The journal Archives of Internal Medicine has a several cracking research papers this week.
Low carb dieters are grumpier than those on low fat diets
First up is Brinkworth et al.’s research on the long-term psychological effects of low carbohydrate diets compared with low fat diets.
In this study, 106 overweight and obese individuals were randomly assigned to [...]... Read more »
Brinkworth GD, Buckley JD, Noakes M, Clifton PM, . (2009) Long-term Effects of a Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet and a Low-Fat Diet on Mood and Cognitive Function. Arch Intern Med, 169(20), 1873-1880. info:other/http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/169/20/1873?home
Horwitz LI . (2009) Percentage of US Emergency Department Patients Seen Within the Recommended Triage Time: 1997 to 2006. Arch Intern Med, 169(20), 1857-1865. info:other/http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/169/20/1857?home
Chen LM, Farwell WR, . (2009) Primary Care Visit Duration and Quality: Does Good Care Take Longer? . Arch Intern Med, 169(20), 1866-1872. info:other/http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/short/169/20/1866?home
López L, Weissman JS, Schneider EC, Weingart SN, Cohen AP, . (2009) Disclosure of Hospital Adverse Events and Its Association With Patients' Ratings of the Quality of Care. Arch Intern Med, 169(20), 1888-1894. info:other/http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/169/20/1888
The question of whether dinosaurs were warm-blooded or cold-blooded is one of the most enduring in palaeontology. Did they generate their own body heat like today's mammals; was their temperature more influenced by their environment like today's reptiles; or did they use a mixture of both strategies? Scientists have put forward a slew of arguments for all of these alternatives, but Herman Pontzer from Washington University has a new take on things which suggests that many dinosaurs were indeed w........ Read more »
Pontzer, H., Allen, V., & Hutchinson, J. (2009) Biomechanics of Running Indicates Endothermy in Bipedal Dinosaurs. PLoS ONE, 4(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007783
Having trouble with your eyes? Well, then, let me have a look at it, because I have read stuff about eyes. I'll be prescribing glasses. Contact lenses don't work, because I don't understand how they can be made, so don't wear those. Got worms in your eyeball? Let me get a knife...... Read more »
William E. Smiddy. (2009) Evolution: Theory, Not Fact. ARCH OPHTHALMOL, 127(11), 1552-1553. info:/
Ebell MH, Siwek J, Weiss BD, Woolf SH, Susman J, Ewigman B, & Bowman M. (2004) Strength of recommendation taxonomy (SORT): a patient-centered approach to grading evidence in the medical literature. American family physician, 69(3), 548-56. PMID: 14971837
special online virtual issue of Cultural Anthropology on the topic of "Security"... Read more »
WELKER, M. (2009) “CORPORATE SECURITY BEGINS IN THE COMMUNITY”: Mining, the Corporate Social Responsibility Industry, and Environmental Advocacy in Indonesia. Cultural Anthropology, 24(1), 142-179. DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2009.00029.x
LAKOFF, A. (2008) THE GENERIC BIOTHREAT, OR, HOW WE BECAME UNPREPARED. Cultural Anthropology, 23(3), 399-428. DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2008.00013.x
MASCO, J. (2008) “SURVIVAL IS YOUR BUSINESS”: Engineering Ruins and Affect in Nuclear America. Cultural Anthropology, 23(2), 361-398. DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2008.00012.x
FELDMAN, I. (2007) DIFFICULT DISTINCTIONS: Refugee Law, Humanitarian Practice, and Political Identification in Gaza. Cultural Anthropology, 22(1), 129-169. DOI: 10.1525/can.2007.22.1.129
Fassin, D. (2005) Compassion and Repression: The Moral Economy of Immigration Policies in France. Cultural Anthropology, 20(3), 362-387. DOI: 10.1525/can.2005.20.3.362
Tyler McQuade (Florida State University, Tallahassee) and coworkers have synthesized a common anti-inflammatory drug in 10 minutes, using a series of adjoining microreactors, in a continuous format. This news feature was written on November 10, 2009.... Read more »
Influenza virus may be transmitted among humans in three ways: by direct contact with infected individuals; by contact with contaminated objects (called fomites, such as toys, doorknobs); and by inhalation of virus-laden aerosols. The contribution of each mode to overall transmission of influenza is not known. But something that most of us touch on a daily basis – paper currency – appears to be able to hold infectious virus for a surprisingly long period of time.... Read more »
by Vincent Racaniello in virology blog
Influenza virus may be transmitted among humans in three ways: by direct contact with infected individuals; by contact with contaminated objects (called fomites, such as toys, doorknobs); and by inhalation of virus-laden aerosols. The contribution of each mode to overall transmission of influenza is not known. But something that most of us touch on a [...]... Read more »
As psychology students past and present will be only too aware, statistics are a key part of every psychology undergrad course and they also appear in nearly every published journal article. And yet have we ever stopped to recognise the statisticians who have brought us these wonderful mathematical tools? As psychologist Daniel Wright puts it: "Statistical techniques are often taught as if they were brought down from some statistical mount only to magically appear in [the software package] SPSS......... Read more »
Daniel B Wright. (2009) Ten Statisticians and Their Impacts for Psychologists. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(6), 587-597. info:/
Lo Gorton (Lund University, Sweden) and coworkers have developed a prototype biosensor based on hardy bacteria. This news feature was written on November 10, 2009.... Read more »
Coman, V., Gustavsson, T., Finkelsteinas, A., von Wachenfeldt, C., Hägerhäll, C., & Gorton, L. (2009) Electrical Wiring of Live, Metabolically Enhanced Bacillus subtilis Cells with Flexible Osmium-Redox Polymers. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 131(44), 16171-16176. DOI: 10.1021/ja905442a
Here we go again.
I see that the kerfuffle over screening for cancer has erupted again to the point where it's found its way out of the rarified air of specialty journals to general medical journals and hence into the mainstream press. This is something that seems to pop up every so often, much to the consternation of lay people and primary care doctors alike, often trumpeted with breathless headlines along the lines of "What if everything you knew about screening was wrong?
It isn't, but some........ Read more »
Esserman, L., Shieh, Y., & Thompson, I. (2009) Rethinking Screening for Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(15), 1685-1692. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2009.1498
A new study looks at roads, bridges, train tracks, and rivers as potential barriers to wildlife mobility. The researchers wanted to figure out what factors make these features more or less permeable to the movement of birds...... Read more »
Tremblay, M., & St. Clair, C. (2009) Factors affecting the permeability of transportation and riparian corridors to the movements of songbirds in an urban landscape. Journal of Applied Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01717.x
In the last couple of years there has been an explosion in research on faces and what can be inferred from them. It turns out, for example, that you can predict electoral outcomes from rapid and unreflective facial judgments, that women can (partially) determine a man's level of interest in infants from his face alone, that the facial expression of fear enhances sensory acquisition, and much, much else. A particularly interesting addition to this literature is Aaron Sell et. al.'s pape........ Read more »
Sell, A., Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., Sznycer, D., von Rueden, C., & Gurven, M. (2009) Human adaptations for the visual assessment of strength and fighting ability from the body and face. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1656), 575-584. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2008.1177
Big Milk's onslaught of advertisements designed to look like newspaper articles continued last week with this full page feature in Canwest papers.I'm sure the Dairy Farmers of Canada were thrilled with Dr. Brian Roy, director of the Centre for Muscle Metabolism and Biophysics at Brock University, who happily perpetuated a dairy myth - that it magically helps with weight loss. Dr. Roy was quoted as saying, "While it may seem surprising, milk can even help people lose weight. Studies report calci........ Read more »
Barr SI. (2003) Increased dairy product or calcium intake: is body weight or composition affected in humans?. The Journal of nutrition, 133(1). PMID: 12514301
Snijder, M., van Dam, R., Stehouwer, C., Hiddink, G., Heine, R., & Dekker, J. (2008) A Prospective Study of Dairy Consumption in Relation to Changes in Metabolic Risk Factors: The Hoorn Study. Obesity, 16(3), 706-709. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2007.93
What do you get when you take pyrimidine molecules, freeze them in a vacuum to -340°F, then expose them to ultraviolet radiation you’d find in space? Think about it for a second. If you took a few extra credits in a college biology class, you may remember that your DNA contains purines and their chemical [...]... Read more »
Nuevo, M., Milam, S., Sandford, S., Elsila, J., & Dworkin, J. (2009) Formation of Uracil from the Ultraviolet Photo-Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Pure H O Ices . Astrobiology, 9(7), 683-695. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2008.0324
Quite some time ago my colleague and (now former) postdoctoral fellow, Iain Field, and I sat down to examine in gory detail the extent of the threat to global populations of sharks, rays and chimaeras (chondrichthyans). I don’t think we quite realised the mammoth task we had set ourselves. Several years and nearly a hundred [...]... Read more »
I.C. Field, M.G. Meekan, R.C. Buckworth, & C.J.A. Bradshaw. (2009) Susceptibility of Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras to Global Extinction. Advances in Marine Biology, 275-363. info:/10.1016/S0065-2881(09)56004-X
The phrase ‘ecosystem engineer’ refers broadly to the ability of an organism to change or modify the physical characteristics of its surroundings. When these environmental modifications resultantly impact the fitness of the engineering organism itself, the feedbacks created can be thought of as functioning like an extended phenotype. In other words, the feedbacks generated between the engineer and the ecosystem contribute to the reproductive success of the organism, and often (directly or in........ Read more »
Beckage, B., Platt, W., & Gross, L. (2009) Vegetation, Fire, and Feedbacks: A Disturbance‐Mediated Model of Savannas. The American Naturalist, 174(6), 805-818. DOI: 10.1086/648458
The first flowering plants evolved more than a hundred million years ago, while dinosaurs were still on the scene. Since then, they’ve come to dominate the world, largely outcompeting the plants that were there before, such as conifers, cycads, and ginkgoes. With some exceptions (particularly the taiga, the coniferous forests of Russia and Canada), the [...]... Read more »
Ren, D., Labandeira, C., Santiago-Blay, J., Rasnitsyn, A., Shih, C., Bashkuev, A., Logan, M., Hotton, C., & Dilcher, D. (2009) A Probable Pollination Mode Before Angiosperms: Eurasian, Long-Proboscid Scorpionflies. Science, 326(5954), 840-847. DOI: 10.1126/science.1178338
As a recent study shows, there are much greater similarities between decisions we make for our future-self and other people, than for future-self and current-self. Temporal inconsistencies in our choice behavior may be linked to this phenomenon...... Read more »
Pronin E, Olivola CY, & Kennedy KA. (2008) Doing unto future selves as you would do unto others: psychological distance and decision making. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 34(2), 224-36. PMID: 18156588
Living in a world of sunshine and electricity, we tend to take light for granted. Heck, we complain when clouds diminish our bright sunny rays. But dip just beneath the surface of the ocean and light becomes a rare commodity. More than half of the light that penetrates the ocean surface is absorbed in the first three feet. As you go deeper, different colors disappear. Red is the first to go, followed by yellow and green, until you're truly immersed in murky blue. At about 200 m deep, there is so........ Read more »
Claes, J., & Mallefet, J. (2009) Hormonal control of luminescence from lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) photophores. Journal of Experimental Biology, 212(22), 3684-3692. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.034363
So, if self regulation is about exerting control over thoughts, feelings, actions and physiology, how does it work?
When I skipped through some Google references last night (o font of all knowledge!) I found a good number of sites referring to self regulation and children – but not nearly as many relating to adults, or the [...]... Read more »
Solberg Nes, L., Roach, A., & Segerstrom, S. (2009) Executive Functions, Self-Regulation, and Chronic Pain: A Review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37(2), 173-183. DOI: 10.1007/s12160-009-9096-5
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