Just by looking at its limbs, you can tell that a cheetah is born to run. Not only does this felid have non-retractable claws which act like cleats on a runner's shoe - a unique feature among big cats - but it also has the familiar tip-toe limb posture which allows the carnivore to reach [...]... Read more »
Patel, B. (2009) Not so fast: Speed effects on forelimb kinematics in cercopithecine monkeys and implications for digitigrade postures in primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 140(1), 92-112. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21039
In my last post I summed up some proposals for what (among other things) makes human cognition unique. But one thing that we should bear in mind, I think, is that our cognitive style may more be something of an idiosyncrasy due to a highly specific cognitive specialization instead of a definitive quantitative and qualitative advance over other styles of animal cognition. In this post I will look at studies which further point in that direction.... Read more »
Hare, B., Plyusnina, I., Ignacio, N., Schepina, O., Stepika, A., Wrangham, R., & Trut, L. (2005) Social Cognitive Evolution in Captive Foxes Is a Correlated By-Product of Experimental Domestication. Current Biology, 15(3), 226-230. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2005.01.040
Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernandez-Lloreda, M., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. (2007) Humans Have Evolved Specialized Skills of Social Cognition: The Cultural Intelligence Hypothesis. Science, 317(5843), 1360-1366. DOI: 10.1126/science.1146282
In a letter to Nature this week, a group from Genentech presents an elegant analysis of 2,576 somatic mutations across 441 tumors comprised of breast, lung, ovarian, and prostate cancer types and subtypes. Using something called “mismatch repair detection” (MRD) technology, the authors surveyed 1,507 candidate genes spanning some 4 megabases of sequence, largely comprised [...]... Read more »
Kan Z, Jaiswal BS, Stinson J, Janakiraman V, Bhatt D, Stern HM, Yue P, Haverty PM, Bourgon R, Zheng J.... (2010) Diverse somatic mutation patterns and pathway alterations in human cancers. Nature. PMID: 20668451
Are most people nice, happy, trustworthy and interesting? Or do people usually strike you as cold, grumpy and not to be trusted? How you answer can tell us something about you. In a recent psychology article, Wood et al. explore "perceiver effects", or in other words how your own personality affects your perception of others.They show that our personality affects perceptions of others with respect to one major factor: how positively we view other people. If we see others as relatively happy, we ........ Read more »
Wood, D., Harms, P., & Vazire, S. (2010) Perceiver effects as projective tests: What your perceptions of others say about you. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(1), 174-190. DOI: 10.1037/a0019390
This is the second in a multi-part series analyzing the paper linked below. The paper uses several measures of synchrony and tests them against some real-world data to compare their performance. Today I will be talking about three different measures of nonlinear interdependence between two signals, all of which are based on nearest neighbors.
The main thing here is that the frequency coherence method of measuring synchrony primarily measures linear interdependency. In othe........ Read more »
Quian Quiroga, R., Kraskov, A., Kreuz, T., & Grassberger, P. (2002) Performance of different synchronization measures in real data: A case study on electroencephalographic signals. Physical Review E, 65(4). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.041903
The idea that mirror neurons support action understanding is by far the dominant interpretation of the function of these cells in the monkey motor system. However, it is not the only interpretation. A "sensory-motor" hypothesis, such as that proposed by Cecelia Heyes and others, has been gaining steam in the last few years. In a just published piece in Current Biology, Marc Hauser and I propose a variant of the sensory-motor view, namely that mirror neurons function not for action understandi........ Read more »
Today's post is the last in a three-part series on coffee. Monday's post investigated how coffee came to be such an integral part of everyday life. Wednesday's post provided a history of the coffee bean's travels around the globe. And today's discussion considers the social place of coffee in our lives. Be sure to go back and read the others if you've missed them!_________________________________
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Ryan L, Hatfield C, & Hofstetter M. (2002) Caffeine reduces time-of-day effects on memory performance in older adults. Psychological science : a journal of the American Psychological Society / APS, 13(1), 68-71. PMID: 11892781
Sexton, R. (2001) Ritualized Inebriation, Violence, and Social Control in Cajun Mardi Gras. Anthropological Quarterly, 74(1), 28-38. DOI: 10.1353/anq.2001.0010
Welcome to another article on the Matamata Chelus fimbriatus. Yay!
In the previous episode we looked briefly at the Matamata's long, thick neck and on a few aspects of Matamata evolution (a brief introduction to what the Matamata is, and where it lives, can be found here) [in the composite image shown above, the skull and neck is from digimorph while the photo of the live animal is from wikipedia]. This time, we're going to look at the anatomy of the skull and hyoid skeleton (do stick with........ Read more »
Lemell, P., Beisser, C. J., Gumpenberger, M., Snelderwaard, P., Gemel, R., & Weisgram, J. (2010) The feeding apparatus of Chelus fimbriatus (Pleurodira; Chelidae) - adaptation perfected?. Amphibia-Reptilia, 97-107. info:/
focused on an ethical dilemma at end-of-life. It got coverage in the mainstream media as well, about a women who collapsed on an airplane with a pulmonary embolism, had severe anoxic brain injury, and the family requested her oocytes be harvested.... Read more »
Greer DM, Styer AK, Toth TL, Kindregan CP, & Romero JM. (2010) Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 21-2010. A request for retrieval of oocytes from a 36-year-old woman with anoxic brain injury. The New England journal of medicine, 363(3), 276-83. PMID: 20647203
You already know your carbon footprint. How about your “nitrogen footprint”? Researchers have calculated how much nitrogen pollution is produced by the production of common foods. Ultimately, they hope the approach might help consumers curb nutrient pollution that is creating oxygen-poor “dead zones” in many coastal seas.
Over the last few decades, researchers have documented […] Read More »... Read more »
Xue, X., & Landis, A. (2010) Eutrophication Potential of Food Consumption Patterns. Environmental Science , 2147483647. DOI: 10.1021/es9034478
After yesterday’s post on the potential benefits of eating blueberries, some readers noted that one should not discount the calories in fruit. In addition, there appears to be a “myth” out there that because of the sugar in fruit, they should be considered a high-glycemic food and could therefore be counterproductive in weight-loss diets - [...]... Read more »
Schroder KE. (2010) Effects of fruit consumption on body mass index and weight loss in a sample of overweight and obese dieters enrolled in a weight-loss intervention trial. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 26(7-8), 727-34. PMID: 20022464
Your Friday treat is a movie from Sean Megason’s lab of the development of a zebrafish ear. Sean has a plan to provide a complete (“in toto”) image set describing the entire development of a vertebrate, using methods described here (Megason SG (2009). In toto imaging of embryogenesis with confocal time-lapse microscopy. Methods in molecular [...]... Read more »
Megason SG. (2009) In toto imaging of embryogenesis with confocal time-lapse microscopy. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 317-32. PMID: 19378112
A satellite detects a bright burst of gamma-rays. Within minutes telescopes swing in to action expecting to see a massive star being torn apart by a cataclysmic explosion in a far-flung corner of the universe. But that wasn't what they found........... Read more »
Rachel A. Osten, Olivier Godet, Stephen Drake, Jack Tueller, Jay Cummings, Hans Krimm, John Pye, Valentin Pal'shin, Sergei Golenetskii, Fabio Reale.... (2010) The Mouse that Roared: A Superflare from the dMe Flare Star EV Lac detected by Swift and Konus-Wind. Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal. arXiv: 1007.5300v1
Clever, elegant and extremely powerful – techniques to activate specific sets of neurons with light have the potential to revolutionise cellular and systems neuroscience. Optogenetics has already been used to address a number of questions which have been resistant to answer by other techniques, and also holds great promise for neurotherapeutics and prosthetics. A new paper adds another approach to the toolkit – the ability to activate neurons with a radio frequency magnetic field. Wh........ Read more »
Lee, J., Durand, R., Gradinaru, V., Zhang, F., Goshen, I., Kim, D., Fenno, L., Ramakrishnan, C., & Deisseroth, K. (2010) Global and local fMRI signals driven by neurons defined optogenetically by type and wiring. Nature, 465(7299), 788-792. DOI: 10.1038/nature09108
Busskamp, V., Duebel, J., Balya, D., Fradot, M., Viney, T., Siegert, S., Groner, A., Cabuy, E., Forster, V., Seeliger, M.... (2010) Genetic Reactivation of Cone Photoreceptors Restores Visual Responses in Retinitis Pigmentosa. Science, 329(5990), 413-417. DOI: 10.1126/science.1190897
Kravitz, A., Freeze, B., Parker, P., Kay, K., Thwin, M., Deisseroth, K., & Kreitzer, A. (2010) Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry. Nature, 466(7306), 622-626. DOI: 10.1038/nature09159
Huang, H., Delikanli, S., Zeng, H., Ferkey, D., & Pralle, A. (2010) Remote control of ion channels and neurons through magnetic-field heating of nanoparticles. Nature Nanotechnology. DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2010.125
Have you heard of the Modified Centor Score for strep pharyngitis? Interestingly, it has been validated in adults and children. The methodology builds on the traditional Centor Score by incorporating the patient's age, because this disease is more prevalent in kids than adults. In fact, you actually lose a scoring point if you are older than 44 years old.There are 2 schools of thought about whether to use the Modified Centor Scoring system at all. One school (ACP, CDC, AAFP) recommend using the ........ Read more »
Choby BA. (2009) Diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. American family physician, 79(5), 383-90. PMID: 19275067
Mass hysteria and not leaked chemicals was the likely cause of the symptoms experienced by those exposed in 16 per cent of hundreds of chemical leaks recorded in England and Wales between January 2007 and April 2008.
That's according to an analysis by Lisa Page and colleagues at the Institute of Psychiatry of 280 chemical leaks recorded by the Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards based at Chilton in Oxfordshire.
Otherwise known as 'mass psychogenic illness', mass hysteria........ Read more »
Page, L., Keshishian, C., Leonardi, G., Murray, V., Rubin, G., & Wessely, S. (2010) Frequency and Predictors of Mass Psychogenic Illness. Epidemiology, 1. DOI: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181e9edc4
(Cross-posted to Felines Are Wonderful)My post referencing the 2009 cat-cognition study noted that:(a) Most of the popular articles regarding that study made what looked to me like unwarranted interpretive leaps (sadly not much of a surprise there these days), and (b) While the study itself read as more "neutrally investigative" and data-focused than the popular articles, it did not seem as if the experimental setup necessarily accounted for feline sensory modalities, and hence may not have perm........ Read more »
Whitt, E., Douglas, M., Osthaus, B., & Hocking, I. (2009) Domestic cats (Felis catus) do not show causal understanding in a string-pulling task. Animal Cognition, 12(5), 739-743. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-009-0228-x
You know how it is when you’re in college (or high school). You’ve got that one kid (and yes, it has at some point been you) who’s never had a drink before, and they go to a party. You have a few drinks, they have a few drinks, and pretty soon, even though they have [...]... Read more »
Upile, T., Sipaul, F., Jerjes, W., Singh, S., Nouraei, S., El Maaytah, M., Andrews, P., Graham, J., Hopper, C., & Wright, A. (2007) The acute effects of alcohol on auditory thresholds. BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders, 7(1), 4. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6815-7-4
Throughout most of human history, our hunter-gatherer ancestors had to engage in physical activity to obtain food. But nowadays we can drive to the supermarket, briefly walk through its aisles, check-out, then drive back home. This may seem like a luxury, but evolution hasn’t prepared us for such a drastic shift in behaviour.A possible explanation for the “runner’s high,” a feeling of intense euphoria associated with going on a long run, is that our brains are stuck thinking that lots of........ Read more »
Dubreucq S, Koehl M, Abrous DN, Marsicano G, & Chaouloff F. (2010) CB1 receptor deficiency decreases wheel-running activity: consequences on emotional behaviours and hippocampal neurogenesis. Experimental neurology, 224(1), 106-13. PMID: 20138171
Fuss J, & Gass P. (2010) Endocannabinoids and voluntary activity in mice: runner's high and long-term consequences in emotional behaviors. Experimental neurology, 224(1), 103-5. PMID: 20353785
I’ve always wanted to create a meme. Something that I can just devise, and watch it spread like a virus. And I didn’t realize it until recently (though it was lurking in the back of my mind) that I’m fascinated by networks – how information is spread from person to person, and how each person [...]... Read more »
James H. Fowler, & Nicholas A. Christakis. (2009) Cooperative Behavior Cascades in Human Social Networks. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. arXiv: 0908.3497v2
Christakis, N., & Fowler, J. (2007) The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years. New England Journal of Medicine, 357(4), 370-379. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa066082
Fowler JH, & Christakis NA. (2008) Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). PMID: 19056788
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