In 1872, a pandemic influenza outbreak brought the US to its knees:
“The streets are almost deserted.” –Washington, D.C.
“A Sunday quiet prevails upon the streets.” –Springfield, OR
“The streets yesterday looked deserted.” –San Francisco, CA
“The street cars have stopped.” – Erie, PA 1
And yet, if you look at the mortality rates for influenza in 1872, it’s not a [...]... Read more »
Adoniram B. Judson, MD. (1873) History and Course of the Epizootic Among Horses Upon the North American Continent in 1872-1873. Public Health Papers and Reports. American Public Health Association. Hurd and Houghton, New York, 88-109. info:/
I haven’t written about VEGF before, not because it’s not important, it is, in fact VEGF has been shown to be important in a whole range of solid (i.e. lump forming) tumours, these include:
Esophageal (food pipe)
Glioblastoma multiforme (brain tumour)
Head and neck cancer
Renal cell carcinoma
Generally speaking, if you have a lot of [...]... Read more »
Nowak, D., Woolard, J., Amin, E., Konopatskaya, O., Saleem, M., Churchill, A., Ladomery, M., Harper, S., & Bates, D. (2008) Expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic isoforms of VEGF is differentially regulated by splicing and growth factors. Journal of Cell Science, 121(20), 3487-3495. DOI: 10.1242/jcs.016410
If you could choose to learn a foreign language, which one would it be? And why?
Such choices are usually constrained by what is on offer. However, someone must choose the offerings – e.g., language policy makers around the world have for the past couple of decades decided that English is a must-have first foreign [...]... Read more »
Piller, Ingrid, & Takahashi, Kimie. (2006) A passion for English: desire and the language market. Aneta Pavlenko. Ed. Bilingual minds: Emotional experience, expression, and representation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 59-83. info:/
The knee of an athlete is often a diagnostic dilemma. The knee obtains important biomechanical function and is supported by an array of ligaments and muscles. For these reasons it can be difficult to pinpoint the specific structure which is injured. Such a concept is to be blamed for the creation of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS),What exactly is PFPS?When you think about it what exactly does this diagnosis tell you? Essentially all that this means is we know there is pain and we know it has........ Read more »
Sanchis-Alfonso V, & Roselló-Sastre E. (2000) Immunohistochemical analysis for neural markers of the lateral retinaculum in patients with isolated symptomatic patellofemoral malalignment. A neuroanatomic basis for anterior knee pain in the active young patient. The American journal of sports medicine, 28(5), 725-31. PMID: 11032232
Naslund, J., Walden, M., & Lindberg, L. (2007) Decreased Pulsatile Blood Flow in the Patella in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(10), 1668-1673. DOI: 10.1177/0363546507303115
Sci saw this post recently at Dr. Pal's place, and it rang some major bells in her head. So, I figure, I've got to cover it myself, now don't I.
Lim et al. "Zican-induced damage to mouse and human nasal tissue" PLoS ONE, 2009.
So let's start with a couple of things:
1) What is Zicam?
2) Why was it recalled?
3) What are the possible effects of zinc on the common cold? Read the rest of this post... | Read the comments on this post...... Read more »
Lim JH, Davis GE, Wang Z, Li V, Wu Y, Rue TC, & Storm DR. (2009) Zicam-induced damage to mouse and human nasal tissue. PloS one, 4(10). PMID: 19876403
by David Gorski in Science-Based Medicine
It’s been about a year and a half since I’ve written about this topic; so I thought I’d better update the disclaimer that I wrote at the beginning:
Before I start into the meat of this post, I feel the need to emphasize, as strongly as I can, four things:
I do not receive any funding from [...]... Read more »
Myung, S., Ju, W., McDonnell, D., Lee, Y., Kazinets, G., Cheng, C., & Moskowitz, J. (2009) Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Tumors: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27(33), 5565-5572. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2008.21.6366
Deltour, I., Johansen, C., Auvinen, A., Feychting, M., Klaeboe, L., & Schuz, J. (2009) Time Trends in Brain Tumor Incidence Rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, 1974-2003. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djp415
Therapists should bury their modesty and adorn the walls with their well-earned certificates and diplomas. That's according to Ann Devlin and colleagues who asked 227 undergrads to look for one minute at a photo of a clinician's office, furnished in a modern, minimalist style, and to give their impression of the therapist who worked there. All the photos were taken from the perspective of the client's chair, but some students were shown a version with bare walls and no family photos on the desk,........ Read more »
Devlin, A., Donovan, S., Nicolov, A., Nold, O., Packard, A., & Zandan, G. (2009) “Impressive?” Credentials, family photographs, and the perception of therapist qualities. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(4), 503-512. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.08.008
Fig. 1 (Hakeem et al., 2009). Photomicrographs of VENs in the brain of the African elephant. A: VENs in frontoinsular cortex (area FI). Scale = 25 μm.Spindle neurons, or Von Economo neurons (VENs), are a unique type of large, bipolar neuron found in layers III and V in the anterior cingulate cortex and the frontoinsular cortex of humans. In 1999, Nimchinsky and colleagues discovered that among the 28 nonhuman primate species they examined, only great apes had VENs (see Spindle Neurons: The Nex........ Read more »
Butti, C., Sherwood, C., Hakeem, A., Allman, J., & Hof, P. (2009) Total number and volume of Von Economo neurons in the cerebral cortex of cetaceans. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 515(2), 243-259. DOI: 10.1002/cne.22055
The statistics are everywhere: most of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. These conditions are, of course, responsible for increased health care costs owing to chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease. The patient may pick up some of these excess expenses, but society incurs [...]... Read more »
Anderson, L., Quinn, T., Glanz, K., Ramirez, G., Kahwati, L., Johnson, D., Buchanan, L., Archer, W., Chattopadhyay, S., & Kalra, G. (2009) The Effectiveness of Worksite Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions for Controlling Employee Overweight and ObesityA Systematic Review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37(4), 340-357. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.07.003
Lightwood, J., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Coxson, P., Wang, Y., Williams, L., & Goldman, L. (2009) Forecasting the Future Economic Burden of Current Adolescent Overweight: An Estimate of the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2230-2237. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.152595
Clarke, P., O'Malley, P., Johnston, L., & Schulenberg, J. (2008) Social disparities in BMI trajectories across adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime socio-economic position: 1986-2004. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38(2), 499-509. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyn214
Heraclides, A., & Brunner, E. (2009) Social mobility and social accumulation across the life-course in relation to adult overweight and obesity: The Whitehall II study. Journal of Epidemiology . DOI: 10.1136/jech.2009.087692
Children's Health... Read more »
Crystal, S., Olfson, M., Huang, C., Pincus, H., & Gerhard, T. (2009) Broadened Use Of Atypical Antipsychotics: Safety, Effectiveness, And Policy Challenges. Health Affairs, 28(5). DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.28.5.w770
Some examples and some advice on scientists becoming politicians...... Read more »
Binocular adaptive optics visual simulator. (2009) Binocular adaptive optics visual simulator. Optics Letters. info:/
I’ve had two children – now 19 and 16, and wonderful. At the time of their delivery I can remember both times thinking ‘as long as they’re healthy’ and being not at all worried about having medical intervention if it was needed. My eldest was born with epidural anaesthesia, and my youngest was [...]... Read more »
Lavand’homme, P. (2009) Chronic pain after vaginal and cesarean delivery: a reality questioning our daily practice of obstetric anesthesia. International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2009.09.003
I'm on holiday at the moment, so today's post is another section from my long essay last year, about the potential uses of biorefineries. It was written for a more scientific-based audience so might be a little harder to decipher than my usual posts.BioplasticsBioplastics are polyesters that accumulate intracellularly in microorganisms in storage granules. They are usually built up from hydroxyl-acyl CoA derivatives through a range of different pathways in different microorganisms. As they are b........ Read more »
Madison LL, & Huisman GW. (1999) Metabolic engineering of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates): from DNA to plastic. Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR, 63(1), 21-53. PMID: 10066830
Rehm BH. (2003) Polyester synthases: natural catalysts for plastics. The Biochemical journal, 376(Pt 1), 15-33. PMID: 12954080
I'm really behind on the answers. I'll do the easier one first, so MM08 will be next.Remember this myserious organism from a while ago? Johan got it: it's Hoplonympha, a parabasalian gut endosymbiont! (Opisthokont was also on the right track)Hoplonympha. top: SEM of whole organism (F indicates flagella), the long strips are actually ectosymbiotic bacteria, as evident in the TEM cross section on the bottom. CM - cytoplasmic [inner] membrane, OM - outer membrane, SL - S-layer. Note that unlike in........ Read more »
Noda, S., Inoue, T., Hongoh, Y., Kawai, M., Nalepa, C., Vongkaluang, C., Kudo, T., & Ohkuma, M. (2006) Identification and characterization of ectosymbionts of distinct lineages in Bacteroidales attached to flagellated protists in the gut of termites and a wood-feeding cockroach. Environmental Microbiology, 8(1), 11-20. DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00860.x
CARPENTER, K., CHOW, L., & KEELING, P. (2009) Morphology, Phylogeny, and Diversity of (Parabasalia: Hypermastigida) of the Wood-Feeding Cockroach . Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 56(4), 305-313. DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2009.00406.x
OHKUMA, M. (2008) Symbioses of flagellates and prokaryotes in the gut of lower termites. Trends in Microbiology, 16(7), 345-352. DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2008.04.004
Stingl, U. (2004) Symbionts of the gut flagellate Staurojoenina sp. from Neotermes cubanus represent a novel, termite-associated lineage of Bacteroidales: description of 'Candidatus Vestibaculum illigatum'. Microbiology, 150(7), 2229-2235. DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.27135-0
een to a library lately? Those of you who, like me, get their current literature via the internet, probably thoroughly repressed the memory of literature research without a search mask, but there are things that stay with you. Such as the smell of old books.
Turns out that there is more to this smell that meets the… uh… nose.... Read more »
One of the common misconceptions about biological evolution is that the process pushes organisms towards a pinnacle of perfection in which the ‘most evolved species’ maintain dominance over ‘less evolved’ or ‘lower organisms.’ Often closely associated with this mistaken belief is the erroneous idea that, by virtue of braininess, our own species – Homo sapiens - currently holds sovereignty over evolution’s hypothetical pinnacle. These egocentric a........ Read more »
D'Angelo, K. (1997) Faxon institute colloquium on scholarly communications issues. Serials Review, 23(2), 91-96. DOI: 10.1016/S0098-7913(97)90058-7
Some nagging uncertainties remain on progress in stem cell medicine - and especially progress in reprogramming easily obtained somatic cells into patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. These uncertainties will be answered and addressed in the years ahead, but this one springs to mind today: it is possible that cells from older people may be altered or damaged in ways that prevent their effective use as-is in the sort of autologous stem cell therapies presently envisaged. That would be a setbac........ Read more »
Suhr, S., Chang, E., Rodriguez, R., Wang, K., Ross, P., Beyhan, Z., Murthy, S., & Cibelli, J. (2009) Telomere Dynamics in Human Cells Reprogrammed to Pluripotency. PLoS ONE, 4(12). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008124
Historical places of worship may harbor biodiversity
... Read more »
Metcalfe, K., Ffrench-Constant, R., & Gordon, I. (2009) Sacred sites as hotspots for biodiversity: the Three Sisters Cave complex in coastal Kenya. Oryx, 44(01), 118. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605309990731
Cold and flu season has hit the Rochester area recently, as evidenced by the recent uptick in the number of students missing class on account of colds and flu. Fortunately there are ways to minimize your chances of getting a...... Read more »
Sloane, H., & Birch, T. (1755) An Account of Inoculation by Sir Hans Sloane, Bart. Given to Mr. Ranby, to be Published, Anno 1736. Communicated by Thomas Birch, D. D. Secret. R. S. Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775), 49(1), 516-520. DOI: 10.1098/rstl.1755.0073
Things need to get transported around inside of our cells. For example, proteins meant to detect extracellular signals like hormones must move to the cell surface; otherwise they won't work. Much of this cargo gets moved through small balloon-like structures called vesicles. Rather than drifting randomly, these "balloons" move along tracks in the cell called microtubules; long, filamentous proteins that form a skeleton within the cell. ike a train, these "balloons" require a motor to pull the........ Read more »
Cai D, McEwen DP, Martens JR, Meyhofer E, & Verhey KJ. (2009) Single molecule imaging reveals differences in microtubule track selection between Kinesin motors. PLoS biology, 7(10). PMID: 19823565
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