The vivid, intrusive visual images that are a hallmark of post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) are based on a separate memory system from intrusive verbal thoughts. That's according to a new study that claims to provide empirical support for psychologist Chris Brewin's dual-representation theory of PTSD.Brewin's theory posits two memory systems, one that's largely sensation-based, inflexible and automatically accessed and another that's more deliberately accessible, containing material that is context........ Read more »
Hagenaars, M., Brewin, C., van Minnen, A., Holmes, E., & Hoogduin, K. (2010) Intrusive images and intrusive thoughts as different phenomena: Two experimental studies. Memory, 18(1), 76-84. DOI: 10.1080/09658210903476522
It is a long-standing argument among religious believers that religiosity were necessary for morality. In a recent Trends in Cognitive Sciences article (requires subscription), Pyysiäinen and Hauser argue that morality can arise and indeed can be found without and before any religious education and thus religion is a by-product of pre-existing cognitive properties of the brain. Indeed, religion is not ubiquitous, as for instance the Hadza's religion has been described as 'minimal', and yet, coo........ Read more »
Ilkka Pyysiäinen, & Marc Hauser. (2010) The origins of religion: evolved adaptation or by-product?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. info:/10.1016/j.tics.2009.12.007
The strongest evidence exists for Broadman Area 25 in the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) as target for deep brain stimulation in treatment resistant depression. This area in the brain is depicted in the figure above and is from the most important publication about DBS and depression in Neuron march 2005 by Helen Mayberg. Functional neuroimaging [...]
Related posts:Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment Resistant depression New data are being published about deep brain stimulation...
New Kin........ Read more »
Hamani, C., Mayberg, H., Snyder, B., Giacobbe, P., Kennedy, S., & Lozano, A. (2009) Deep brain stimulation of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus for depression: anatomical location of active contacts in clinical responders and a suggested guideline for targeting. Journal of Neurosurgery, 111(6), 1209-1215. DOI: 10.3171/2008.10.JNS08763
by Merry Youle in Small Things Considered
On first inspection the habitat seems as sterile as the surface of autoclaved glassware... but the trained eye, aided by a microscope, sees otherwise.
E.O. Wilson, The Future of Life
For the microbiologist, the next best thing to a trip to Mars might well be an expedition to the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Here, in the Earth's coldest and driest deserts, the conditions approach those on our neighboring planet and are thought to also approach the cold-arid limit for life.... Read more »
Pointing SB, Chan Y, Lacap DC, Lau MC, Jurgens JA, & Farrell RL. (2009) Highly specialized microbial diversity in hyper-arid polar desert. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(47), 19964-9. PMID: 19850879
A 7 year-old girl was brought to hospital with lethargy, irritability and vomiting. A week previously she developed chicken pox, and was treated with regular aspirin and paracetamol for fever and discomfort.... Read more »
Glasgow JF, & Middleton B. (2001) Reye syndrome--insights on causation and prognosis. Archives of disease in childhood, 85(5), 351-3. PMID: 11668090
Schrör K. (2007) Aspirin and Reye syndrome: a review of the evidence. Paediatric drugs, 9(3), 195-204. PMID: 17523700
Cherie Booth was in the news this week for giving a suspended prison sentence to a man who broke another guy's jaw in an assault, apparently on the grounds that he was religious. Here's the offending quote: “I am going to suspend this sentence for the period of two years based on the fact you are a religious person and have not been in trouble before," she told him at Inner London Crown Court. "You caused a mild fracture to the jaw of a member of the public standing in a queue at L........ Read more »
Think of something wonderful - something someone said to you that made your day, or the happiest moment you can remember. Go ahead, take a moment. Now, what are you doing? Odds are, you're smiling.
It takes 12 different muscles in our faces to produce the easily-recognized expression. But smiling is far from a tough feat for our facial muscles. Smiles are so hard-wired into the human condition that babies have been known to smile before birth. Smiling is as instinctual to us as breathing.
Why ........ Read more »
With a departmental initiative to hire new tenure-track neuroscientists/psychopathologists, I highlight today's job seminar given by Dr. Jilla Sabeti of The Scripps Institute and attach her respective paper. ... Read more »
Sabeti, J., & Gruol, D. (2008) Emergence of NMDAR-independent long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA1 synapses following early adolescent exposure to chronic intermittent ethanol: Role for sigma-receptors. Hippocampus, 18(2), 148-168. DOI: 10.1002/hipo.20379
Receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer is a very stressful and upsetting event, so much so that some men go on to have a fatal heart attack or kill themselves.
Two pieces of research by the same study group, one conducted in 340,000 men in the US and the other in 170,000 men from Sweden, have [...]
... Read more »
Fall, K., Fang, F., Mucci, L., Ye, W., Andrén, O., Johansson, J., Andersson, S., Sparén, P., Klein, G., Stampfer, M.... (2009) Immediate Risk for Cardiovascular Events and Suicide Following a Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS Medicine, 6(12). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000197
Fang, F., Keating, N., Mucci, L., Adami, H., Stampfer, M., Valdimarsdottir, U., & Fall, K. (2010) Immediate Risk of Suicide and Cardiovascular Death After a Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Cohort Study in the United States. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djp537
Roadkill numbers in upstate New York look grim
... Read more »
Barthelmess, E., & Brooks, M. (2010) The influence of body-size and diet on road-kill trends in mammals. Biodiversity and Conservation. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-010-9791-3
tags: evolutionary biology, molecular biology, Thoroughbred race horses, horses, aerobic capacity, muscle development, myostatin, MSTN, myostatin-suppressing C variant, myostatin-suppressing T variant, Horse Genome Project, Equinome, bpr3.org/?p=52,peer-reviewed research, peer-reviewed paper
Emerging from the mist is Rachel Alexandra, a champion American Thoroughbred who excels at winning both long and short distance races.
Image: Rob Carr, 2009, Associated Press [larger view]
If you'........ Read more »
Hill, E., Gu, J., Eivers, S., Fonseca, R., McGivney, B., Govindarajan, P., Orr, N., Katz, L., & MacHugh, D. (2010) A Sequence Polymorphism in MSTN Predicts Sprinting Ability and Racing Stamina in Thoroughbred Horses. PLoS ONE, 5(1). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008645
To wrap up my notes on Social Media Week, I thought I would pursue a comment made by Meebo CEO and co-founder Seth Sternberg during the Social Graph Optimization panel. He suggested that without proper education on the use of digital tools, we would see the a growing divide between two technological classes increase: those with access to information would be at a greater advantage than those
... Read more »
Hargittai, E. (2002) Second-level digital divide: Differences in people’s online skills. First Monday, Peer-reviewed journal of the Internet, 7(4). info:/
Jung, J. (2008) Internet Connectedness and its Social Origins: An Ecological Approach to Postaccess Digital Divides. Communication Studies, 59(4), 322-339. DOI: 10.1080/10510970802467387
Sad but true: Barnacles (critters who spend the majority of their lives with their heads glued to a hard surface) may be getting more action than you are.
Of course, that depends on how you quantify “action.” Barnacles have a fairly short mating season—compared to our non-stop mating season—but they cram a whole lotta nooky into [...]... Read more »
HOCH, J. (2008) Variation in penis morphology and mating ability in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 359(2), 126-130. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2008.03.002
Hoch, J. (2009) ADAPTIVE PLASTICITY OF THE PENIS IN A SIMULTANEOUS HERMAPHRODITE. Evolution, 63(8), 1946-1953. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00668.x
Murata, A., Imafuku, M., & Abe, N. (2001) Copulation by the barnacle Tetraclita japonica under natural conditions. Journal of Zoology, 253(2), 275-280. DOI: 10.1017/S0952836901000243
Neufeld, C., & Palmer, A. (2008) Precisely proportioned: intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275(1638), 1081-1087. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2007.1760
A study of Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians by Atzmon et al. has revealed that telomere length is correlated with longer lifespan and slower biological aging (reflected in measurements of several biomarkers of aging). Both lifespan and telomere length are, in turn, correlated with polymorphisms at the hTERT and hTERC loci, two genes that respectively encode the [...]... Read more »
Atzmon, G., Cho, M., Cawthon, R., Budagov, T., Katz, M., Yang, X., Siegel, G., Bergman, A., Huffman, D., Schechter, C.... (2009) Evolution in Health and Medicine Sackler Colloquium: Genetic variation in human telomerase is associated with telomere length in Ashkenazi centenarians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(suppl_1), 1710-1717. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0906191106
I've been working on fitting some excess relative risk (ERR) models to case-control data on occupational exposures lately. ERR models are of the form:RR=1+β*XIn SAS, unfortunately, we don't have unlimited freedom in defining the form of the model we want to fit, but a recent paper by Langholz and Richardson [behind firewall] describes a way that we can solve for parameters once we specify the likelihood function. (For those interested, the likelihood function can be thought of as the ........ Read more »
Langholz, B., & Richardson, D. (2009) Fitting General Relative Risk Models for Survival Time and Matched Case-Control Analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171(3), 377-383. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwp403
Some people just won’t do well with pain management. In just the same way as a surgeon selects good candidates for surgery, so people need to be selected for self management. Although there is some truth that getting even a little pain management is good for everyone, the cost of doing so in staff energy [...]... Read more »
Foster, N., Thomas, E., Bishop, A., Dunn, K., & Main, C. (2009) Distinctiveness of psychological obstacles to recovery in low back pain patients in primary care. Pain. DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2009.11.002
McCracken, L., & Zhao-O’Brien, J. (2010) General psychological acceptance and chronic pain: There is more to accept than the pain itself. European Journal of Pain, 14(2), 170-175. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2009.03.004
This week, I'm hosting the MolBio Pick Of the Week, usually hosted on the MolBio Research Highlights Blog. The picks of the week are taken from researchblogging.org, which contains a number of great science blog posts from all areas, however this post only chooses topics aggregated under 'biology'1) Tumour cells are cells in the body that have escaped the control system of the surrounded cells and are therefore about to diversify and mutate to a far greater extent than the cells surrounding the........ Read more »
Park SY, Gönen M, Kim HJ, Michor F, & Polyak K. (2010) Cellular and genetic diversity in the progression of in situ human breast carcinomas to an invasive phenotype. The Journal of clinical investigation, 120(2), 636-44. PMID: 20101094
Field, S., & Matz, M. (2009) Retracing Evolution of Red Fluorescence in GFP-Like Proteins from Faviina Corals. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 27(2), 225-233. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msp230
What do Swedish war booty, the Frombork Cathedral in Poland, and Napoleon all have in common? Answer: Nicholaus Copernicus. While much is known about the cleric and astronomer, the location of his burial site and the identity of his possible remains were cloaked in mystery. Over the last 200 years, many have searched for Copernicus’s [...]... Read more »
Bogdanowicz W, Allen M, Branicki W, Lembring M, Gajewska M, & Kupiec T. (2009) Genetic identification of putative remains of the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(30), 12279-82. PMID: 19584252
Last Friday, Peter wrote a post about Wii-related injuries which generated some interesting discussion. Essentially, some readers felt that we were being too hard on the Wii, with one commenter going so far as to suggest that the post was "anti-Wii" (hard to dispute, given that the post was focused on Wii-related injuries!). Although we've mentioned the Wii in passing on Obesity Panacea before, we've never had a full discussion of the pros and cons, and I thought that this would be an excellen........ Read more »
Graves, L., Stratton, G., Ridgers, N., & Cable, N. (2007) Comparison of energy expenditure in adolescents when playing new generation and sedentary computer games: cross sectional study. BMJ, 335(7633), 1282-1284. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.39415.632951.80
Daley, A. (2009) Can Exergaming Contribute to Improving Physical Activity Levels and Health Outcomes in Children?. PEDIATRICS, 124(2), 763-771. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2008-2357
I decided to examine the full extent of scholarly literature supporting (or not) the use of virtual worlds for education and training. It's not a long list.... Read more »
DELUCIA, A., FRANCESE, R., PASSERO, I., & TORTORA, G. (2009) Development and evaluation of a virtual campus on Second Life: The case of SecondDMI. Computers , 52(1), 220-233. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2008.08.001
Jarmon, L., Traphagan, T., Mayrath, M., & Trivedi, A. (2009) Virtual world teaching, experiential learning, and assessment: An interdisciplinary communication course in Second Life. Computers , 53(1), 169-182. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.01.010
Jamaludin, A., Chee, Y., & Ho, C. (2009) Fostering argumentative knowledge construction through enactive role play in Second Life. Computers , 53(2), 317-329. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.02.009
Lester, P.M. . (2009) Analog vs. Digital Instruction and Learning: Teaching Within First and Second Life Environments. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14(3), 457. info:/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01449.x
Good, J., Howland, K., & Thackray, L. (2008) Problem-based learning spanning real and virtual words: a case study in Second Life. ALT-J, 16(3), 163-172. DOI: 10.1080/09687760802526681
Edirisingha, P., Nie, M., Pluciennik, M., & Young, R. (2009) Socialisation for learning at a distance in a 3-D multi-user virtual environment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), 458-479. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00962.x
Herold, D. (2010) Mediating Media Studies – Stimulating critical awareness in a virtual environment. Computers , 54(3), 791-798. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.10.019
McVey, M. (2008) Observations of expert communicators in immersive virtual worlds: implications for synchronous discussion. ALT-J, 16(3), 173-180. DOI: 10.1080/09687760802526673
Livingstone, D., Kemp, J., & Edgar, E. (2008) From Multi-User Virtual Environment to 3D Virtual Learning Environment. ALT-J, 16(3), 139-150. DOI: 10.1080/09687760802526707
Dickey, M. (2005) Three-dimensional virtual worlds and distance learning: two case studies of Active Worlds as a medium for distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(3), 439-451. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2005.00477.x
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