi, R., & Calhoun, L. (2004) TARGET ARTICLE: "Posttraumatic Growth: Conceptual Foundations and Empirical Evidence". Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 1-18. DOI: 10.1207/s15327965pli1501_01
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