Yangtze River dolphin maintained large range before extinction
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Turvey, S.T. et al. (2010) Spatial and temporal extinction dynamics in a freshwater cetacean. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. info:/10.1098/rspb.2010.0584
In the last post, we discussed differences in ghrelin production after gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Today the studies we are going to consider describe the effects of gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy on ghrelin and weight loss variables.Langer et al. randomly assigned (love it!) 20 patients to either gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy. The groups were well-matched on demographics and medical co-morbidities. The researchers measured plasma ghrelin levels at 4 time periods: preo........ Read more »
Langer, F., Reza Hoda, M., Bohdjalian, A., Felberbauer, F., Zacherl, J., Wenzl, E., Schindler, K., Luger, A., Ludvik, B., & Prager, G. (2005) Sleeve Gastrectomy and Gastric Banding: Effects on Plasma Ghrelin Levels. Obesity Surgery, 15(7), 1024-1029. DOI: 10.1381/0960892054621125
Himpens, J., Dapri, G., & Cadière, G. (2006) A Prospective Randomized Study Between Laparoscopic Gastric Banding and Laparoscopic Isolated Sleeve Gastrectomy: Results after 1 and 3 Years. Obesity Surgery, 16(11), 1450-1456. DOI: 10.1381/096089206778869933
Last time we read an article from Brem and colleagues that compared word processing in adolescents (age 15-17) and adults (19-30). In follow-up paper from 2009, Brem expanded the report to include children (9-11).
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Brem S, Halder P, Bucher K, Summers P, Martin E, & Brandeis D. (2009) Tuning of the visual word processing system: distinct developmental ERP and fMRI effects. Human brain mapping, 30(6), 1833-44. PMID: 19288464
Well, we have a global financial crisis. We also know that religion is a source of solace for a lot of people. So will the financial crisis mean boom times for religion?
The answer is probably yes, but not in a way that's straightforward. That's the message from two new studies, one in the US (which is the topic of this post) and one in Indonesia (which I'll write up in the next post). The Indonesian one is particularly interesting because it's not often we get insights into the role of religi........ Read more »
Bradshaw, M., & Ellison, C. (2010) Financial Hardship and Psychological Distress: Exploring the Buffering Effects of Religion☆. Social Science . DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.03.015
Please indulge a long post from a personal perspective, what genomics is about to do for _me_. This is information that many, if not all, of our readers already know. I’ve been researching and working in either experimental biology or genomics for over 20 years. Ever since the beginning of the Human Genome Project , which coincidently started the same year I started my Ph.D. program, into my postdoctoral research at EMBL and now my work at OpenHelix, I’ve known that someday personal........ Read more »
Ashley, E., Butte, A., Wheeler, M., Chen, R., Klein, T., Dewey, F., Dudley, J., Ormond, K., Pavlovic, A., & Morgan, A. (2010) Clinical assessment incorporating a personal genome. The Lancet, 375(9725), 1525-1535. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60452-7
A complete and utter failure? You decide. Last fall I had the bright idea to track overwinter survival and subsequent spring conditioning for scallops released in different habitats (eelgrass - their preferred habitat, see Thayer and Stuart 1974; Codium fragile - an introduced macroalgae which we think might serve as a suitable alternate substrate in the absence of eelgrass; and unvegetated, as a baseline for comparison). I have examined these habitats for growth in juvenile scallops and have ........ Read more »
Thayer, GW, & Stuart, HH. (1974) The bay scallop makes its bed of seagrass. Marine Fisheries Review, 27-30. info:/
"Despite the focus on the increase in portion sizes and the possible role in the development of obesity, little is known about how portion sizes are determined in restaurants." This is how an intriguing discussion of Chefs and their restaurant food size practices begins. The study aslo notes that eating out has gone up from 2.3x's a week in 1981 to 5 times in 2000. Within that period we know ... Read more »
Harnack, L., Steffen, L., Arnett, D., Gao, S., & Luepker, R. (2004) Accuracy of estimation of large food portions☆. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104(5), 804-806. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2004.02.026
Wansink B, Painter JE, & North J. (2005) Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obesity research, 13(1), 93-100. PMID: 15761167
by Vincent Racaniello in virology blog
Google Flu Trends uses analysis of large numbers of search queries to track influenza-like illness in a population. The idea is that the frequency of certain queries correlates with the percentage of physician visits in which a patient presents with influenza-like symptoms. Google claims that it can accurately estimate the level of weekly influenza activity [...]... Read more »
Ginsberg, J., Mohebbi, M., Patel, R., Brammer, L., Smolinski, M., & Brilliant, L. (2008) Detecting influenza epidemics using search engine query data. Nature, 457(7232), 1012-1014. DOI: 10.1038/nature07634
My work on time in the digital realm is coming slowly but surely. At the moment I'm thinking of multiple temporalities and the ways in which we occupy these dimensions while adhering to standardized time. Birth (2007) explores these issues with an article that deals with the conflicts that can arise out of a meeting of biology, clock, sun, and sociality. Birth raises a point in particular that
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Birth, K. (2007) Time and the Biological Consequences of Globalization. Current Anthropology, 48(2), 215-236. DOI: 10.1086/510472
Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) are related pathogens that cause hemorrhagic fevers. In many cases, viral infections are fatal. Both viruses are native to Africa where outbreaks have been occurring for decades. There is no effective therapy for the hemorrhagic fevers caused by these viruses. EBOV and MARV are in the same taxonomic family and are structurally identical; however, they elicit different antibodies. Enterlein et al.* used the AmpliScribe™ T7 High Yield Transcription Kit........ Read more »
Enterlein, S. et al. (2009) The Marburg Virus 3' Noncoding Region Structurally and Functionally Differs from That of Ebola Virus. Journal of Virology, 83(9), 4508-4519. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02429-08
Could punishing bad behavior be the origin of human cooperation?Humans are one of the most cooperative species on the planet. Our ability to coordinate behavior and work collaboratively with others has allowed us to create the natural world's largest and most densely populated societies, outside of deep sea microbial mats and a few Hymenoptera mega-colonies.
A key problem........ Read more »
Boyd, R., Gintis, H., & Bowles, S. (2010) Coordinated Punishment of Defectors Sustains Cooperation and Can Proliferate When Rare. Science, 328(5978), 617-620. DOI: 10.1126/science.1183665
Last week ParticipACTION and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) released recommendations for updated Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines. The previous guidelines were released between 1998 and 2002, and although they were based on the best research available at the time, from what I understand there simply wasn't a tremendous amount of evidence to draw on in some situations. Since then there have been a number of advances in physical activity research, allowing for the........ Read more »
Janssen I, & Leblanc AG. (2010) Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 7(1), 40. PMID: 20459784
Baddum-tish! OK, they don't chew their cud, but I can never resist a good pun (although I was seriously considering "Ruminations on the way fish eat" - better?). I just love this new paper by Gintof et al. about how fish chew, mostly because its an idea that I never would have ever considered. Basically, they explored whether fish just bolt their food, like lizards and snakes, or whether they ... Read more »
Gintof C, Konow N, Ross CF, & Sanford CP. (2010) Rhythmic chewing with oral jaws in teleost fishes: a comparison with amniotes. The Journal of experimental biology, 213(Pt 11), 1868-75. PMID: 20472774
According to a Senior Lecturer in Computing Joanne Kuzma [...]Post from: David Bradley's Sciencetext Tech TalkSCAN for privacy in e-government
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Joanne Kuzma. (2010) An examination of privacy policies of US Government Senate websites. Electronic Government, An International Journal, 7(3), 270-280. info:/
A restoration of Megatherium from H.N. Hutchinson's Extinct Monsters.
For over a century and a half dinosaurs have been the unofficial symbols and ambassadors of paleontology, but this was not always so. It was fossil mammals, not dinosaurs, which enthralled the public during the turn of the 19th century, and arguably the most famous was the enormous ground sloth Megatherium. It was more than just a natural curiosity. The bones of the "great beast" represented a world which flourished and ........ Read more »
Christine Argot. (2008) Changing Views in Paleontology: The Story of a Giant (Megatherium, Xenarthra). Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology A Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay . DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6997-0_3
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Nelson, K., Gray, E., & Evans, J. (2010) Finding solutions for bird restoration and livestock management: Comparing grazing exclusion levels. Ecological Applications, 2147483647. DOI: 10.1890/10-0032
One of the unwanted complications of gaining a lot of weight and then losing it, is the sometimes grotesque amounts of unwanted skin that patients are left with. This excess skin can be both aethetically distressing but also cause functional and dermatological problems.
With the advent of bariatric surgery, a parallel discipline of plastic surgery specialising [...]... Read more »
Agha-Mohammadi S, & Hurwitz DJ. (2010) Enhanced Recovery After Body-Contouring Surgery: Reducing Surgical Complication Rates by Optimizing Nutrition. Aesthetic plastic surgery. PMID: 20464396
Mutations are as you know a double-edged sword. On the one hand mutations are the stuff of evolution; neutral changes on the molecular or phenotypic level are the result of from mutations, as are changes which enhance fitness and so are driven to fixation by positive selection. On the other hand mutations also tend to [...]... Read more »
Tomkins, J., Penrose, M., Greeff, J., & LeBas, N. (2010) Additive Genetic Breeding Values Correlate with the Load of Partially Deleterious Mutations. Science, 328(5980), 892-894. DOI: 10.1126/science.1188013
This weekend, newspaper headlines announced that “Cancer Scientists hail ‘huge’ leap towards jab that targets tumours” and “’Holy Grail’ cancer vaccine that blasts tumours in weeks hailed as huge leap in fighting disease”. Not only are these headlines overhyped and misleading, but the stories themselves are slightly confusing, combining the launch of a clinical trial [...]... Read more »
Joshi, P., Jackson, H., Beristain, A., Di Grappa, M., Mote, P., Clarke, C., Stingl, J., Waterhouse, P., & Khokha, R. (2010) Progesterone induces adult mammary stem cell expansion. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature09091
The incorporation of current scientific research and understanding into on the ground conservation projects not only increases the effectiveness of those conservation efforts, it also builds support for their implementation. A new case study serves as an example of the benefits that come from outreach work that includes creative methods for communicating science to diverse audiences...... Read more »
Grorud-Colvert, K., Lester, S., Airame, S., Neeley, E., & Gaines, S. (2010) Marine Reserves Special Feature: Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0914292107
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