Today’s headlines are loudly proclaiming that the message to eat five daily portions of fruit and vegetables isn’t all it’s cracked up to be. “Fruit and vegetables have little effect on cancer risk,” says the Guardian. “Five fruit and veg a day does not significantly reduce cancer risk,” says the Telegraph.
These claims are based on [...]... Read more »
Boffetta, P., Couto, E., Wichmann, J., Ferrari, P., Trichopoulos, D., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H., van Duijnhoven, F., Buchner, F., Key, T., Boeing, H.... (2010) Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Overall Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djq072
Every week the volcanology folks here try to get together for a paper discussion of some sort, and this semester's theme is basaltic volcanism. Not exactly my area of expertise, but I decided to volunteer to lead the discussion last week with a paper that recently came out in Geology: "'Poseidic' explosive eruptions at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii" by C.I. Schipper, J.D.L. White, B.F. Houghton, M. Shimizu, and R.B. Stewart. ... Read more »
Schipper, C., White, J., Houghton, B., Shimizu, N., & Stewart, R. (2010) "Poseidic" explosive eruptions at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. Geology, 38(4), 291-294. DOI: 10.1130/G30351.1
This is pretty neat: scientists have apparently discovered the first example of truly anaerobic animal life (i.e. an animal that can survive in the absence of oxygen). This isn't some sort of fuzzy critter, though; instead, these are tiny (less than 1 mm in length) animals that were found on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea. Significantly, these animals lack mitochondria, the sub-cellular organelles where oxygen is employed to produce ATP in aerobic (oxygen-dependent) life.
You can check out ........ Read more »
Danovaro, R., Dell'Anno, A., Pusceddu, A., Gambi, C., Heiner, I., & Kristensen, R. (2010) The first metazoa living in permanently anoxic conditions. BMC Biology, 8(1), 30. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-8-30
Mentel, M., & Martin, W. (2010) Anaerobic animals from an ancient, anoxic ecological niche. BMC Biology, 8(1), 32. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-8-32
This was a very interesting article I came across in Cancer Research while looking for something else. Serendipity is a great thing sometimes. A quote in the abstract caught my eye: "We have conducted a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen...... Read more »
Higgins, G., Prevo, R., Lee, Y., Helleday, T., Muschel, R., Taylor, S., Yoshimura, M., Hickson, I., Bernhard, E., & McKenna, W. (2010) A Small Interfering RNA Screen of Genes Involved in DNA Repair Identifies Tumor-Specific Radiosensitization by POLQ Knockdown. Cancer Research, 70(7), 2984-2993. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4040
by Mary in OpenHelix
As much as I love computational aspects of biology, there are times when the sort of flat and binary nature of the discipline leaves me craving some more three-dimensional, real live cellular work. My background was in cell biology and microtubule-associated proteins before I moved to the computational side of biology. And there are days when I would love to see more linkage between the digital and the dimensional. And days when I’d love to look around in the scope at mitosis and m........ Read more »
Neumann, B., Walter, T., Hériché, J., Bulkescher, J., Erfle, H., Conrad, C., Rogers, P., Poser, I., Held, M., Liebel, U.... (2010) Phenotypic profiling of the human genome by time-lapse microscopy reveals cell division genes. Nature, 464(7289), 721-727. DOI: 10.1038/nature08869
Hutchins, J., Toyoda, Y., Hegemann, B., Poser, I., Heriche, J., Sykora, M., Augsburg, M., Hudecz, O., Buschhorn, B., Bulkescher, J.... (2010) Systematic Localization and Purification of Human Protein Complexes Identifies Chromosome Segregation Proteins. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.1181348
A few months ago, I asked Why Do We Sleep?That post was about sleep researcher Jerry Siegel, who argues that sleep evolved as a state of "adaptive inactivity". According to this idea, animals sleep because otherwise we'd always be active, and constant activity is a waste of energy. Sleeping for a proportion of the time conserves calories, and also keeps us safe from nocturnal predators etc.Siegel's theory in what we might call minimalist. That's in contrast to other hypotheses which claim that s........ Read more »
Hobson JA, & McCarley RW. (1977) The brain as a dream state generator: an activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process. The American journal of psychiatry, 134(12), 1335-48. PMID: 21570
Hobson, J. (2009) REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(11), 803-813. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2716
by Nestor Lopez-Duran PhD in Child-Psych
I support the development of experimental treatments that are grounded on theory as long as practitioners and researchers do not jump the gun and present the treatment as a validated and effective method before there is compelling scientific evidence that the treatment works. For this reason, I’m always excited when I see well conducted research [...]... Read more »
Munasinghe, S., Oliff, C., Finn, J., & Wray, J. (2010) Digestive Enzyme Supplementation for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-010-0974-2
The Research Digest blog was five years old in February. As part of an ongoing celebratory series, I've asked Dr Gavin Nobes of the University of East Anglia to look back on his research on children's naive models of the earth that I covered in March 2005, to reflect on that study and the field more generally. Here's what he had to say:"Almost 15 years ago the late George Butterworth visited UEL and inspired a group of us to follow up some work he and Michael Siegal had started in Australia. Usi........ Read more »
Nobes, G., Martin, A., & Panagiotaki, G. (2005) The development of scientific knowledge of the Earth. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 23(1), 47-64. DOI: 10.1348/026151004x20649
Researchers from New York have presented an approach to help teachers better integrate conservation biology into the high school classroom. This is important because teaching conservation biology to students could play a key role in influencing people to "pursue careers or live lifestyles that would reduce the negative impact of humans on the world."
Yet, in the United States - and probably many other countries - few secondary schools have specific classes in conservation biology. ... Read more »
WYNER, Y., & DESALLE, R. (2010) Taking the Conservation Biology Perspective to Secondary School Classrooms. Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01478.x
…No Amazing Transformation Occurs
Paolo Boffetta, Elisabeth Couto, Janine Wichmann, Pietro Ferrari, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Fränzel J. B. van Duijnhoven, Frederike L. Büchner, Tim Key, Heiner Boeing, Ute Nöthlings, Jakob Linseisen, Carlos A. Gonzalez, Kim Over (2010).
Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Overall Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Journal of the National Cancer Institute : doi:10.1093/jnci/djq072........ Read more »
Paolo Boffetta, Elisabeth Couto, Janine Wichmann, Pietro Ferrari, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Fränzel J. B. van Duijnhoven, Frederike L. Büchner, Tim Key, Heiner Boeing, Ute Nöthlings, Jakob Linseisen, Carlos A. Gonzalez, Kim Over. (2010) Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Overall Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Journal of the National Cancer Institute. info:/doi:10.1093/jnci/djq072
In a world in which numerous species are declining towards extinction, conservationists are forced to make the difficult choice of where to spend limited resources. Some scientists are taking an interesting approach to prioritization by focusing on the evolutionary distinctiveness of species - i.e. the extent to which a given species is lacking in close relatives. Their approach is based on the idea that maintaining evolutionary diversity should be an important objective...... Read more »
Cadotte, M., & Jonathan Davies, T. (2010) Rarest of the rare: advances in combining evolutionary distinctiveness and scarcity to inform conservation at biogeographical scales. Diversity and Distributions. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00650.x
Can ecotourism protect the exotic destinations that we love? The answer is a qualified yes, according to an article in this month’s Environment, Development and Sustainability.The article's main finding is that bigger is usually not better: greater benefits of scale, including more employment opportunities for local communities, are outweighed by increased negative impacts, an outcome that possibly can be ameliorated by the involvement of local populations in ecotourism planning and management........ Read more »
Koens, J., Dieperink, C., & Miranda, M. (2009) Ecotourism as a development strategy: experiences from Costa Rica. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 11(6), 1225-1237. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-009-9214-3
Image by Jespahjoy.
Just before moving to our new home here on Scienceblogs, I asked our readers for ideas on what types of content they would like to see here on Obesity Panacea. One topic that came up several times was the issue of injuries. I'm not sure why we haven't discussed injuries in the past (aside from the fact that it's not the focus of our research), but it was a great idea, and I've come across a study on the topic that I think will be of real interest.
........ Read more »
Janney, C., & Jakicic, J. (2010) The influence of exercise and BMI on injuries and illnesses in overweight and obese adults: a randomized control trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(1), 1. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-7-1
Does mental disorder spring from the ether or is it the product of unhealthy environments? While biopsychiatrists would favour the former, Morgan and Hutchinson (2009) show that disadvantage and discrimination are behind the exponentially higher rate of mental disorder amongst Black Caribbean and Black African people in the UK (when compared with White people in the UK). The problem, thus, to be fixed, is not 'them' but the social adversity to which those citizens are unfortunately exp........ Read more »
Morgan, C., & Hutchinson, G. (2009) The social determinants of psychosis in migrant and ethnic minority populations: a public health tragedy. Psychological Medicine, 40(05), 705. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291709005546
A little while back I wrote an article about a recent study which largely blamed farmed Tilapia for the loss of native biodiversity in Fijian waterways. I have since received e-mails from Gerald Billings, the Head of Aquaculture at the Ministry of Fisheries and Forests in Fiji. He expressed his concern over the paper's intent and subsequent findings. As a scientist, I believe strongly in impartiality, so I've posted the entirety of his response to the study after the fold for you to read if you ........ Read more »
Jenkins, A., Jupiter, S., Qauqau, I., & Atherton, J. (2010) The importance of ecosystem-based management for conserving aquatic migratory pathways on tropical high islands: a case study from Fiji. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 20(2), 224-238. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.1086
Almost a year ago, on my old blog, I brought up the issue of the Suess effect. Go read that post if you don’t remember what the Suess effect is. If you want an executive summary, digest this: The burning of low-14C fossil fuels (because the fuels are old and the 14C has all decayed), [...]... Read more »
Peter K. Swart, Lisa Greer, Brad E. Rosenheim, Chris S. Moses, Amanda J. Waite, A. Winter, Richard E. Dodge, & Kevin Helmle. (2010) The 13C Suess effect in scleractinian corals mirror changes in the anthropogenic CO2 inventory of the surface oceans. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS,. info:/10.1029/2009GL041397.
A leopard (Panthera pardus). Image from Wikipedia.
SK-54 is a curious fossil. The 1.5 million year old skullcap represents a juvenile Paranthropus robustus, one of the heavy-jawed hominins which lived in prehistoric South Africa, but there is something that makes this skull fragment particularly special. Near one of the sutures along the back of the skull are two neat puncture marks, the hallmark of a leopard.
Even though it was initially proposed that SK-54 had been murdered by another a........ Read more »
Despite the promise of payments for ecosystem services (PES) in supporting effective conservation, there are relatively few cases in which PES strategies have been used to conserve wildlife in developing countries. A paper recently published in the February issue of Conservation Biology – ‘Payments for ecosystem services as a framework for community-based conservation in northern Tanzania’ - highlights a group of tourism operators who are using a PES framework to address the “persistent ........ Read more »
NELSON, F., FOLEY, C., FOLEY, L., LEPOSO, A., LOURE, E., PETERSON, D., PETERSON, M., PETERSON, T., SACHEDINA, H., & WILLIAMS, A. (2010) Payments for Ecosystem Services as a Framework for Community-Based Conservation in Northern Tanzania. Conservation Biology, 24(1), 78-85. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01393.x
We’ve looked at brain regions and development during word related tasks (word generation, reading and repeating), but we haven’t yet looked at a straight up study of word recognition and development.
What’s the best task to use to study visual word recognition? You can have people read out loud, but that involves processes like speech generation. Likewise, reading sentences or paragraphs
... Read more »
Managing for stability just doesn’t work.
This epiphany has helped forge the development of ecosystem based management (EBM), theoretically a more holistic approach to natural resource management that is more in tune with natural processes. However, we still haven’t worked out the kinks so something good in theory often falls flat. A couple of recent [...]... Read more »
GRANEK, E., POLASKY, S., KAPPEL, C., REED, D., STOMS, D., KOCH, E., KENNEDY, C., CRAMER, L., HACKER, S., BARBIER, E.... (2010) Ecosystem Services as a Common Language for Coastal Ecosystem-Based Management. Conservation Biology, 24(1), 207-216. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01355.x
PETERSON, M., HALL, D., FELDPAUSCH-PARKER, A., & PETERSON, T. (2010) Obscuring Ecosystem Function with Application of the Ecosystem Services Concept. Conservation Biology, 24(1), 113-119. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01305.x
Do you write about peer-reviewed research in your blog? Use ResearchBlogging.org to make it easy for your readers — and others from around the world — to find your serious posts about academic research.
If you don't have a blog, you can still use our site to learn about fascinating developments in cutting-edge research from around the world.
Research Blogging is powered by SMG Technology.
To learn more, visit seedmediagroup.com.